BibTex format

author = {Flintham, E and Savolainen, V and Mullon, C},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.2211668120},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA},
pages = {1--9},
title = {Male harm offsets the demographic benefits of good genes},
url = {},
volume = {120},
year = {2023}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Sexual conflict can arise when males evolve traits that improve their mating success but in doing so harm females. By reducing female fitness, male harm can diminish offspring production in a population and even drive extinction. Current theory on harm is based on the assumption that an individual’s phenotype is solely determined by its genotype. But the expression of most sexually selected traits is also influenced by variation in biological condition (condition-dependent expression), such that individuals in better condition can express more extreme phenotypes. Here, we developed demographically explicit models of sexual conflict evolution where individuals vary in their condition. Because condition-dependent expression readily evolves for traits underlying sexual conflict, we show that conflict is more intense in populations where individuals are in better condition. Such intensified conflict reduces mean fitness and can thus generate a negative association between condition and population size. The impact of condition on demography is especially likely to be detrimental when the genetic basis of condition coevolves with sexual conflict. This occurs because sexual selection favors alleles that improve condition (the so-called good genes effect), producing feedback between condition and sexual conflict that drives the evolution of intense male harm. Our results indicate that in presence of male harm, the good genes effect in fact easily becomes detrimental to populations.
AU - Flintham,E
AU - Savolainen,V
AU - Mullon,C
DO - 10.1073/pnas.2211668120
EP - 9
PY - 2023///
SN - 0027-8424
SP - 1
TI - Male harm offsets the demographic benefits of good genes
T2 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 120
ER -