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  • Journal article
    Sivalokanathan S, Foley M, Cole G, Youngstein Tet al., 2021,

    Gastroenteritis and cardiogenic shock in a healthcare worker: a case report of COVID-19 myocarditis confirmed with serology

    , European Heart Journal: Case Reports, Vol: 5, Pages: 1-5, ISSN: 2514-2119

    BackgroundCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) myocarditis is emerging as a component of the hyperactive inflammatory response secondary to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Isolated gastrointestinal symptoms are uncommon presenting features in adults with COVID-19 myocarditis. The availability of antibody testing is a valuable addition to the confirmation of COVID-19, when repeated reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction of nasopharyngeal swabs are negative.Case summaryA young healthcare worker presented with dizziness and pre-syncope, 4 weeks after his original symptoms that included fever, lethargy, and diarrhoea. Despite 2 weeks of isolation, followed by a quiescent spell, his symptoms had returned. Shortly after, he presented in cardiogenic shock (left ventricular ejection fraction 25%), that required vasopressor support, at the height of the COVID-19 pandemic. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging suggested florid myocarditis. Three nasopharyngeal swabs (Days 1, 3, and 5) were negative for SARS-CoV-2, but subsequent serology (Day 13) confirmed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and glucocorticoids led to full recovery.DiscussionOur case study highlights the significance of the use of the available serological assays for diagnosis of patients presenting late with SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, it supports further research in the use of immunomodulatory drugs for the hyperinflammatory microenvironment induced by COVID-19.

  • Journal article
    Uy CP, Tarkin JM, Gopalan D, Barwick TD, Tombetti E, Youngstein T, Mason JCet al., 2021,

    The impact of integrated non-invasive imaging in the management of takayasu arteritis

    , JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging, Vol: 14, Pages: 495-500, ISSN: 1876-7591
  • Journal article
    Papa R, Lane T, Minden K, Touitou I, Cantarini L, Cattalini M, Obici L, Jansson AF, Belot A, Frenkel J, Anton J, Wolska-Kusnierz B, Berendes R, Remesal A, Remesal A, Jelusic M, Hoppenreijs E, Espada G, Nikishina I, Maggio MC, Bovis F, Masini M, Youngstein T, Rezk T, Papadopoulou C, Brogan PA, Hawkins PN, Woo P, Ruperto N, Gattorno M, Lachmann HJet al., 2021,

    INSAID Variant Classification and Eurofever Criteria Guide Optimal Treatment Strategy in Patients with TRAPS: Data from the Eurofever Registry

  • Journal article
    Tan PG, O'Brien J, Pusey CD, McAdoo SPet al., 2021,

    Validation of the ANCA renal risk score in a London cohort: potential impact of treatment on prediction outcome

    , KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 99, Pages: 488-489, ISSN: 0085-2538
  • Journal article
    Yu C, Gao Z, Zhang W, Yang G, Zhao S, Zhang H, Zhang Y, Li Set al., 2021,

    Multitask Learning for Estimating Multitype Cardiac Indices in MRI and CT Based on Adversarial Reverse Mapping

  • Journal article
    Zhou Z, Wang R, Wang H, Liu Y, Lu D, Sun Z, Yang G, Xu Let al., 2021,

    Myocardial extracellular volume fraction quantification in an animal model of the doxorubicin-induced myocardial fibrosis: a synthetic hematocrit method using 3T cardiac magnetic resonance

    , Quantitative imaging in medicine and surgery, Vol: 11, Pages: 510-520, ISSN: 2223-4292

    Background: Visualization of diffuse myocardial fibrosis is challenging and mainly relies on histology.Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), which uses extracellular contrast agents, is a rapidly developingtechnique for measuring the extracellular volume (ECV). The objective of this study was to evaluate thefeasibility of the synthetic myocardial ECV fraction based on 3.0 T CMR compared with the conventionalECV fraction.Methods: This study was approved by the local animal care and ethics committee. Fifteen beagle modelswith diffuse myocardial fibrosis, including 12 experimental and three control subjects, were generatedby injecting doxorubicin 30 mg/m2 intravenously every three weeks for 24 weeks. Short-axis (SAX) and4-chamber long-axis (LAX) T1 maps were acquired for both groups. The association between hematocrit(Hct) and native T1blood was derived from 9 non-contrast CMR T1 maps of 3 control beagles using regressionanalysis. Synthetic ECV was then calculated using the synthetic Hct and compared with conventional ECVat baseline and the 16th and 24th week after doxorubicin administration. The collagen volume fraction (CVF)value was measured on digital biopsy samples. Bland-Altman plots were used to analyze the agreementbetween conventional and synthetic ECV. Correlation analyses were performed to explore the associationamong conventional ECV, synthetic ECV, CVF, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF).Results: The regression model synthetic Hct = 816.46*R1blood − 0.01 (R2=0.617; P=0.012) was used topredict the Hct from native T1blood values. The conventional and synthetic ECV fractions of experimentalanimals at the 16th and 24th week after modeling were significantly higher than those measured at the baseline(31.4%±2.2% and 36.3%±2.1% vs. 22.9%±1.7%; 29.9%±2.4% and 36.1%±2.6% vs. 22.0%±2.4%; all withP<0.05). Bland-Altman plots showed a bias (1.0%) between conventional and synthetic ECV with 95% limitsof agreement

  • Journal article
    Papalois V, Vallant N, Pusey C, Hamaoui K, Sandhu B, Prendecki Met al., 2021,

    Immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stromal cellscan vary in genetically modified rats

    , International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol: 22, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 1422-0067

    Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) have been shown to exhibit immuno-modulatory and regenerative properties at sites of inflammation. In solid organ transplantation (SOT), administration of MSCs might lead to an alleviation of ischemia-reperfusion injury and a reduction of rejection episodes. Previous reports have suggested ‘MSC-preconditioning’ of macrophages to be partly responsible for the beneficial effects. Whether this results from direct cell-cell interactions (e.g., MSC trans-differentiation at sites of damage), or from paracrine mechanisms, remains unclear. Immunosuppressive capacities of MSCs from donors of different age and from genetically modified donor animals, often used for in-vivo experiments, have so far not been investigated. We conducted an in vitro study to compare paracrine effects of supernatants from MSCs extracted from young and old wild-type Wystar-Kyoto rats (WKY-wt), as well as young and old WKY donor rats positive for the expression of green fluorescent protein (WKY-GFP), on bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM). Expression levels of Mannose receptor 1 (Mrc-1), Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), inducible NO synthase (iNos) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10) in BMDMs after treatment with different MSC supernatants were compared by performance of quantitative PCR. We observed different expression patterns of inflammatory markers within BMDMs, depending on age and genotype of origin for MSC supernatants. This must be taken into consideration for preclinical and clinical studies, for which MSCs will be used to treat transplant patients, aiming to mitigate inflammatory and allo-responses.

  • Journal article
    Lv J, Wang C, Yang G, 2021,

    PIC-GAN: a parallel imaging coupled generative adversarial network for accelerated multi-channel MRI reconstruction

    , Diagnostics, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2075-4418

    In this study, we proposed a model combing parallel imaging (PI) with generative adversarial network (GAN) architecture (PIC-GAN) for accelerated multi-channel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reconstruction. This model integrated data fidelity and regularization terms into the generator to benefit from multi-coils information and provide an “end-to-end” reconstruction. Besides, to better preserve image details during reconstruction, we combined the adversarial loss with pixel-wise loss in both image and frequency domains. The proposed PIC-GAN framework was evaluated on abdominal and knee MRI images using 2, 4 and 6-fold accelerations with different undersampling patterns. The performance of the PIC-GAN was compared to the sparsity-based parallel imaging (L1-ESPIRiT), the variational network (VN), and conventional GAN with single-channel images as input (zero-filled (ZF)-GAN). Experimental results show that our PIC-GAN can effectively reconstruct multi-channel MR images at a low noise level and improved structure similarity of the reconstructed images. PIC-GAN has yielded the lowest Normalized Mean Square Error (in ×10−5) (PIC-GAN: 0.58 ± 0.37, ZF-GAN: 1.93 ± 1.41, VN: 1.87 ± 1.28, L1-ESPIRiT: 2.49 ± 1.04 for abdominal MRI data and PIC-GAN: 0.80 ± 0.26, ZF-GAN: 0.93 ± 0.29, VN:1.18 ± 0.31, L1-ESPIRiT: 1.28 ± 0.24 for knee MRI data) and the highest Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PIC-GAN: 34.43 ± 1.92, ZF-GAN: 31.45 ± 4.0, VN: 29.26 ± 2.98, L1-ESPIRiT: 25.40 ± 1.88 for abdominal MRI data and PIC-GAN: 34.10 ± 1.09, ZF-GAN: 31.47 ± 1.05, VN: 30.01 ± 1.01, L1-ESPIRiT: 28.01 ± 0.98 for knee MRI data) compared to ZF-GAN, VN and L1-ESPIRiT with an under-sampling factor of 6. The proposed PIC-GAN framework has shown superior reconstruction performance in terms of reducing aliasing artifacts and restoring tissue structures as compared to other c

  • Journal article
    Zhang N, Yang G, Zhang W, Wang W, Zhou Z, Zhang H, Xu L, Chen Yet al., 2021,

    Fully automatic framework for comprehensive coronary artery calcium scores analysis on non-contrast cardiac-gated CT scan: Total and vessel-specific quantifications

    , European Journal of Radiology, Vol: 134, ISSN: 0720-048X

    ObjectivesTo develop a fully automatic multiview shape constraint framework for comprehensive coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) quantification via deep learning on nonenhanced cardiac CT images.MethodsIn this retrospective single-centre study, a multi-task deep learning framework was proposed to detect and quantify coronary artery calcification from CT images collected between October 2018 and March 2019. A total of 232 non-contrast cardiac-gated CT scans were retrieved and studied (80 % for model training and 20 % for testing). CACS results of testing datasets (n = 46), including Agatston score, calcium volume score, calcium mass score, were calculated fully automatically and manually at total and vessel-specific levels, respectively.ResultsNo significant differences were found in CACS quantification obtained using automatic or manual methods at total and vessel-specific levels (Agatston score: automatic 535.3 vs. manual 542.0, P = 0.993; calcium volume score: automatic 454.2 vs. manual 460.6, P = 0.990; calcium mass score: automatic 128.9 vs. manual 129.5, P = 0.992). Compared to the ground truth, the number of calcified vessels can be accurate recognized automatically (total: automatic 107 vs. manual 102, P = 0.125; left main artery: automatic 15 vs. manual 14, P = 1.000 ; left ascending artery: automatic 37 vs. manual 37, P = 1.000; left circumflex artery: automatic 22 vs. manual 20, P = 0.625; right coronary artery: automatic 33 vs. manual 31, P = 0.500). At the patient’s level, there was no statistic difference existed in the classification of Agatston scoring (P = 0.317) and the number of calcified vessels (P = 0.102) between the automatic and manual results.ConclusionsThe proposed framework can achieve reliable and comprehensive quantification for the CACS, including the calcified extent and distr

  • Journal article
    Jin Y, Yang G, Fang Y, Li R, Xu X, Liu Y, Lai Xet al., 2021,

    3D PBV-Net: An automated prostate MRI data segmentation method


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