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  • Conference paper
    Yu M, Evangelou SA, Dini D, 2017,

    Model Identification and Control for a Quarter Car Test Rig of Series Active Variable Geometry Suspension

    , 20th IFAC World Congress, Publisher: Elsevier, Pages: 3376-3381, ISSN: 1474-6670

    In this paper, a quarter car test rig is utilized to perform an experimental study of the singlelinkvariant of the Series Active Variable Geometry Suspension (SAVGS). A nonlinear model of the testrig is identified with the use of a theoretical quarter car model and the rig’s experimental frequencyresponse. A linear equivalent modeling method that compensates the geometric nonlinearity is alsoadopted to synthesize an H-infinity control scheme. The controller actively adjusts the single-linkvelocity in the SAVGS to improve the suspension performance. Experiments are performed to evaluatethe SAVGS practical feasibility, the performance improvement, the accuracy of the nonlinear model andthe controller’s robustness.

  • Journal article
    Bodnarchuk M, Dini D, Heyes D, Breakspear A, Chahine Set al., 2017,

    Molecular dynamics studies of overbased detergents on a water surface

    , Langmuir, Vol: 33, Pages: 7263-7270, ISSN: 1520-5827

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are reported of model overbased detergent nanoparticles on a model water surface which mimic their behavior on a Langmuir trough or large water droplet in engine oil. The simulations predict that the structure of the nanoparticle on a water surface is different to when it is immersed in a bulk hydrophobic solvent. The surfactant tails are partly directed out of the water, while the carbonate core maximizes its extent of contact with the water. Umbrella sampling calculations of the potential of mean force between two particles showed that they are associated with varying degrees with a maximum binding free energy of ca. 10 kBT for the salicylate stabilized particle, ca. 8 kBT for a sulfurized alkyl phenate stabilized particle, and ca. 5 kBT for a sulfonate stabilized particle. The differences in the strength of attraction depend on the proximity of nearest approach and the energy penalty associated with the disruption of the hydration shell of water molecules around the calcium carbonate core when the two particles approach. This is greatest for the sulfonate particle, which partially loses the surfactant ions to the solution, and least for the salicylate, which forms the weakest water “cage”. The particles are separated by a water hydration layer, even at the point of closest approach.

  • Conference paper
    Knight C, Abdol Azis MH, O'Sullivan C, Van Wachem B, Dini Det al., 2017,

    Sensitivity analysis of Immersed Boundary Method simulations of fluid flow in dense polydisperse random grain packings

    , EPD Sciencies, Powders and Grains 2017 – 8th International Conference on Micromechanics on Granular Media, ISSN: 2101-6275

    Polydisperse granular materials are ubiquitous in nature and industry. Despite this, knowledge of the momentum coupling between the fluid and solid phases in dense saturated grain packings comes almost exclusively from empirical correlations [2-4, 8] with monosized media. The Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) is a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling technique capable of resolving pore scale fluid flow and fluid-particle interaction forces in polydisperse media at the grain scale. Validation of the IBM in the low Reynolds number, high concentration limit was performed by comparing simulations of flow through ordered arrays of spheres with the boundary integral results of Zick and Homsy [10] . Random grain packings were studied with linearly graded particle size distributions with a range of coefficient of uniformity values (C u = 1.01, 1.50, and 2.00) at a range of concentrations (Φ ∈ [0.396; 0.681]) in order to investigate the influence of polydispersity on drag and permeability. The sensitivity of the IBM results to the choice of radius retraction parameter [1] was investigated and a comparison was made between the predicted forces and the widely used Ergun correlation [3].

  • Journal article
    Hili J, Pelletie C, Jacobs L, Olver A, Reddyhoff Tet al., 2017,

    High-speed elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication by a dilute oil-in-water emulsion

    , Tribology Transactions, Vol: 61, Pages: 287-294, ISSN: 1547-397X

    When a concentrated contact is lubricated at low speed by an oil-in-water emulsion, a film of pure oil typically separates the surfaces (Stage 1). At higher speeds, starvation occurs (Stage 2) and the film is thinner than would be expected if lubricated by neat oil. However, at the very highest speeds, film thickness increases again (Stage 3), though little is known for certain about either the film composition or the mechanism of lubrication, despite some theoretical speculation.In this paper, we report the film thickness in a ball-on-flat contact, lubricated by an oil-in-water emulsion, at speeds of up to 20 m/s, measured using a new high-speed test rig. We also investigated the sliding traction and the phase composition of the film, using fluorescent and infrared microscopy techniques.Results show that, as the speed is increased, starvation is followed by a progressive change in film composition, from pure oil to mostly water. At the highest speeds, a film builds up that has a phase composition similar to the bulk emulsion. This tends to support the "micro-emulsion" view rather than the “dynamic concentration” theory.

  • Journal article
    McCarron R, Stewart D, Shipway P, Dini Det al., 2017,

    Sliding wear analysis of cobalt based alloys in nuclear reactor conditions

    , Wear, Vol: 366-367, Pages: 1489-1501, ISSN: 1873-2577

    The study of the wear behaviour of cobalt based alloys in nuclear reactor environmental conditions is the focus of this work. The alloys are used in components within reactors due to their excellent wear and corrosion resistance and their high hardness in the high pressure and temperature water facing environment. In the nuclear reactor core, cobalt is irradiated producing a highly penetrative gamma emitting isotope, cobalt 60 from stable cobalt 59. Wear of the cobalt alloys, producing wear debris, exacerbates this problem as it may be transported and deposited at various locations throughout the primary loop increasing the potential of radiation exposure. Removing this problem will require the removal of cobalt from the system.In order for suitable replacement materials to be identified, a better understanding of the behaviour of these alloys in the prototypical working conditions must be obtained. This work focuses on two cobalt based alloys used in the ball and race components of rolling element bearings in the reactor core, Stellite 20 and Haynes 25, respectively. The sliding wear behaviour of the alloys in an environment designed to replicate reactor conditions is examined using a bespoke pin on disc tribometer. Wear measurement and microstructural and compositional analysis of the samples tested over a range of conditions are presented and discussed.Concurrent to the experimental work is the development of a wear prediction model using a semi analytical method. The model employs Archard’s wear law as the method of predicting wear using data obtained through experimentation. The accuracy of the semi analytical model is limited however it does give a good estimation for maximum wear depth of the test specimens.

  • Journal article
    Smith E, Heyes D, Dini D, 2017,

    Towards the Irving Kirkwood limit of the mechanical stress tensor

    , Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol: 146, ISSN: 1089-7690

    The probability density functions (PDFs) of the local measure of pressure as a function of the sampling volume are computed for a model Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluid using the Method of Planes (MOP) and Volume Averaging (VA) techniques. This builds on the study of Heyes, Dini, and Smith [J. Chem. Phys. 145, 104504 (2016)] which only considered the VA method for larger subvolumes. The focus here is typically on much smaller subvolumes than considered previously, which tend to the Irving-Kirkwood limit where the pressure tensor is defined at a point. The PDFs from the MOP and VA routes are compared for cubic subvolumes, V=ℓ3. Using very high grid-resolution and box-counting analysis, we also show that any measurement of pressure in a molecular system will fail to exactly capture the molecular configuration. This suggests that it is impossible to obtain the pressure in the Irving-Kirkwood limit using the commonly employed grid based averaging techniques. More importantly, below ℓ≈3 in LJ reduced units, the PDFs depart from Gaussian statistics, and for ℓ=1.0, a double peaked PDF is observed in the MOP but not VA pressure distributions. This departure from a Gaussian shape means that the average pressure is not the most representative or common value to arise. In addition to contributing to our understanding of local pressure formulas, this work shows a clear lower limit on the validity of simply taking the average value when coarse graining pressure from molecular (and colloidal) systems.

  • Journal article
    Gurrutxaga-Lerma B, Shehadeh M, Balint, Dini D, Chen L, Eakinset al., 2017,

    The effect of temperature on the elastic precursor decay in shock loaded FCC aluminium and BCC iron

    , International Journal of Plasticity, Vol: 96, Pages: 135-155, ISSN: 1879-2154

    This article offers a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the causes of thermal hardening in FCC Al and BCC Fe at high strain rates, with the aim to shed light on important mechanisms governing deformation and failures in materials subjected to shocks and impacts at very high strain rates. Experimental evidence regarding the temperature dependence of the dynamic yield point of FCC Al and BCC Fe shock loaded at 107 s−1 is provided. The dynamic yield point of Al increases with temperature in the range 125K–795K; for the same loading and temperate range, the dynamic yield point of BCC Fe remains largely insensitive. A Multiscale Discrete Dislocation Plasticity (MDDP) model of both Fe and Al is developed, leading to good agreement with experiments. The importance of the Peierls barrier in Fe is highlighted, showing it is largely responsible for the temperature insensitivity in BCC metals. The relevance of the mobility of edge components in determining the plastic response of both FCC Al and BCC Fe at different temperatures is discussed, which leads to developing a mechanistic explanation of the underlying mechanisms leading to the experimental behaviour using Dynamic Discrete Dislocation Plasticity (D3P). It is shown that the main contributing factor to temperature evolution of the dynamic yield point is not the mobility of dislocations, but the temperature variation of the shear modulus, the decrease of which is correlated to the experimental behaviour observed for both FCC Al and BCC Fe.

  • Journal article
    Klaassen M, de Vries EG, Masen MA, 2017,

    The static friction response of non-glabrous skin as a function of surface energy and environmental conditions

    , Biotribology, Vol: 11, Pages: 124-131, ISSN: 2352-5738

    The (local) environmental conditions have a significant effect on the interaction between skin and products. Plasticisation of the stratum corneum occurs at high humidity, causing this layer to soften and change its surface free energy. In this work we study the effects of the micro-climate on the frictional behaviour of skin in contact with materials with varying wettability. Friction measurements are performed under a range of micro-climate conditions using four different materials with a smooth surface finish. All measurements are performed twice on a single subject in order to minimise variation in skin properties. Results show that materials with a higher wettability show a larger increase in friction coefficient when exposed to warm, moist conditions. The friction force is modelled using the skin micro-relief, the elastic properties of the different skin layers, the surface chemistry of both skin and counter surface, and the environment, as input parameters.

  • Journal article
    Guegan J, Kadiric A, Gabelli A, Spikes Het al., 2017,

    Reply to the 'Comment on "The Relationship Between Friction and Film Thickness in EHD Point Contacts in the Presence of Longitudinal Roughness'' by Guegan, Kadiric, Gabelli, & Spikes' by Scott Bair

    , Tribology Letters, Vol: 65, ISSN: 1023-8883
  • Journal article
    Vladescu S, Ciniero A, Tufail K, Gangopadhyay A, Reddyhoff Tet al., 2017,

    Looking into a laser textured piston ring-liner contact

    , Tribology International, Vol: 115, Pages: 140-153, ISSN: 1879-2464

    This paper presents an experimental study into the flow behaviour of lubricant in a reciprocating contact simulating a piston ring–cylinder liner pair. The aim was to understand the effects of cavitation, starvation and surface texture, as well as the interaction between these, in order to improve automotive engine performance. A custom-built test rig was used, in which a section of piston ring is loaded against a reciprocating, laser-textured, fused silica pad representing the liner. A fluorescence microscope focusses through the silica specimen onto the contact in order to image the distribution of dyed oil. Tests were performed using a range of texture geometries and orientations, under starved and fully-flooded lubrication conditions, with measurements being compared against those from a non-textured reference.Under limited oil supply conditions, the non-textured reciprocating contact sweeps oil towards the reversal points (TDC and BDC), leading to starvation and increased friction. This issue is alleviated by the presence of surface texturing, with each pocket transferring oil from the inlet to the outlet of the contact as it passes; the result being 33% lower friction and oil distributed evenly over the liner surface. Even under fully flooded conditions, starvation is shown to occur following each reversal, as the change in sliding direction causes the cavitated outlet to become the oil-deprived inlet. This proof of cavitation-reversal-starvation, which occurs for up to the first 5% of the stroke length, depending on the lubricant’s viscosity, corresponds to regions of high wear, measured in this study and on actual cylinder liners reported in the literature. This process is also counteracted by the presence of surface texture, with each pocket depositing oil into the cavitated region prior to reversal.Fluorescence data also provides insights into other mechanisms with which different textures geometries control friction. Grooves oriented parallel

  • Journal article
    Spikes HA, 2017,

    Comment on: Rheology of an Ionic Liquid with Variable Carreau Exponent: A Full Picture by Molecular Simulation with Experimental Contribution, by Nicolas Voeltzel, Philippe Vergne, Nicolas Fillot, Nathalie Bouscharain, Laurent Joly, Tribology Letters (2016) 64: 25

    , Tribology Letters, Vol: 65, ISSN: 1023-8883
  • Journal article
    Bodnarchuk MS, Doncom KEB, Wright DB, Heyes D, Dini D, O'Reilly RKet al., 2017,

    Polyelectrolyte pKa from experiment and molecular dynamics simulation

    , RSC Advances, Vol: 7, Pages: 20007-20014, ISSN: 2046-2069

    The pKa of a polyelectrolyte has been determined experimentally by potentiometric titration and computed using Molecular Dynamics (MD) constant pH (CpH) methodology, which allows the pKa of each titratable site along the polymer backbone to be determined separately, a procedure which is not possible by current experimental techniques. By using experimental results within the CpHMD method, the simulations show that the protonation states of neighbouring residues are anti-correlated so that the charges are well-separated. As found with previous simulation studies on model polyelectrolytes, the end groups are predicted to be the most acidic. CpHMD is shown to result in distinct polymer conformations, brought about by the range of protonation states changes along the polymer; this can now be used in the design of pH-responsive polymers for, amongst other applications, additive formulation and drug delivery devices.

  • Conference paper
    Tan Z, Bernardini A, Konstantinou I, Forte AE, Galvan S, Van Wachem B, Dini D, Rodriguez Y Baena Fet al., 2017,

    Diffusion Measurement and Modelling

    , European Robotics Forum 2017
  • Journal article
    Ma S, Scaraggi M, Lin P, Yu B, Wang D, Dini D, Zhou Fet al., 2017,

    Nanohydrogel brushes for switchable underwater adhesion

    , Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol: 121, Pages: 8452-8463, ISSN: 1932-7455

    In nature, living systems commonly adopt the switchable friction/adhesion mechanism during locomotion. For example, geckos can move on ceilings, relying on the reversible attachment and detachment of their feet on substrate surfaces. Inspired by this scientists have used different materials to mimic natural dynamic friction/adhesion systems. However, synthetic systems usually cannot work in water environments and are also limited to single-contact interfaces, while nature has provided living systems with complex features to perform energy dissipation and adhere on multiple contact interfaces. Here, for the first time, we report the design, synthesis, and testing of a novel double-sided synthetic construct that relies on nanohydrogel brushes to provide simultaneous friction switching on each side of the membrane that separates the nanohydrogel fibers. This highly tunable response is linked to the swelling and shrinkage of the brushes in basic/acid media. Such a system shows three different friction states, which depend on the combination of pH control of the two membrane sides. Importantly, each side of the membrane can independently provide continuous but stable friction switching from high to ultralow friction coefficients in a wet environment under high load conditions. An in-depth theoretical study is performed to explore the mechanisms governing the hydration state responsible for the observed switching. This novel design opens a promising route for the development of new solutions for intelligent devices, which can adapt to multistimulus-responsive complex environments.

  • Journal article
    Ponjavic A, Lemaigre T, Southby M, Spikes HAet al., 2017,

    Influence of NOx and Air on the Ageing Behaviour of MoDTC

    , TRIBOLOGY LETTERS, Vol: 65, ISSN: 1023-8883

    Molybdenum dialkyldithiocarbamates (MoDTCs) are very effective friction modifier additives for use in engine oils and other lubricants. However, as engine oils age during extended drain intervals, MoDTCs can lose some or all of their ability to reduce friction and this is generally believed to result from their oxidative degradation. In this study, MoDTC solutions in base oil have been subjected to oil ageing in a controlled NOx/air flow rate, controlled temperature test apparatus and the effect of ageing on the ability of the MoDTC to reduce friction has been explored. As shown in previous studies, the additive’s friction-reducing properties are completely lost after a quite short period of ageing at 160 °C. However, it was found that at this temperature the presence of NOx has little if any influence on the rate of friction loss, indicating that the latter is controlled primarily by the rate of reaction of oxygen with the base oil and thus the rate of consumption of MoDTC as a peroxide decomposer. By contrast, when ageing tests are carried out at lower temperatures it is found that NOx has a very strong effect on the rate at which MoDTC loses its ability to reduce friction, so that at 100 °C NOx accelerates this rate by two orders of magnitude compared to air alone. This suggests that at low temperatures the rate at which MoDTC is consumed is controlled by its reaction as a radical inhibitor with NOx species.

  • Journal article
    Delgado MA, Quinchia LA, Spikes HA, Gallegos Cet al., 2017,

    Suitability of ethyl cellulose as multifunctional additive for blends of vegetable oil-based lubricants

    , JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, Vol: 151, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 0959-6526

    In a previous study, ethyl cellulose was successfully blended with castor oil and the results demonstrated its suitability to be used as additive to expand the range of operating conditions under which fluid film lubrication is sustained, mainly at high temperature. However, apparent solubility problems were detected when mixed with other vegetable oils with lower polarity than castor oil. In this work, a suitable combination of ethyl cellulose (EC) with both high oleic sunflower (HOSO) and castor (CO) oils was found able to reach stable and non gel-like blends with viscosities at 40 °C ranging between 62 and 493 cSt, and viscosity indexes fitting into group III (VI ≥ 120) of API classification of base fluids. The ternary HOSO/CO/EC blend showed an important reduction in friction coefficient at low entrainment speed, and generated a stable EHD-film at 100 °C of around 20 nm, which suggests better boundary properties than HOSO/EC or CO/EC blends. On the other hand, ethyl cellulose hindered wax crystallization process of these vegetable oil-based lubricants at 5 °C, yielding comparable results to those obtained with standard polymethacrylate backbone additives. Therefore, the suitable combination of both castor and HOSO with EC as multifunctional additive allow a set of eco-friendly base fluids to be formulated with a wide kinematic viscosity range, better viscosity-temperature dependence than many mineral or synthetic oils lubricants and excellent boundary lubrication properties, making them suitable for many lubricant applications.

  • Journal article
    Wilson R, Dini D, van Wachem B, 2017,

    The influence of surface roughness and adhesion on particle rolling

    , Powder Technology, Vol: 312, Pages: 321-333, ISSN: 0032-5910

    The influence of surface roughness and contact adhesion on the rolling behaviour of dry particles has been investigated. Rough particle surfaces are approximated using an array of spheres, the properties of which are informed by random processes. An analytical model has been derived by considering the torques that a particle experiences. Two mechanisms of rolling resistance are explored – a stationary particle experiencing a tangential force, and a dynamically rolling particle. The analytical model is found to agree well with simulations of the equivalent system using the discrete element model. Adhesive forces are found to increase rolling resistance in all cases. The complex consequences of varying the height variance and length scale of the surface roughness are reproduced accurately by the analytical model.

  • Journal article
    van Arkel RJ, Jeffers JRT, Amis AA, 2017,

    Editorial Commentary: Anatomical Vandalism of the Hip? Hip Capsular Repair Seems a Sound Adjunct to Hip Arthroscopic Surgery

  • Journal article
    Profito FJ, Vladescu S-C, Reddyhoff T, Dini Det al., 2017,

    Experimental validation of a mixed-lubrication regime model for textured piston-ring-liner contacts

    , Materials Performance and Characterization, Vol: 6, Pages: 112-129, ISSN: 2165-3992

    Recent experiments have shown that automotive piston-liner friction may be reduced by up to 50 % if the surface of the liner is laser textured with certain configurations of micro-pockets. It is important to model this behavior to understand and optimize the friction reduction mechanisms that are occurring. However, until now, very few models that predict the lubrication performance of textured surfaces have been successfully validated against experimental data. This is because of the requirement for them to: (1) reproduce experimental configurations with a certain degree of fidelity, (2) conserve mass properly, and (3) account for transient, boundary lubrication conditions. To address this, the current paper presents a comparison between the results from a numerical model, which fulfils these criteria, and an experimental test rig operating under the same conditions. The mathematical modeling is based on the averaged Reynolds’ equation with Patir and Cheng’s flow factors and the p − θ Elrod–Adams mass-conserving cavitation model. Simultaneously to the fluid flow solution, the contact pressures that arise from the asperity interactions are also included into the calculations through the well-known stochastic Greenwood and Tripp model for rough contacts. The experimental data is produced using a reciprocating tribometer, whose contact conditions are closely controlled and accurately mimic those found in an automotive piston–liner conjunction. Data is presented in terms of friction force versus stroke angle, and the similarities and differences between the model and experiment are discussed.

  • Journal article
    Kanazawa Y, Sayles RS, Kadiric A, 2017,

    Film formation and friction in grease lubricated rolling-sliding non-conformal contacts

    , Tribology International, Vol: 109, Pages: 505-518, ISSN: 1879-2464

    This study investigates the film formation and friction in grease lubricated, rolling-sliding, non-conformal contacts over a range of entrainment speeds, surface roughnesses and contact temperatures. The effects of grease composition are assessed by employing custom made, additive free, lithium and diurea thickened greases, whose composition is systematically varied so that the effects of the thickener and the base oil can be isolated. All film thickness and friction measurements were conducted under fully-flooded conditions. It was found that at low speeds all tested greases are able to form thicker films than the corresponding base oils. The thickness and behaviour of these films is determined by the thickener type and is independent of the base oil viscosity and the test temperature. At higher speeds, the film thickness is governed by the base oil properties alone and can be predicted by the EHD theory. At low speeds, films with diurea greases grow with time under constant speed and residual films persist under load after contact motion ceases. The real lambda ratio, based on measured grease film thickness, was shown to correlate well with contact friction. The transition from the thickener dominated behaviour to that dominated by the base oil occurs at a relatively constant film thickness, regardless of the base oil viscosity and test temperatures, rather than at a given entrainment speed. Based on the presented evidence, it is here proposed that the mechanism of formation of grease films at low speeds, is analogous to that reported to operate in EHL contacts lubricated with colloidal dispersions, namely the mechanical entrapment and deposition of thickener fibres, and that, rather than the widely quoted ‘transition speed’, it is the ratio of the thickener fibre size to prevailing film thickness that determines the range of conditions under which the film enhancement due to the action of thickener is present.

  • Patent
    Vladescu S, Reddyhoff T, Olver A, Pegg IGet al., 2017,

    Bearing interface with recesses to reduce friction

    , US20170009886 A1

    A bearing interface of an apparatus, the apparatus having a first element and a second element configured to move relative to each other during operation of the apparatus, the first element comprising a first bearing surface configured to engage at least a portion of a second bearing surface of the second element thereby defining a contact zone between the first bearing surface and the second bearing surface, the first bearing surface having at least one recess indented into the first bearing surface, wherein the dimension of the recess in ...

  • Journal article
    Ciniero A, Le Rouzic J, Baikie I, Reddyhoff Tet al., 2017,

    The origins of triboemission - correlating electron emission with surface damage

    , Wear, Vol: 374-375, Pages: 113-119, ISSN: 1873-2577

    Triboemission – i.e. the emission of photons, electrons and other charged particles that arise from a sliding contact – may play a key role in tribochemical processes, such as lubricant degradation. However, the mechanisms that give rise to this type of emission are not well understood. For the first time, we present spatially resolved measurements of electron emission, obtained as a range materials are worn. These are obtained from scratch tests, carried out under vacuum conditions (10−5 Torr), in which microchannel plates coupled to a phosphor screen are used to image electron emission.The results show that electron emission occurs at specific locations on the worn surface and, depending on the conductivity of the material, these sites remain active and decay with a time constant of up to several seconds. SEM images of the worn surface at these sites reveal that either surface fractures or grain defects are present. This suggests that fractoemission mechanisms are at least partially responsible for triboemission (however, the possible contribution of tribocharging mechanisms are also discussed). Specifically, this provides evidence to support the theory that triboemission results from the imbalance of charge on opposing faces of wear cracks and that this generates an electric field sufficient to accelerate molecular fracture products, which then bombard the surface leading to secondary emission.The strong geometric correlation between damage topography and electron emission distributions shows the potential of using this technique to monitoring wear and crack formation in real time and under high (30x) magnification.

  • Journal article
    Dench J, Morgan N, Wong J, 2016,

    Quantitative viscosity mapping using fluorescence lifetime measurements

    , Tribology Letters, Vol: 65, ISSN: 1573-2711

    Lubricant viscosity is a key driver in both the tribological performance and energy efficiency of a lubricated contact. Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication produces very high pressures and shear rates, conditions hard to replicate using conventional rheometry. In situ rheological measurements within a typical contact are therefore important to investigate how a fluid behaves under such conditions. Molecular rotors provide such an opportunity to extract the local viscosity of a fluid under EHD lubrication. The validity of such an application is shown by comparing local viscosity measurements obtained using molecular rotors and fluorescence lifetime measurements, in a model EHD lubricant, with reference measurements using conventional rheometry techniques. The appropriateness of standard methods used in tribology for high-pressure rheometry (combining friction and film thickness measurements) has been verified when the flow of EHD lubricant is homogeneous and linear. A simple procedure for calibrating the fluorescence lifetime of molecular rotors at elevated pressure for viscosity measurements is proposed.

  • Journal article
    Hajishafiee A, Kadiric A, Ioannides E, Dini Det al., 2016,

    A coupled finite-volume CFD solver for two-dimensional elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication problems with particular application to rolling element bearings

    , Tribology International, Vol: 109, Pages: 258-273, ISSN: 1879-2464

    This paper describes a new computational fluid dynamics methodology for modelling elastohydrodynamic contacts. A finite-volume technique is implemented in the ‘OpenFOAM’ package to solve the Navier-Stokes equations and resolve all gradients in a lubricated rolling-sliding contact. The method fully accounts for fluid-solid interactions and is stable over a wide range of contact conditions, including pressures representative of practical rolling bearing and gear applications. The elastic deformation of the solid, fluid cavitation and compressibility, as well as thermal effects are accounted for. Results are presented for rolling-sliding line contacts of an elastic cylinder on a rigid flat to validate the model predictions, illustrate its capabilities, and identify some example conditions under which the traditional Reynolds-based predictions deviate from the full CFD solution.

  • Conference paper
    Wang P, Zhang J, Spikes HA, Reddyhoff T, Holmes ASet al., 2016,

    Development of hydrodynamic micro-bearings

    , 16th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2016), Publisher: IOP Publishing, ISSN: 1742-6588

    This paper describes the modelling and testing of mm-scale hydrodynamic bearings which are being developed to improve the efficiency of a cm-scale turbine energy harvester, whose efficiency was previously limited by poorly lubricated commercial jewel-bearings. The bearings were fabricated using DRIE and their performance was assessed using a custom built MEMS tribometer. Results demonstrate that acceptably low friction is achieved when low viscosity liquid lubricants are used in combination with an appropriate choice of friction modifier additive. Further reduction in friction is demonstrated when the step height of bearing is adjusted in accordance with hydrodynamic theory. In parallel with the experiments, hydrodynamic lubricant modelling has been carried out to predict and further optimize film thickness and friction performance. Modelling results are presented and validated against experimental friction data.

  • Journal article
    Zhang J, Tan A, Spikes H, 2016,

    Effect of base oil structure on elastohydrodynamic friction

    , Tribology Letters, Vol: 65, ISSN: 1023-8883

    The EHD friction properties of a wide range of base fluids have been measured and compared in mixed sliding–rolling conditions at three temperatures and two pressures. The use of tungsten carbide ball and disc specimens enabled high mean contact pressures of 1.5 and 2.0 GPa to be obtained, comparable to those present in many rolling bearings. The measurements confirm the importance of molecular structure of the base fluid in determining EHD friction. Liquids having linear-shaped molecules with flexible bonds give considerably lower friction than liquids based on molecules with bulky side groups or rings. EHD friction also increases with viscosity for liquids having similar molecular structures. Using pure ester fluids, it is shown that quite small differences in molecular structure can have considerable effects on EHD friction. The importance of temperature rise in reducing EHD friction at slide–roll ratios above about 5% has been shown. By measuring EHD friction at several temperatures and pressures as well as EHD film thickness, approximate corrections to measured EHD friction data have been made to obtain isothermal shear stress and thus EHD friction curves. These show that under the conditions tested most low molecular weight base fluids do not reach a limiting friction coefficient and thus shear stress. However, two high traction base fluids appear to reach limiting values, while three linear polymeric base fluids may also do so. Constants of best fit to a linear/logarithmic isothermal shear stress/strain rate relationship have been provided to enable reconstruction of isothermal EHD friction behaviour for most of the fluids tested.

  • Journal article
    Forte AE, Gentleman SM, Dini D, 2016,

    On the characterisation of the heterogeneous mechanical response of human brain tissue

    , Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology, Vol: 16, Pages: 907-920, ISSN: 1617-7959

    The mechanical characterization of brain tissue is a complex task scientists have tried to accomplish for over fifty years. The resultsin literatureoften differ by orders of magnitudebecause of the lack of a standard testing protocol. Different testing conditions (including humidity, temperature, strain rate),the methodologyadopted,the variety of the speciesanalysed, are all potential sources of discrepancies in the measurements.In this work we present a rigorous experimental investigation on the mechanical properties of human brain, covering both grey and white matter. The influence of testing conditions isalso shown and thoroughly discussed. The material characterisation performed is finally adopted to provide inputs toa mathematical formulation suitable fornumerical simulations of brain deformation during surgical procedures.

  • Journal article
    van Arkel RJ, Jeffers JRT, 2016,

    In vitro hip testing in the International Society of Biomechanics coordinate system

    , JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS, Vol: 49, Pages: 4154-4158, ISSN: 0021-9290
  • Journal article
    Profito FJ, Vladescu S, Reddyhoff, Dini Det al., 2016,

    Transient experimental and modelling studies of laser-textured micro-grooved surfaces with a focus on piston-ring cylinder liner contacts

    , Tribology International, Vol: 113, Pages: 125-136, ISSN: 1879-2464

    This paper presents a comparison between the results from numerical modelling and experiments to shed light on the mechanisms by which surface texture can reduce friction when applied to an automotive cylinder liner. In this configuration, textured features move relative to the piston-liner conjunction and to account for this our approach is to focus on the transient friction response to individual pockets as they pass through, and then leave, the sliding contact. The numerical approach is based on the averaged Reynolds’ equation with the Patir & Cheng’s flow factors and the p-θ Elrod-Adams mass-conserving cavitation model. The contact pressures that arises from the asperity interactions are solved simultaneously to the fluid flow solution using the Greenwood and Tripp method. The experimental data is produced using a pin-on-disc set up, in which laser textured pockets have been applied to the disc specimen. Under certain conditions in the mixed and boundary lubrication regimes, both model and experimental results show i) an increase in friction as the pocket enters the contact, followed by ii) a sharp decrease as the pocket leaves the contact, and then iii) a gradual decay back to the pre-entrainment value. From the evidence obtained for the first time from the proposed combined modelling and experimental investigation conducted under carefully controlled conditions, we suggest that these three stages occur due to the following mechanisms: i) a reduction in fluid pressure due to the increased inlet gap, ii) inlet suction as the cavitated fluid within the pocket draws lubricant into the contact, and iii) film thickness decay as oil is squeezed out of the contact. The interplay of these three mechanisms is shown to control the response of micro-textured surfaces und

  • Journal article
    Rycerz P, Olver A, Kadiric A, 2016,

    Propagation of surface initiated rolling contact fatigue cracks in bearing Steel

    , International Journal of Fatigue, Vol: 97, Pages: 29-38, ISSN: 1879-3452

    Surface initiated rolling contact fatigue, leading to a surface failure known as pitting, is a life limiting failure mode in many modern machine elements, particularly rolling element bearings. Most research on rolling contact fatigue considers total life to pitting. Instead, this work studies the growth of rolling contact fatigue cracks before they develop into surface pits in an attempt to better understand crack propagation mechanisms. A triple-contact disc machine was used to perform pitting experiments on bearing steel samples under closely controlled contact conditions in mixed lubrication regime. Crack growth across the specimen surface is monitored and crack propagation rates extracted. The morphology of the generated cracks is observed by preparing sections of cracked specimens at the end of the test. It was found that crack initiation occurred very early in total life, which was attributed to high asperity stresses due to mixed lubrication regime. Total life to pitting was dominated by crack propagation. Results provide direct evidence of two distinct stages of crack growth in rolling contact fatigue: stage 1, within which cracks grow at a slow and relatively steady rate, consumed most of the total life; and stage 2, reached at a critical crack length, within which the propagation rate rapidly increases. Contact pressure and crack size were shown to be the main parameters controlling the propagation rate. Results show that crack propagation under rolling contact fatigue follows similar trends to those known to occur in classical fatigue. A log-log plot of measured crack growth rates against the product of maximum contact pressure and the square root of crack length, a parameter describing the applied stress intensity, produces a straight line for stage 2 propagation. This provides the first evidence that growth of hereby-identified stage 2 rolling contact fatigue cracks can be described by a Paris-type power law, where the rate of crack growth across the s

  • Journal article
    Arana C, Evangelou SA, Dini D, 2016,

    Series active variable geometry suspension application to comfort enhancement

    , Control Engineering Practice, Vol: 59, Pages: 111-126, ISSN: 1873-6939

    This paper explores the potential of the Series Active Variable Geometry Suspension (SAVGS) for comfort and road holding enhancement. The SAVGS concept introduces significant nonlinearities associated with the rotation of the mechanical link that connects the chassis to the spring-damper unit. Although conventional linearization procedures implemented in multi-body software packages can deal with this configuration, they produce linear models of reduced applicability. To overcome this limitation, an alternative linearization approach based on energy conservation principles is proposed and successfully applied to one corner of the car, thus enabling the use of linear robust control techniques. An H∞ controller is synthesized for this simplified quarter-car linear model and tuned based on the singular value decomposition of the system's transfer matrix. The proposed control is thoroughly tested with one-corner and full-vehicle nonlinear multi-body models. In the SAVGS setup, the actuator appears in series with the passive spring-damper and therefore it would typically be categorized as a low bandwidth or slow active suspension. However, results presented in this paper for an SAVGS-retrofitted Grand Tourer show that this technology has the potential to also improve the high frequency suspension functions such as comfort and road holding.

  • Journal article
    Leibinger A, Forte AE, Tan Z, Oldfield MJ, Beyrau F, Dini D, Rodriguez y Baena Fet al., 2016,

    Erratum to: Soft Tissue Phantoms for Realistic Needle Insertion: A Comparative Study (Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 10.1007/s10439-015-1523-0)

    , Annals of Biomedical Engineering, Vol: 44, ISSN: 0090-6964

    © 2016 Biomedical Engineering Society. Reference 4 should be changed to: Forte, A. E., S. Galvan, F. Manieri, F. Rodriguez y Baena, and D. Dini. A composite hydrogel for brain tissue phantoms. Mater. Des. 227:238–112, 2016.

  • Journal article
    Ewen J, Echeverri Restrepo S, Morgan N, Dini Det al., 2016,

    Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of stearic acid adsorbed on iron surfaces with nanoscale roughness

    , Tribology International, Vol: 107, Pages: 264-273, ISSN: 1879-2464

    Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations have been used to examine the structure and friction of stearic acid films adsorbed on iron surfaces with nanoscale roughness. The effect of pressure, stearic acid coverage, and level of surface roughness were investigated. The direct contact of asperities was prevented under all of the conditions simulated due to strong adsorption, which prevented squeeze-out. An increased coverage generally resulted in lower lateral (friction) forces due to reductions in both the friction coefficient and Derjaguin offset. Rougher surfaces led to more liquidlike, disordered films; however, the friction coefficient and Derjaguin offset were only slightly increased. This suggests that stearic acid films are almost as effective on contact surfaces with nanoscale roughness as those which are atomically-smooth.

  • Journal article
    Wang L, Politis DJ, Masen MA, 2016,

    Development of an interactive friction model for the prediction of lubricant breakdown behaviour during sliding wear

    , Tribology International, Vol: 110, Pages: 370-377, ISSN: 1879-2464

    In this paper, a novel interactive friction-lubricant thickness model was developed to predict the evolution of coefficient of friction and the useful life of lubricant film. The developed model was calibrated by experimental results determined from pin-on-disc tests. For these experiments, a grease lubricant was applied on a Tungsten Carbide ball which slides against a disc made from AA6082 Aluminium alloy. In the pin-on-disc tests, the lubricant film thickness decreased with time during single path sliding leading to a rapid increase in the coefficient of friction. The breakdown of lubricant was divided into three stages, namely, the Stage I low and stable coefficient of friction region, Stage II region in which the coefficient of friction sees a rapid rise, and Stage III in which the coefficient of friction reaches a plateau with a value similar to that of dry sliding. In order to characterise the evolution of coefficient of friction throughout these stages, a novel interactive friction model was developed combining the effects of sliding distance, sliding speed, contact pressure and initial lubricant amount on the evolution of the coefficient of friction. This interactive friction model can be applied to situations involving lubricant breakdown in a dynamic environment such as the metal forming industry, where the use of traditional constant coefficient of friction values present limits in predictive accuracy.

  • Journal article
    Shimizu Y, Spikes HA, 2016,

    The tribofilm formation of ZDDP under reciprocating pure sliding conditions

    , Tribology Letters, Vol: 64, ISSN: 1573-2711

    The anti-wear and anti-seizure performance and action mechanisms of zinc dithiophosphate (ZDDP) have been investigated under reciprocating pure sliding conditions to simulate piston ring and cylinder liner assembly, using new techniques. The Mini Traction Machine–Space Layer Imaging is a useful method for monitoring tribofilm formation by ZDDPs. However, tests are generally carried out in mixed sliding–rolling conditions and ZDDP film formation in reciprocating pure sliding conditions is rarely investigated. In this paper, the authors describe an investigation of ZDDP film formation in stationary ball on reciprocating disc pure sliding conditions and compare the results to those obtained in unidirectional pure sliding conditions. In unidirectional pure sliding conditions, the worn area on the ball expands with test time. By contrast, in reciprocating pure sliding conditions, tribofilm forms on the stationary ball and no significant damage occurs. In the initial tribofilm formation under reciprocating pure sliding conditions, solid particulate tribofilm with a high concentration of S forms initially in the contact area and subsequently breaks up. During further rubbing, a Zn- and P-rich tribofilm forms on the comminuted sulphur-rich tribofilm and also the area where the initial tribofilm was removed.

  • Journal article
    wang P, Reddyhoff T, 2016,

    Wall slip in an EHL contact lubricated with 1-dodecanol

    , Tribology International, Vol: 113, Pages: 197-205, ISSN: 1879-2464

    Astudy was conducted ofthe factors that cause anomalous EHDfilm shapes in 1-dodecanol lubricated contacts –i.e.a thickened central plateau and an exaggerated outlet constriction. This has ledto the hypothesisthat, in the region wherepressuresexceed~0.44 GPa, dodecanol experiences slip, which reduces the average lubricant velocityand causesan elevated film thickness in order to maintain flow continuity. The analysis suggests that slip mustbeoccurringat, or closeto, the faster moving surface, since a discontinuityin the flowmidway through thethickness of the film wouldnot affectthe average speedof the lubricant. Based on this hypothesis, an equation has beenderived to predict the anomalous central film thickness as a function of applied slide-roll ratio and this has beenvalidated by comparison with experimentally measured central film thickness values. Further support of this hypothesis is provided by traction test results showing a discontinuity occurring close tothe onset of slip.

  • Journal article
    Jelita Rydel J, Pagkalis K, Kadiric A, Rivera-Díaz-del-Castillo PEJet al., 2016,

    The correlation between ZDDP tribofilm morphology and the microstructure of steel

    , Tribology International, Vol: 113, Pages: 13-25, ISSN: 0301-679X

    The microstructure of most hard steels used in tribological applications is inhomogeneous at a micro-scale. This results in local variations in chemical composition and mechanical properties. On a similar scale, tribofilms formed by ZDDP and other anti-wear additives are commonly observed to exhibit a patch-like morphology. ZDDP tribofilms formed under controlled contact conditions on four different steel grades were carefully studied with a new AFM technique to analyse the relationship between the steel microstructure and the tribofilm morphology. Tribofilms were found to be thinner on residual carbides than on the martensitic matrix in all grades containing residual carbides. In most cases, the difference in tribofilm thickness is larger than the carbide protrusion.

  • Journal article
    Maćkowiak S, Heyes DM, Dini D, Brańka ACet al., 2016,

    Non-equilibrium phase behavior and friction of confined molecular films under shear: a non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    , Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol: 145, ISSN: 1089-7690

    The phase behavior of a confined liquid at high pressure and shear rate, such as is found in elastohydrodynamic lubrication, can influence the traction characteristics in machine operation. Generic aspects of this behavior are investigated here using Non-equilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) simulations of confined Lennard-Jones (LJ) films under load with a recently proposed wall-driven shearing method without wall atom tethering [C. Gattinoni et al., Phys. Rev. E 90, 043302 (2014)]. The focus is on thick films in which the nonequilibrium phases formed in the confined region impact on the traction properties. The nonequilibrium phase and tribological diagrams are mapped out in detail as a function of load, wall sliding speed, and atomic scale surface roughness, which is shown can have a significant effect. The transition between these phases is typically not sharp as the external conditions are varied. The magnitude of the friction coefficient depends strongly on the nonequilibrium phase adopted by the confined region of molecules, and in general does not follow the classical friction relations between macroscopic bodies, e.g., the frictional force can decrease with increasing load in the Plug-Slip (PS) region of the phase diagram owing to structural changes induced in the confined film. The friction coefficient can be extremely low (∼0.01) in the PS region as a result of incommensurate alignment between a (100) face-centered cubic wall plane and reconstructed (111) layers of the confined region near the wall. It is possible to exploit hysteresis to retain low friction PS states well into the central localization high wall speed region of the phase diagram. Stick-slip behavior due to periodic in-plane melting of layers in the confined region and subsequent annealing is observed at low wall speeds and moderate external loads. At intermediate wall speeds and pressure values (at least) the friction coefficient decreases with increasing well depth of the LJ potentia

  • Journal article
    Guegan J, Kadiric A, Gabelli A, Spikes Het al., 2016,

    The relationship between friction and film thickness in EHD point contacts in the presence of longitudinal roughness

    , Tribology Letters, Vol: 64, ISSN: 1573-2711

    This study investigates friction and film thickness in elastohydrodynamic contacts of machined, rough surfaces, where roughness is dominated by longitudinal ridges parallel to the rolling/sliding direction. A ball-on-disc tribometer was used to simultaneously measure friction and film thickness in rough contacts as well as with nominally smooth specimens for comparison. The studied rough surfaces were selected so that the influence of the root-mean-square roughness and roughness wavelength can be assessed. Friction and film measurements were taken over a range of slide–roll ratios and speeds and with two lubricating oils with different viscosities, hence covering a wide range of specific film thicknesses. The measurements with the nominally smooth specimens show that friction is strongly influenced by thermal effects at high SRRs and that the transition from mixed/boundary to full EHD lubrication occurs at lambda ratios greater than three. At low speeds, the rough specimens are found to generate higher friction than the smooth ones for all the roughness structures considered, and this is shown to be related to the thinner minimum film thickness. Comparison of friction in rough and smooth contacts shows that the total friction in rough contacts can be divided into two components: one that is equivalent to friction in smooth contacts under the same conditions and is dependent on the slide–roll ratio, and the other that is due to the presence of roughness and is independent of the slide–roll ratio under the conditions tested. Further analysis of the minimum film thickness on tops of roughness ridges indicates that even after the full lift-off, an effect of the roughness on friction persists and is most likely related to the local shear stress in the micro-EHD contacts on the top of roughness ridges. At even higher speeds, the difference in friction between the rough and smooth specimens vanishes.

  • Journal article
    Jonas Verschueren, Gurrutxaga Lerma B, Balint DS, Dini D, Sutton APet al., 2016,

    The injection of a screw dislocation into a crystal: atomistics vs. continuum elastodynamics

    , Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Vol: 98, Pages: 366-389, ISSN: 1873-4782

    The injection (creation) process of a straight screw dislocation is compared atomistically with elastodynamic continuum theory. Amethod for injecting quiescent screw dislocations into a crystal of tungsten is simulated using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics.The resulting stress fields are compared to the those of elastodynamic solutions for the injection of a quiescent screw dislocation.A number of differences are found: a plane wave emission is observed to emanate from the whole surface of the cut used to createthe dislocation, affecting the displacement field along the dislocation line (z), and introducing displacement field componentsperpendicular to the line (along x and y). It is argued that, in part, this emission is the result of the finite time required to injectthe dislocation, whereby the atoms in the cut surface must temporarily be displaced to unstable positions in order to produce therequired slip. By modelling this process in the continuum it is shown that the displacements components normal to the dislocationline arise from transient displacements of atoms in the cut surface parallel to x and y. It is shown that once these displacements areincluded in the elastodynamic continuum formulation the plane wave emission in uzis correctly captured. A detailed comparisonbetween the atomistic and continuum models is then offered, showing that the main atomistic features can also be captured in thecontinuum.

  • Journal article
    Woldman M, Van Der Heide E, Tinga T, Masen MAet al., 2016,

    A finite element approach to modeling abrasive wear modes

    , Tribology Transactions, Vol: 60, Pages: 711-718, ISSN: 1040-2004

    Machine components operating in sandy environments will wear because of the abrasive interaction with sand particles. In this work, a method is derived to predict the amount of wear caused by such abrasive action, in order to improve the maintenance concept of the components. A finite element model is used to simulate various tips scratching a smooth surface. The model is verified by comparing the obtained results with a set of experiments performed earlier (M. Woldman, et al., 2013, Wear, 301(1–2), pp 76–81).

  • Journal article
    Laux K, Jean-Fulcrand A, SUE HJ, BREMNER T, Wong JSSet al., 2016,

    The influence of surface properties on sliding contact temperatureand friction for Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)

    , Polymer, Vol: 103, Pages: 397-404, ISSN: 0032-3861

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) polymers are increasingly used intribological applications. An important aspect of PEEK tribology is thesurface temperature reached during sliding. However, most knowledge offrictional heating in PEEK is based on post-hoc analysis of debris andwear surfaces. In this study, infrared thermography was used to observethe full field temperature map of PEEK during ball-on-disc sliding.Although the measured temperatures were below any thermal transition, theresults matched closely to those predicted by flash temperature models.Additionally, friction studies were performed with steel and sapphirecounterfaces. It was observed that PEEK debris was readily deposited tosteel but not on sapphire. The friction studies also indicated a greateradhesive friction response for PEEK against steel compared to sapphire.The transfer of PEEK material to the steel surface may elevate thetemperature at the sliding interface. Analysis of films formed on steelsuggests that the transferred PEEK was oriented in the direction ofsliding. The deposition of debris and formation of oriented filmsresembled a high temperature drawing process, which was likely to be dueto localized frictional heating. The results of this study illustrate theimportant role transfer films play in determining both the friction andtemperature response of the PEEK wear interface.

  • Journal article
    Tsui S, Tandy J, Myant C, Masen M, Cann PMet al., 2016,

    Friction measurements with yoghurt in a simulated tongue-palate contact

    , Biotribology, Vol: 8, Pages: 1-11

    © 2016 The perception of many food attributes is related to mechanical stimulation and friction experienced in the tongue-palate contact during mastication. Friction in the tongue-palate is determined by the changing film properties (composition, component distribution, thickness) in the conjunction. We suggest this evolution is essentially determined by tongue-palate film loss rather than shear flow entrainment which predominates in conventional bearing lubrication. The paper reports friction measurements in a simulated tongue-palate contact for a range of high and low fat dairy foods. A reciprocating, sliding contact with restricted stroke length ( <  contact width) was used; under these conditions there is negligible shear-entrainment of fluid from outside the contact area. The tongue-palate contact was simulated by a PDMS ball and glass surface. The effect of hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces on friction was investigated for different fat contents (0, 4.2, 9.5% wt fat). Friction was measured over 60 s of rubbing. Significant differences were observed in the friction change with time for different fat contents (μ 9.5  <  μ 4.2  <  μ 0 wt%) and for different surface energy conditions (μ hydrophilic  <  μ hydrophobic). Post-test visualisation of the rubbed films showed that low friction coefficient was associated with the formation of a thin oil film on deposited particulate solids.

  • Journal article
    Sopher R, Amis A, Davies D, Jeffers Jet al., 2016,

    The influence of muscle pennation angle and cross-sectional area on contact forces in the ankle joint

    , Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, Vol: 52, Pages: 12-23, ISSN: 0309-3247

    Data about a muscle’s fibre pennation angle and physiological cross-sectional area are used in musculoskeletal modelling to estimate muscle forces, which are used to calculate joint contact forces. For the leg, muscle architecture data are derived from studies that measured pennation angle at the muscle surface, but not deep within it. Musculoskeletal models developed to estimate joint contact loads have usually been based on the mean values of pennation angle and physiological cross-sectional area.Therefore, the first aim of this study was to investigate differences between superficial and deep pennation angles within each muscle acting over the ankle and predict how differences may influence muscle forces calculated in musculoskeletal modelling. The second aim was to investigate how inter-subject variability in physiological cross-sectional area and pennation angle affects calculated ankle contact forces.Eight cadaveric legs were dissected to excise the muscles acting over the ankle. The mean surface and deep pennation angles, fibre length and physiological cross-sectional area were measured. Cluster analysis was applied to group the muscles according to their architectural characteristics. A previously validated OpenSim model was used to estimate ankle muscle forces and contact loads using architecture data from all eight limbs.The mean surface pennation angle for soleus was significantly greater (54%) than the mean deep pennation angle. Cluster analysis revealed three groups of muscles with similar architecture and function: deep plantarflexors and peroneals, superficial plantarflexors and dorsiflexors. Peak ankle contact force was predicted to occur before toe-off, with magnitude greater than five times bodyweight. Inter-specimen variability in contact force was smallest at peak force.These findings will help improve the development of experimental and computational musculoskeletal models by providing data to estimate force based on both surface and deep

  • Journal article
    Forte AE, Galvan S, Manieri F, Rodriguez y Baena F, Dini Det al., 2016,

    A composite hydrogel for brain tissue phantoms

    , Materials and Design, Vol: 112, Pages: 227-238, ISSN: 0264-1275

    Synthetic phantoms are valuable tools for training, research and development in traditional and computer aided surgery, but complex organs, such as the brain, are difficult to replicate. Here, we present the development of a new composite hydrogel capable of mimicking the mechanical response of brain tissue under loading. Our results demonstrate how the combination of two different hydrogels, whose synergistic interaction results in a highly tunable blend, produces a hybrid material that closely matches the strongly dynamic and non-linear response of brain tissue. The new synthetic material is inexpensive, simple to prepare, and its constitutive components are both widely available and biocompatible. Our investigation of the properties of this engineered tissue, using both small scale testing and life-sized brain phantoms, shows that it is suitable for reproducing the brain shift phenomenon and brain tissue response to indentation and palpation.

  • Journal article
    Shimizu Y, Spikes HA, 2016,

    The influence of slide–roll ratio on ZDDP tribofilm formation

    , Tribology Letters, Vol: 64, ISSN: 1573-2711

    The anti-wear performance and action mecha-nisms of zinc dithiophosphate (ZDDP) have been investi-gated under various test conditions. The Mini TractionMachine–Space Layer Imaging (MTM–SLIM) is a widelyused and useful method for monitoring tribofilm formationby ZDDPs. However, tests are generally carried out inmixed sliding–rolling conditions, typically between 50 %SRR (slide–roll ratio) and 100 % SRR. In this paper, theauthors describe an investigation of ZDDP film formationat SRRs much higher than 100 % SRR, including puresliding conditions using a novel MTM–SLIM technique. Athigh SRRs, ZDDP tribofilms form without damaging theball surfaces so long as both surfaces move above athreshold speed with respect to the contact, regardless ofwhether the two surfaces move in the same or opposingdirections. In pure sliding conditions, although the wornarea expands with time under pure sliding conditionsshowing that wear takes place, tribofilms are still built upthroughout a test and the ZDDP has a beneficial effect onwear rate. The very early stages of film formation arestudied to show that a tribofilm with a high concentrationof S is formed initially and then replaced with a film havinga high concentration of Zn and P.

  • Conference paper
    Tan Z, Forte AE, Galvan S, Dini D, Rodriguez Y Baena Fet al., 2016,

    Composite Hydrogel: a New Tool for Reproducing the Mechanical Behaviour of Soft Human Tissues

    , Biotribology 2016
  • Conference paper
    Forte AE, Dini D, 2016,

    On the suitability of hydrogels for mimicking the mechano-response of organic soft tissues

    , Biotribology 2016
  • Journal article
    Heyes DM, Dini D, Smith ER, 2016,

    Equilibrium fluctuations of liquid state static properties in a subvolume by molecular dynamics

    , Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol: 145, ISSN: 1089-7690

    System property fluctuations increasingly dominate a physical process as the sampling volume decreases. The purpose of this work is to explore how the fluctuation statistics of various thermodynamic properties depend on the sampling volume, using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. First an examination of various expressions for calculating the bulk pressure of a bulk liquid is made, which includes a decomposition of the virial expression into two terms, one of which is the Method of Planes (MOP) applied to the faces of the cubic simulation cell. Then an analysis is made of the fluctuations of local density, temperature, pressure, and shear stress as a function of sampling volume (SV). Cubic and spherical shaped SVs were used within a spatially homogeneous LJ liquid at a state point along the melting curve. It is shown that the MD-generated probability distribution functions (PDFs) of all of these properties are to a good approximation Gaussian even for SV containing only a few molecules (∼10), with the variances being inversely proportional to the SV volume, Ω. For small subvolumes the shear stress PDF fits better to a Gaussian than the pressure PDF. A new stochastic sampling technique to implement the volume averaging definition of the pressure tensor is presented, which is employed for cubic, spherical, thin cubic, and spherical shell SV. This method is more efficient for less symmetric SV shapes.

  • Journal article
    Gurrutxaga Lerma B, Balint DS, Dini D, Sutton APet al., 2016,

    A dynamic discrete dislocation plasticity study of elastodynamic shielding of stationary cracks

    , Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Vol: 98, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 0022-5096

    Employing Dynamic Discrete Dislocation Plasticity (D3P), an elastodynamic analysis of theshielding of a stationary crack tip by dislocations is studied. Dislocations are generated via FrankReadsources, and make a negligible contribution to the shielding of the crack tip, whereas dislocationsgenerated at the crack tip via homogeneous nucleation dominate the shielding. Theireffect is found to be highly localised around the crack, leading to a magnification of the shieldingwhen compared to time-independent, elastostatic predictions. The resulting attenuation of KI (t)is computed, and is found to be directly proportional to the applied load and to √t.

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