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  • Journal article
    Samani P, Low-Decarie E, McKelvey K, Bell T, Burt A, Koufopanou V, Landry CR, Bell Get al., 2015,

    Metabolic variation in natural populations of wild yeast

    , Ecology and Evolution, Vol: 5, Pages: 722-732, ISSN: 2045-7758

    Ecological diversification depends on the extent of genetic variation and on the pattern of covariation with respect to ecological opportunities. We investigated the pattern of utilization of carbon substrates in wild populations of budding yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus. All isolates grew well on a core diet of about 10 substrates, and most were also able to grow on a much larger ancillary diet comprising most of the 190 substrates we tested. There was substantial genetic variation within each population for some substrates. We found geographical variation of substrate use at continental, regional, and local scales. Isolates from Europe and North America could be distinguished on the basis of the pattern of yield across substrates. Two geographical races at the North American sites also differed in the pattern of substrate utilization. Substrate utilization patterns were also geographically correlated at local spatial scales. Pairwise genetic correlations between substrates were predominantly positive, reflecting overall variation in metabolic performance, but there was a consistent negative correlation between categories of substrates in two cases: between the core diet and the ancillary diet, and between pentose and hexose sugars. Such negative correlations in the utilization of substrate from different categories may indicate either intrinsic physiological trade‐offs for the uptake and utilization of substrates from different categories, or the accumulation of conditionally neutral mutations. Divergence in substrate use accompanies genetic divergence at all spatial scales in S. paradoxus and may contribute to race formation and speciation.

  • Journal article
    Tidd AN, Vermard Y, Marchal P, Pinnegar J, Blanchard JL, Milner-Gulland EJet al., 2015,

    Fishing for Space: Fine-Scale Multi-Sector Maritime Activities Influence Fisher Location Choice

    , PLOS ONE, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1932-6203
  • Journal article
    Fujisawa T, Vogler AP, Barraclough TG, 2015,

    Ecology has contrasting effects on genetic variation within species versus rates of molecular evolution across species in water beetles

    , PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 282, ISSN: 0962-8452
  • Journal article
    Igea J, Bogarin D, Papadopulos AST, Savolainen Vet al., 2015,

    A comparative analysis of island floras challenges taxonomy-based biogeographical models of speciation

    , Evolution, Vol: 69, Pages: 482-491, ISSN: 0014-3820

    Speciation on islands, and particularly the divergence of species in situ, has long been debated. Here, we present one of the first, complete assessments of the geographic modes of speciation for the flora of a small oceanic island. Cocos Island (Costa Rica) is pristine; it is located 550 km off the Pacific coast of Central America. It harbors 189 native plant species, 33 of which are endemic. Using phylogenetic data from insular and mainland congeneric species, we show that all of the endemic species are derived from independent colonization events rather than in situ speciation. This is in sharp contrast to the results of a study carried out in a comparable system, Lord Howe Island (Australia), where as much as 8.2% of the plant species were the product of sympatric speciation. Differences in physiography and age between the islands may be responsible for the contrasting patterns of speciation observed. Importantly, comparing phylogenetic assessments of the modes of speciation with taxonomy-based measures shows that widely used island biogeography approaches overestimate rates of in situ speciation.

  • Journal article
    Didham RK, Barker GM, Bartlam S, Deakin EL, Denmead LH, Fisk LM, Peters JMR, Tylianakis JM, Wright HR, Schipper LAet al., 2015,

    Agricultural Intensification Exacerbates Spillover Effects on Soil Biogeochemistry in Adjacent Forest Remnants

    , PLOS ONE, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1932-6203
  • Journal article
    Gossa C, Fisher M, Milner-Gulland EJ, 2015,

    The research-implementation gap: howpractitioners and researchers from developing countries perceive the role of peer-reviewed literature in conservation science

    , ORYX, Vol: 49, Pages: 80-87, ISSN: 0030-6053
  • Journal article
    Johnson LR, Ben-Horin T, Lafferty KD, McNally A, Mordecai E, Paaijmans KP, Pawar S, Ryan SJet al., 2015,

    Understanding uncertainty in temperature effects on vector-borne disease: a Bayesian approach

    , ECOLOGY, Vol: 96, Pages: 203-213, ISSN: 0012-9658
  • Journal article
    Frost CM, Didham RK, Rand TA, Peralta G, Tylianakis JMet al., 2015,

    Community-level net spillover of natural enemies from managed to natural forest

    , ECOLOGY, Vol: 96, Pages: 193-202, ISSN: 0012-9658
  • Journal article
    Neafsey DE, Waterhouse RM, Abai MR, Aganezov SS, Alekseyev MA, Allen JE, Amon J, Arca B, Arensburger P, Artemov G, Assour LA, Basseri H, Berlin A, Birren BW, Blandin SA, Brockman AI, Burkot TR, Burt A, Chan CS, Chauve C, Chiu JC, Christensen M, Costantini C, Davidson VLM, Deligianni E, Dottorini T, Dritsou V, Gabriel SB, Guelbeogo WM, Hall AB, Han MV, Hlaing T, Hughes DST, Jenkins AM, Jiang X, Jungreis I, Kakani EG, Kamali M, Kemppainen P, Kennedy RC, Kirmitzoglou IK, Koekemoer LL, Laban N, Langridge N, Lawniczak MKN, Lirakis M, Lobo NF, Lowy E, MacCallum RM, Mao C, Maslen G, Mbogo C, McCarthy J, Michel K, Mitchell SN, Moore W, Murphy KA, Naumenko AN, Nolan T, Novoa EM, O Loughlin S, Oringanje C, Oshaghi MA, Pakpour N, Papathanos PA, Peery AN, Povelones M, Prakash A, Price DP, Rajaraman A, Reimer LJ, Rinker DC, Rokas A, Russell TL, Sagnon NF, Sharakhova MV, Shea T, Simao FA, Simard F, Slotman MA, Somboon P, Stegniy V, Struchiner CJ, Thomas GWC, Tojo M, Topalis P, Tubio JMC, Unger MF, Vontas J, Walton C, Wilding CS, Willis JH, Wu Y-C, Yan G, Zdobnov EM, Zhou X, Catteruccia F, Christophides GK, Collins FH, Cornman RS, Crisanti A, Donnelly MJ, Emrich SJ, Fontaine MC, Gelbart W, Hahn MW, Hansen IA, Howell PI, Kafatos FC, Kellis M, Lawson D, Louis C, Luckhart S, Muskavitch MAT, Ribeiro JM, Riehle MA, Sharakhov IV, Tu Z, Zwiebel LJ, Besansky NJet al., 2015,

    Highly evolvable malaria vectors: The genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes

    , Science, Vol: 347
  • Journal article
    Gill RJ, Raine NE, 2014,

    Chronic impairment of bumblebee natural foraging behaviour induced by sublethal pesticide exposure

    , Functional Ecology, Vol: 28, Pages: 1459-1471, ISSN: 0269-8463

    Insect pollination is a vital ecosystem service that maintains biodiversity and sustains agricultural crop yields. Social bees are essential insect pollinators, so it is concerning that their populations are in global decline.Although pesticide exposure has been implicated as a possible cause for bee declines, we currently have a limited understanding of the risk these chemicals pose. Whilst environmental exposure to pesticides typically has non‐lethal effects on individual bees, recent reports suggest that sublethal exposure can affect important behavioural traits such as foraging. However, at present, we know comparatively little about how natural foraging behaviour is impaired and the relative impacts of acute and chronic effects.Using Radio‐Frequency Identification (RFID) tagging technology, we examined how the day‐to‐day foraging patterns of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) were affected when exposed to either a neonicotinoid (imidacloprid) and/or a pyrethroid (λ‐cyhalothrin) independently and in combination over a four‐week period. This is the first study to provide data on the impacts of combined and individual pesticide exposure on the temporal dynamics of foraging behaviour in the field over a prolonged period of time.Our results show that neonicotinoid exposure has both acute and chronic effects on overall foraging activity. Whilst foragers from control colonies improved their pollen foraging performance as they gained experience, the performance of bees exposed to imidacloprid became worse: chronic behavioural impairment. We also found evidence, suggesting that pesticide exposure can change forager preferences for the flower types from which they collect pollen.Our findings highlight the importance of considering prolonged exposure (which happens in the field) when assessing the risk that pesticides pose to bees. The effects of chronic pesticide exposure could have serious detrimental consequences for both colony survival and also the pollination ser

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