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  • Journal article
    Clements T, Suon S, Wilkie DS, Milner-Gulland EJet al., 2014,

    Impacts of Protected Areas on Local Livelihoods in Cambodia

    , WORLD DEVELOPMENT, Vol: 64, Pages: S125-S134, ISSN: 0305-750X
  • Journal article
    Batsaikhan N, Buuveibaatar B, Chimed B, Enkhtuya O, Galbrakh D, Ganbaatar O, Lkhagvasuren B, Nandintsetseg D, Berger J, Calabrese JM, Edwards AE, Fagan WF, Fuller TK, Heiner M, Ito TY, Kaczensky P, Leimgruber P, Lushchekina A, Milner-Gulland EJ, Mueller T, Murray MG, Olson KA, Reading R, Schaller GB, Stubbe A, Stubbe M, Walzer C, Von Wehrden H, Whitten Tet al., 2014,

    Conserving the World's Finest Grassland Amidst Ambitious National Development

    , CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, Vol: 28, Pages: 1736-1739, ISSN: 0888-8892
  • Journal article
    Ahmed SE, Lees AC, Moura NG, Gardner TA, Barlow J, Ferreira J, Ewers RMet al., 2014,

    Road networks predict human influence on Amazonian bird communities

    , PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 281, ISSN: 0962-8452
  • Journal article
    Carrasco LR, Larrosa C, Milner-Gulland EJ, Edwards DPet al., 2014,

    Tropical crops: cautious optimism Response

    , SCIENCE, Vol: 346, Pages: 928-928, ISSN: 0036-8075
  • Journal article
    Milner-Gulland EJ, Baillie J, Washington H, Waterman Cet al., 2014,

    A framework for evaluating the effectiveness of conservation attention at the species level

    , Oryx, ISSN: 1365-3008

    It is essential to understand whether conservation interventions are having the desired effect, particularly in light of increasing pressures on biodiversity and because of requirements by donors that project success be demonstrated. Whilst most evaluations look at effectiveness at a project or organizational level, local efforts need to be connected to an understanding of the effectiveness of conservation directed at a species as a whole, particularly as most metrics of conservation success are at the level of species. We present a framework for measuring the effectiveness of conservation attention at a species level over time, based on scoring eight factors essential for species conservation (engaging stakeholders, management programme, education and awareness, funding and resource mobilization, addressing threats, communication, capacity building and status knowledge), across input, output and outcome stages, in relation to the proportion of the species’ range where each factor attains its highest score. The framework was tested using expert elicitation for 35 mammal and amphibian species on the Zoological Society of London's list of Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered species. Broad patterns in the index produced by the framework could suggest potential mechanisms underlying change in species status. Assigning an uncertainty score to information demonstrates not only where gaps in knowledge exist, but discrepancies in knowledge between experts. This framework could be a useful tool to link local and global scales of impact on species conservation, and could provide a simple and visually appealing way of tracking conservation over time.

  • Journal article
    Garcia D, Martinez D, Stouffer DB, Tylianakis JMet al., 2014,

    Exotic birds increase generalization and compensate for native bird decline in plant-frugivore assemblages

    , JOURNAL OF ANIMAL ECOLOGY, Vol: 83, Pages: 1441-1450, ISSN: 0021-8790
  • Journal article
    Lim J, Crawley MJ, De Vere N, Rich T, Savolainen Vet al., 2014,

    A phylogenetic analysis of the British flora sheds light on the evolutionary and ecological factors driving plant invasions

    , ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION, Vol: 4, Pages: 4258-4269, ISSN: 2045-7758
  • Journal article
    Tessarolo G, Rangel TF, Araujo MB, Hortal Jet al., 2014,

    Uncertainty associated with survey design in Species Distribution Models

    , DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTIONS, Vol: 20, Pages: 1258-1269, ISSN: 1366-9516
  • Journal article
    Tang CQ, Humphreys AM, Fontaneto D, Barraclough TGet al., 2014,

    Effects of phylogenetic reconstruction method on the robustness of species delimitation using single-locus data

    , Methods in Ecology and Evolution, Vol: 5, Pages: 1086-1094, ISSN: 2041-210X

    1. Coalescent-based species delimitation methods combine population genetic and phylogenetic theory to provide an objective means for delineating evolutionarily significant units of diversity. The generalised mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) and the Poisson tree process (PTP) are methods that use ultrametric (GMYC or PTP) or non-ultrametric (PTP) gene trees as input, intended for use mostly with single-locus data such asDNAbarcodes. 2. Here, we assess how robust the GMYC and PTP are to different phylogenetic reconstruction and branch smoothingmethods.We reconstruct over 400 ultrametric trees using up to 30 different combinations of phylogenetic and smoothing methods and perform over 2000 separate species delimitation analyses across 16 empirical data sets. We then assess how variable diversity estimates are, in terms of richness and identity, with respect to species delimitation, phylogenetic and smoothing methods. 3. The PTP method generally generates diversity estimates that are more robust to different phylogenetic methods. The GMYC is more sensitive, but provides consistent estimates for BEAST trees. The lower consistency of GMYC estimates is likely a result of differences among gene trees introduced by the smoothing step. Unresolved nodes (real anomalies or methodological artefacts) affect both GMYC and PTP estimates, but have a greater effect on GMYC estimates. Branch smoothing is a difficult step and perhaps an underappreciated source of bias that may be widespread among studies of diversity and diversification. 4. Nevertheless, careful choice of phylogenetic method does produce equivalent PTP and GMYC diversity estimates. We recommend simultaneous use of the PTP model with any model-based gene tree (e.g. RAxML) and GMYCapproaches with BEAST trees for obtaining species hypotheses.

  • Journal article
    St John FAV, Keane AM, Jones JPG, Milner-Gulland EJet al., 2014,

    Robust study design is as important on the social as it is on the ecological side of applied ecological research

    , Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN: 1365-2664

    1. The effective management of natural systems often requires resource users to change their behaviour. This has led to many applied ecologists using research tools developed by social scientists. This comes with challenges as ecologists often lack relevant disciplinary training.2. Using an example from the current issue of Journal of Applied Ecology that investigated how conservation interventions influenced conservation outcomes, we discuss the challenges of conducting interdisciplinary science. We illustrate our points using examples from research investigating the role of law enforcement and outreach activities in limiting illegal poaching and the application of the theory of planned behaviour to conservation.3. Synthesis and applications. Interdisciplinary research requires equal rigour to be applied to ecological and social aspects. Researchers with a natural science background need to access expertise and training in the principles of social science research design and methodology, in order to permit a more balanced interdisciplinary understanding of social–ecological systems.

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