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  • Book chapter
    Luh S, Budinis S, Schmidt TJ, Hawkes Aet al., 2018,

    Decarbonisation of the Industrial Sector by means of Fuel Switching, Electrification and CCS

    , Editors: Friedl, Klemes, Radl, Varbanov, Wallek, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 1311-1316
  • Conference paper
    Budinis S, Giarola S, Sachs J, Hawkes ADet al., 2017,

    Modelling the impacts of investors' decision making on decarbonisation pathways in industry

    , 10th Annual Meeting of the IAMC, Publisher: IAMC

    The Paris Climate agreement calls for dramatic changes in the energy system. This will be challenging for demand sectors like industry, which is notoriously energy intensive. Although increased efficiency has proven to be suitable options to reduce energy and environmental impacts, stringent regulations on carbon will require this sector to undergo an unprecedented innovation effort, which will go well beyond cost efficiency measures to include the deployment of novel technologies and, most likely, of carbon capture and storage (CCS).This manuscript focuses on the uptake of novel technologies in the industrial sector and the barriers which might prevent or slow down the pace of innovation. Some of these barriers are technological as they depend on the availability and the technology readiness level of a specific technology. Others are instead related to the attitude that investors show towards innovative and the inherent level of risk. Among the many innovation options in the industrial sector, the focus here is on the uptake of the carbon capture and storage technologies.The industrial sector is modelled including the top-energy intensive industries, such as those manufacturing pulp and paper, iron and steel, chemicals and petrochemicals, the non-ferrous metals as well as non-metallic minerals. The simulations are carried out using a novel energy systems model, MUSE, the Modular energy systems Simulation Environment.

  • Conference paper
    Panteli A, Giarola S, Shah N, 2017,

    Biobased Supply Chain Optimisation Model under Uncertainties

    , 27th European Symposium on Computer-Aided Process Engineering (ESCAPE), Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 961-966, ISSN: 1570-7946
  • Conference paper
    Sechi S, Giarola S, Lanzini A, Gandiglio M, Oluleye O, Santarelli M, Hawkes Aet al., 2017,

    Techno-economic assessment of the effects of biogas rate fluctuations on industrial applications of solid-oxide fuel cells

    , ESCAPE-27, Publisher: Elsevier, ISSN: 1570-7946

    Wastewater treatment is an energy and greenhouse gas intensive process. An important opportunity to reduce both of these quantities is via the use of biogas in co-generation systems. Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the generator types studied in this work.The feasibility of the retrofitting of a wastewater treatment facility fitted with a SOFC combined heat and power energy provision system is assessed including effects of uncertainties in biogas availability on cost and energy performance. A two-stage stochastic optimization framework is proposed to provide feedback on the energy co-generation system design.Results quantify standard deviations in the biogas rate beyond which the SOFC capacity factor might drop below 80 % and change the optimal size of the modules to install.Keywords: solid-oxide fuel cells, stochastic optimization, wastewater treatment, biogas.

  • Conference paper
    Sachs J, Giarola S, Hawkes AD, 2017,

    Agent-based model for energy-related investment decisions in the residential building sector

    , International Energy Workshop, Publisher: International Energy Workshop
  • Conference paper
    Giarola S, Budinis S, Sachs J, Hawkes ADet al., 2017,

    Long-term decarbonisation scenarios in the industrial sector

    , International Energy Workshop

    Decarbonisation targets will drive every sector in the energy system to rapidly adopt innovativetechnologies to achieve the dramatic emissions reductions required. Among all, sectors like in-dustry, which currently exhibit a very high energy intensity, are likely to undergo major changes.This manuscript focuses on the appraisal of the effects of a CO2tax in the investment and operationdecisions in industry. Within the larger modelling framework typical of an integrated assessmentmodel, the sector is modelled including the top-energy intensive industries, such as those man-ufacturing pulp and paper, iron and steel, chemicals and petrochemicals, the non-ferrous metalsas well as non-metallic minerals. The simulations are carried out using a novel energy systemsmodel, MUSE, the Modular Universal energy systems Simulation Environment model.

  • Book chapter
    Clark R, Budinis S, Hawkes A, McMartin Det al., 2017,

    Analysis of power production and emission reduction through the use of biogas and carbon capture and storage

    , Editors: Espuna, Graells, Puigjaner, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 2635-2640
  • Conference paper
    Budinis S, Mac Dowell N, Krevor S, Dixon T, Kemper J, Hawkes Aet al., 2017,

    Can carbon capture and storage unlock `unburnable carbon'?

    , 13th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT), Publisher: Elsevier Science BV, Pages: 7504-7515, ISSN: 1876-6102

    The concept of ‘unburnable carbon’ emerged in 2011, and stems from the observation that if all known fossil fuel reserves are extracted and converted to CO2(unabated), it would exceed the carbon budget and have a very significant effect on the climate. Therefore, if global warming is to be limited to the COP21 target, some of the known fossil fuel reserves should remain unburnt. Several recent reports have highlighted the scale of the challenge, drawing on scenarios of climate change mitigation and their implications for the projected consumption of fossil fuels. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a critical and available mitigation opportunity and its contributionto timely and cost-effective decarbonisation of the energy system is widely recognised. However, while some studies have considered the role of CCS in enabling access to more fossil fuels, no detailed analysis on this issue has been undertaken. This paper presents a critical review focusing on the technologies that can be applied to enable access to, or ‘unlock’, fossil fuel reserves in a way that will meet climate targets and mitigate climate change. It also quantifies the impact of CCS in unlocking unburnable carbon in the first and in the second half of the century.

  • Journal article
    Budinis S, Thornhill NF, 2016,

    Supercritical fluid recycle for surge control of CO2 centrifugal compressors

    , Computers & Chemical Engineering, Vol: 91, Pages: 329-342, ISSN: 0098-1354

    This paper presents computer-based design and analysis of control systems for centrifugal compressors when the operating fluid is supercritical CO2.It reports a non-linear dynamic model including a main forward compression line and two different configurations for the recycle antisurge line. Disturbance scenarios are proposed for testing the configurations and performance indicators are suggested to evaluate control performance and power consumption of the compression system.The paper demonstrates that compared to the hot recycle, the process configuration including a cold gas recycle has better overall stability, but higher power consumption and lower values for the control performance indicators. Based on the previous considerations, the paper gives suggestions regarding the choice of the recycle configuration. Moreover it compares subcritical and supercritical compression during surge prevention and highlights the importance of the selection of the gas recycle configuration when full recycle is needed.

  • Conference paper
    Crow D, Giarola S, Hawkes AD, 2016,

    Modelling imperfect foresight in investment decisions in the upstream gas industry

    , Energy Systems Conference

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