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  • Book chapter
    Vilar R, 2018,

    Nucleic acid quadruplexes and metallo-drugs

    , Metallo-Drugs: Development and Action of Anticancer Agents, Pages: 325-349, ISBN: 9783110469844

    Guanine-rich sequences of DNA can readily fold into tetra-stranded helical assemblies known as G-quadruplexes (G4s). It has been proposed that these structures play important biological roles in transcription, translation, replication, and telomere maintenance. Therefore, over the past 20 years they have been investigated as potential drug targets for small molecules including metal complexes. This chapter provides an overview of the different classes of metal complexes as G4-binders and discusses the application of these species as optical probes for G-quadruplexes as well as metallo-drugs.

  • Journal article
    Vilar R, 2018,

    Nucleic Acid Quadruplexes and Metallo-Drugs.

    , Met Ions Life Sci, Vol: 18, ISSN: 1559-0836

    Guanine-rich sequences of DNA can readily fold into tetra-stranded helical assemblies known as G-quadruplexes (G4s). It has been proposed that these structures play important biological roles in transcription, translation, replication, and telomere maintenance. Therefore, over the past 20 years they have been investigated as potential drug targets for small molecules including metal complexes. This chapter provides an overview of the different classes of metal complexes as G4-binders and discusses the application of these species as optical probes for G-quadruplexes as well as metallo-drugs.

  • Journal article
    Bandeira S, Gonzalez-Garcia J, Pensa E, Albrecht T, Vilar Ret al., 2018,

    A Redox-Activated G-Quadruplex DNA Binder Based on a Platinum(IV)-Salphen Complex

    , Angewandte Chemie, Vol: 130, Pages: 316-319, ISSN: 0044-8249
  • Journal article
    Cowell S, Carroll L, Lavdas I, Aboagye E, Vilar Compte Ret al., 2017,

    Towards an MMP-2-activated molecular agent for cancer imaging

    , Dalton Transactions, Vol: 47, Pages: 1530-1534, ISSN: 1477-9234

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been identified as biomarkers for cancer, offering prognostic potential; however, non-invasive detection protocols are currently lacking. Herein, we describe the synthesis of a DOTA-containing peptide sequence that can be radiolabelled easily with 68Gallium or can be incorporated with gadolinium for possible MRI applications with clear selectivity for MMP-2 over other members of the MMP family, giving MMP-2 selective cleavage of the labelled peptides.

  • Journal article
    Vilar R, Bandeira S, Gonzalez Garcia J, Pensa E, Albrecht Tet al., 2017,

    A redox-activated G-quadruplex DNA binder based on a platinum(IV)-salphen complex

    , Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol: 57, Pages: 310-313, ISSN: 1521-3757

    There has been increasing interest in the development of small molecules that can selectively bind to G-quadruplex DNA structures. The latter have been associated to a number of key biological processes and therefore are proposed to be potential targets for drug development. In this paper we report the first example of a reduction-activated G-quadruplex DNA binder. We show that a new octahedral platinum(IV)-salphen complex does not interact with DNA in aqueous media at pH 7.4; however, upon addition of bio-reductants such as ascorbic acid or glutathione, the compound readily reduces to the corresponding square planar platinum(II) complex. In contrast to the parent platinum(IV) complex, the in situ generated platinum(II) complex binds to HTelo and c-Myc G-quadruplex DNA with affinity constants up to 106 M-1.

  • Conference paper
    Pyne ALB, Hoogenboom BW, Vilar R, Maxwell Aet al., 2017,

    Visualisation of DNA conformational changes in situ at nanometre resolution

    , 19th IUPAB Congress / 11th EBSA Congress, Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: S369-S369, ISSN: 0175-7571
  • Book chapter
    Gonzalez-Garcia J, Vilar R, 2017,

    Supramolecular Principles for Small Molecule Binding to DNA Structures

    , Comprehensive Supramolecular Chemistry II, Pages: 39-70, ISBN: 9780128031995

    Small molecules that interact with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are important for the development of drugs and biomolecular tools. There are indeed several drugs in clinical use whose main biological target is DNA; likewise, a range of optical probes that bind to DNA are routinely used to study biological systems. Therefore, understanding, rationalizing, and predicting the interaction of small molecules with DNA is an important area of research. This article provides an overview of the key noncovalent interactions used by small organic and metal-organic molecules to bind to DNA. The first part of the article provides an overview of the different DNA structures/topologies and the key supramolecular interactions they display. The subsequent sections of the article have been divided by the type of DNA structure that is being targeted as well as by the binding mode displayed by the molecules discussed. Rather than providing an exhaustive and comprehensive review of the very extensive literature, the main aim of this article is to highlight the key supramolecular principles that drive these interactions.

  • Journal article
    Cilibrizzi A, Fedorova M, Collins J, Leatherbarrow R, Woscholski R, Vilar Ret al., 2017,

    A tri-functional vanadium(IV) complex to detect cysteine oxidation

    , DALTON TRANSACTIONS, Vol: 46, Pages: 6994-7004, ISSN: 1477-9226

    The development of effective molecular probes to detect and image the levels of oxidative stress in cells remains a challenge. Herein we report the design, synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of a novel optical probe to monitor oxidation of thiol groups in cysteine-based phosphatases (CBPs). Following orthogonal protecting approaches we synthesised a new vanadyl complex designed to bind to CBPs. This complex is functionalised with a well-known dimedone derivative (to covalently trap sulfenic acids, SOHs) and a coumarin-based fluorophore for optical visualization. We show that this new probe efficiently binds to a range of phosphatases in vitro with nanomolar affinity. Moreover, preliminary flow cytometry and microscopy studies in live HCT116 cells show that this probe can successfully image cellular levels of sulfenic acids – one of the species resulting from protein oxidative damage.

  • Journal article
    Cilibrizzi A, Terenghi M, Fedorova M, Woscholski R, Klug D, Vilar Ret al., 2017,

    Small-molecule optical probes for cell imaging of protein sulfenylation and their application to monitor cisplatin induced protein oxidation

    , Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Vol: 248, Pages: 437-446, ISSN: 0925-4005

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered versatile second messengers mediating fundamental biological functions. A molecular pathway by which ROS determine functional diversity is the selective oxidation of cysteine residues to form sulfenic acid (SOH) products, known as sulfenylation or S-hydroxylation. This crucial post-translational modification is responsible for the alteration of protein stability, function and signalling. Despite considerable advances on the identification of sulfenic residues on individual proteins, improved methods are needed for direct visualization and accurate quantification of the extent of total protein sulfenylation. Herein we present the synthesis of two new cell-permeable fluorescent probes containing dimedone (a cyclic β-diketone with high specificity for sulfenic acids), and apply them to study oxidation processes in individual cells via microscopy. The low cytotoxicity, cell permeability and optical features of the probes allowed us to visualize and quantify the oxidation of cysteine residues in live cells during H2O2-mediated oxidative burst (i.e. exogenously administered H2O2). We present preliminary cellular imaging studies with these probes to analyse the oxidation process in cells treated with the anticancer drug cisplatin.

  • Journal article
    Zhou CQ, Liao TC, Li ZQ, Gonzalez Garcia J, Reynolds M, Zou M, Vilar Compte Ret al., 2017,

    Di-nickel-salphen complexes as binders of human telomeric dimeric G-quadruplexes

    , Chemistry - A European Journal, Vol: 23, Pages: 4713-4722, ISSN: 0947-6539

    Three new polyether-tethered di-nickel-salphen complexes (2a-c) have been synthesized and fully characterized by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and elemental analyses. The binding affinity and selectivity of these complexes and of the parent mono-nickel complex (1) towards dimeric quadruplex DNA have been determined by UV-Vis titrations, fluorescence spectroscopy, CD spectroscopy and electrophoresis. These studies have shown that the di-nickel-salphen complex with the longest polyether linker (2c) has higher binding affinity and selectivity towards dimeric quadruplexes (over monomeric quadruplexes) than the di-nickel-salphen complexes with the shorter polyether linkers (2a and 2b). Complex 2c also has higher selectivity towards human telomeric dimeric quadruplexes with one TTA linker than the monometallic complex 1. Based on the spectroscopic data, a possible binding mode between complex 2c and the dimeric G-quadruplex DNA under study is proposed.

  • Journal article
    Vilar Compte R, Wilson N, Mak LH, cilibrizzi A, gee AD, long NJ, woscholski Ret al., 2016,

    A lipophilic copper(II) complex as an optical probe for intracellular detection of NO

    , Dalton Transactions, Vol: 45, Pages: 18177-18182, ISSN: 1477-9226

    A new chemical sensor for cellular imaging of NO is presented. This cell-permeable probe is based on a complex where copper(II) is coordinated to a tridentate ligand substituted with a fluorophore (NBD) and an octyl group. The fluorescent response of this complex towards a range of reactive species (namely NO, NO2-, NO3-, H2O2, ClO-, O2-and ONOO-) has been studied in vitroshowing that the probe is highly selective for NO. The probe is readily taken up by cells and is able to image the cellular concentrations of NO

  • Journal article
    Vilar Compte R, Klejevskaja B, Pyne LBA, Reynolds M, Shivalingam A, Thorogate R, Hoogenboom BW, Ying Let al., 2016,

    Studies of G-quadruplexes formed within self-assembled DNA mini-circles

    , Chemical Communications (London), Vol: 52, Pages: 12454-12457, ISSN: 0009-241X

    We have developed self-assembled DNA mini-circles that contain a G-quadruplex-forming sequence from the c-Myc oncogene promoter and demonstrate by FRET that the G-quadruplex unfolding kinetics are 10-fold slower than for the simpler 24-mer G-quadruplex that is commonly used for FRET experiments.

  • Journal article
    Markovic T, Manzoor S, Humphreys-Williams E, Kirk G, Vilar R, Weiss DJet al., 2016,

    Experimental determination of zinc isotope fractionation in complexes with the phytosiderophore 2’-deoxymugeneic acid (DMA) and its structural analogues, and implications for plant uptake mechanisms

    , Environmental Science & Technology, Vol: 51, Pages: 98-107, ISSN: 0013-936X

    The stable isotope signatures of zinc are increasingly used to study plant and soil processes. Complexation with phytosiderophores is a key process and understanding the controls of isotope fractionation is central to such studies. Here, we investigated isotope fractionation during complexation of Zn2+ with the phytosiderophore 2’-deoxymugeneic acid (DMA) - which we synthesised - and with three commercially-available structural analogues of DMA: EDTA, TmDTA and CyDTA. We used ion exchange chromatography to separate free and complexed zinc, and identified appropriate cation exchange resins for the individual systems. These were Chelex-100 for EDTA and CyDTA, Amberlite CG50 for TmDTA and Amberlite IR120 for DMA. With all the ligands we found preferential partitioning of isotopically heavy zinc in the complexed form, and the extent of fractionation was independent of the Zn:ligand ratio used, indicating isotopic equilibrium and that the results were not significantly affected by artefacts during separation. The fractionations (in ‰) were +0.33 ± 0.07 (1, n=3), +0.45 ± 0.02 (1, n=2), +0.62 ± 0.05 (1, n=3) and +0.30 ± 0.07 (1, n=4) for EDTA, TmDTA, CyDTA and DMA, respectively. Despite the similarity in Zn-coordinating donor groups, the fractionation factors are significantly different and extent of fractionation seems proportional to the complexation stability constant. The extent of fractionation with DMA agreed with observed fractionations in zinc uptake by paddy rice in field experiments, supporting the possible involvement of DMA in zinc uptake by rice.

  • Journal article
    Kotar A, Wang B, Shivalingam A, Gonzalez-Garcia J, Vilar Compte R, Plavec Jet al., 2016,

    NMR Structure of a Triangulenium based Long-lived Fluorescence Probe Bound to G-quadruplex

    , Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, Vol: 55, Pages: 12508-12511, ISSN: 1433-7851

    An NMR structural study of the interaction between a small-molecule opticalprobe (DAOTA-M2) and a G-quadruplex from the promoter region of c-myc oncogenedemonstrates their interaction at 1:2 binding stoichiometry. NMR restrained structuralcalculations show that binding of DAOTA-M2 occurs mainly through the π-π stackingbetween the polyaromatic core of the ligand and guanine residues of the outer G-quartets.Interestingly, the binding affinities of DAOTA-M2 to the outer G-quartets of theunimolecular parallel G-quadruplex under study differ by a factor of two. Unrestrained MDcalculations indicate that DAOTA-M2 displays significant dynamic behavior when stackedon a G-quartet plane. These studies provide molecular guidelines for design of trianguleniumderivatives that can be used as optical probes of G-quadruplexes.

  • Journal article
    Vilar Compte R, Collins J, Woscholski R, Cilibrizzi A, Leatherbarrow RJ, Fedorova M, Whyte G, Guterman I, Mak LHet al., 2016,

    Vanadyl complexes with dansyl-labelled di-picolinic acid ligands: synthesis, phosphatase inhibition activity and cellular uptake studies

    , Dalton Transactions, Vol: 45, Pages: 7104-7113, ISSN: 1477-9226

    Vanadium complexes have been previously utilised as potent inhibitors of cysteine based phosphatases (CBPs) . Herein, we present the synthesis and characterisation of two new fluorescently labelled vanadyl complexes (14 and 15 ) with bridged dipicolinic acid ligand. These compounds differ significantly from previous vanadyl complexes with phosphatase inhibition properties in that the metal-chelating part is a single tetradentate unit, which should afford greater stability and scope for synthetic elaboration then the earlier complexes. These new complexes inhibit a selection of cysteine based phosphatases (CBPs) in the nM range with some selectivity. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies (including fluorescence anisotropy) were carried out to demonstrate that the complexes are not simply acting as vanadyl delivery vehicles but they interact with the proteins. Finally, we present preliminary fluorescence microscopy studies to demonstrate that the complexes are cell permeable and localise throughout the cytoplasm of NIH3T3 cells.

  • Journal article
    Gama S, Rodrigues I, Mendes F, Santos IC, Gabano E, Klejevskaja B, Gonzalez-Garcia J, Ravera M, Vilar R, Paulo Aet al., 2016,

    Anthracene-terpyridine metal complexes as new G-quadruplex DNA binders

    , Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, Vol: 160, Pages: 275-286, ISSN: 1873-3344

    The formation of quadruple-stranded DNA induced by planar metal complexes has particular interest in the development of novel anticancer drugs. This is especially relevant for the inhibition of telomerase, which plays an essential role in cancer cell immortalization and is overexpressed in ca. 85-90% of cancer cells. Moreover, G-quadruplexes also exist in other locations in the human genome, namely oncogene promoter regions, and it has been hypothesized that they play a regulatory role in gene transcription. Herein we report a series of new anthracene-containing terpyridine ligands and the corresponding Cu(II) and Pt(II) complexes, with different linkers between the anthracenyl moiety and the terpyridine chelating unit. The interaction of these ligands and metal complexes with different topologies of DNA was studied by several biophysical techniques. The Pt(II) and Cu(II) complexes tested showed affinity for quadruplex-forming sequences with a good selectivity over duplex DNA. Importantly, the free ligands do not have significant affinity for any of the DNA sequences used, which shows that the presence of the metal is essential for high affinity (and selectivity). This effect is more evident in the case of the Pt(II) complexes. Moreover, the presence of a longer linker between the chelating terpyridine unit and the anthracene moiety enhances the interaction with G-quadruplex-forming sequences. We further evaluated the ability of the Cu(II) complexes to interact with, and stabilize G-quadruplex containing regions in oncogene promoters via a polymerase stop assay. These studies indicated that the metal complexes are able to induce G-quadruplex formation and stop polymerase activity.

  • Journal article
    Vilar Compte R, Shivalingam A, Vysniauskas A, Albrecht T, White AJ, Kuimova MKet al., 2016,

    Trianguleniums as optical probes for G-quadruplexes: A photophysical, electrochemical and computational study

    , Chemistry - A European Journal, Vol: 22, Pages: 4129-4139, ISSN: 0947-6539

    Nucleic acids can adopt non-duplex topologies such as G-quadruplexes in vitro. Yet it hasbeen challenging to establish their existence and function in vivo due to a lack of suitabletools. Recently, we identified the triangulenium compound DAOTA-M2 as a uniquefluorescence probe for such studies. This probe’s emission lifetime is highly dependent onthe topology of the DNA it interacts with opening up the possibility of carrying out live cellimaging studies. Herein we describe the origin of its fluorescence selectivity for Gquadruplexes.Cyclic voltammetry predicts that the appended morpholino groups can act asintra-molecular photo-induced electron transfer (PET) quenchers. Photophysical studies showthat a delicate balance between this effect and inter-molecular PET with nucleobases is key tothe overall fluorescence enhancement observed upon nucleic acid binding. We utilisedcomputational modelling to demonstrate a conformational dependence of intra-molecularPET. Finally, we performed orthogonal studies with a triangulenium compound where themorpholino groups were removed and demonstrate that this change inverts trianguleniumfluorescence selectivity from G-quadruplex to duplex DNA, thus highlighting the importanceof fine-tuning the molecular structure not only for target affinity but also for fluorescenceresponse.

  • Journal article
    Ang DL, Harper BWJ, Cubo L, Mendoza O, Vilar R, Aldrich-Wright Jet al., 2016,

    Quadruplex DNA-Stabilising Dinuclear Platinum(II) Terpyridine Complexes with Flexible Linkers

    , CHEMISTRY-A EUROPEAN JOURNAL, Vol: 22, Pages: 2317-2325, ISSN: 0947-6539
  • Journal article
    Ang DL, Harper BWJ, Cubo L, Mendoza O, Vilar R, Aldrich-Wright Jet al., 2016,

    Back Cover: Quadruplex DNA-Stabilising Dinuclear Platinum(II) Terpyridine Complexes with Flexible Linkers (Chem. Eur. J. 7/2016)

    , Chemistry - A European Journal, Vol: 22, Pages: 2540-2540, ISSN: 0947-6539
  • Journal article
    Turek VA, Francescato Y, Cadinu P, Crick CR, Elliott L, Chen Y, Urland V, Ivanov AP, Hong M, Vilar R, Maier SA, Giannini V, Edel JBet al., 2015,

    Self-Assembled Spherical Supercluster Metamaterials from Nanoscale Building Blocks

    , ACS Photonics, Vol: 3, Pages: 35-42, ISSN: 2330-4022

    We report on a simple, universal and large scale self-assembly method for generation of spherical superclusters from nanoscopic building blocks. The fundamentals of this approach relies on the ultra-high pre-concentration of nanoparticles (NP) followed by either using emulsification strategies or alternatively multiphase microfluidic microdroplets. In both cases drying of the NP droplets yield highly spherical self-assembled superclusters with unique optical properties. We demonstrate that the behaviour of these spheres can be controlled by surface functionalization before and after the self-assembly process. These structures show unique plasmonic collective response both on the surface and within the supercluster in the visible and infrared regions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these strong, tunable optical modes can be used towards ultra-sensitive, reproducible, surface-enhanced spectroscopies.

  • Journal article
    Mion G, Gianferrara T, Bergamo A, Gasser G, Pierroz V, Rubbiani R, Vilar R, Leczkowska A, Alessio Eet al., 2015,

    Phototoxic Activity and DNA Interactions of Water-Soluble Porphyrins and Their Rhenium(I) Conjugates

    , CHEMMEDCHEM, Vol: 10, Pages: 1901-1914, ISSN: 1860-7179
  • Journal article
    Shivalingam A, Izquierdo MA, Le Marois A, Vyšniauskas A, Suhling K, Kuimova MK, Vilar Ret al., 2015,

    The interactions between a small molecule and G-quadruplexes are visualised by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    , Nature Communications, Vol: 6, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2041-1723

    Guanine-rich oligonucleotides can fold into quadruple-stranded helical structures known as G-quadruplexes. Mounting experimental evidence has gathered suggesting that these non-canonical nucleic acid structures form in vivo and play essential biological roles. However, to date, there are no small-molecule optical probes to image G-quadruplexes in live cells. Herein, we report the design and development of a small fluorescent molecule, which can be used as an optical probe for G-quadruplexes. We demonstrate that the fluorescence lifetime of this new probe changes considerably upon interaction with different nucleic acid topologies. Specifically, longer fluorescence lifetimes are observed in vitro for G-quadruplexes than for double- and single-stranded nucleic acids. Cellular studies confirm that this molecule is cell permeable, has low cytotoxicity and localizes primarily in the cell nucleus. Furthermore, using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, live-cell imaging suggests that the probe can be used to study the interaction of small molecules with G-quadruplexes in vivo.

  • Journal article
    Mendoza C, Jansat S, Vilar R, Pericas MAet al., 2015,

    Clickable complexing agents: functional crown ethers for immobilisation onto polymers and magnetic nanoparticles

    , RSC ADVANCES, Vol: 5, Pages: 87352-87363, ISSN: 2046-2069
  • Journal article
    Moffat CD, Weiss DJ, Shivalingam A, White AJP, Salauen P, Vilar Ret al., 2014,

    Molecular recognition and scavenging of arsenate from aqueous solution using dimetallic receptors

    , Chemistry: A European Journal, Vol: 20, Pages: 17168-17177, ISSN: 0947-6539

    A series of copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II) dimetallic complexes were prepared and their affinities towards arsenate investigated. Indicator displacement assays (IDAs) were carried out to establish the complexes with best affinities towards arsenate. A di-zinc complex (3) was selected and its arsenate-binding abilities investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The X-ray crystal structure of this metallo-receptor bound to arsenate is also reported, which allowed us to establish the binding mode between 3 and this oxyanion. Immobilising 3 onto HypoGel resin yielded a novel adsorbent (Zn–HypoGel) with high affinity for arsenate. Adsorption of arsenate from competitive solutions and natural groundwater was greater than that of the commercially used iron oxide Bayoxide E33. Zn–HypoGel could be efficiently and simply regenerated by washing with sodium acetate solution.

  • Journal article
    Stafford VS, Suntharalingam K, Shivalingam A, White AJP, Mann DJ, Vilar Ret al., 2014,

    Syntheses of polypyridyl metal complexes and studies of their interaction with quadruplex DNA

    , Dalton Transactions, Vol: 44, Pages: 3686-3700, ISSN: 1477-9226

    A series of mono- and bi-metallic metal complexes (with CuII, PtII and ZnII) with substituted polypyridylligands have been prepared and their binding affinities towards quadruplex (c-Myc and human telomeric)and duplex DNA (ds26 and calf thymus) determined using fluorescent indicator displacement (FID) assaysand UV/vis spectroscopic titrations. These studies have shown that the number of aromatic rings andnumber/position of cyclic amine substituents on the ligands, play an important role in defining the DNAbinding abilities of the resulting metal complexes. We also show that bi-metallic complexes preparedusing a novel terpyridine-cyclen ligand have higher affinity towards G-quadruplex DNA as compared totheir mono-metallic counterparts. Cytotoxicity assays were carried out for all the new complexes againstan osteosarcoma cancer cell line (U2OS) as well as a normal fibroblast cell line (GM05757). Several ofthese compounds displayed cytotoxicity similar to that of cisplatin.

  • Conference paper
    Cilibrizzi A, Collins J, Woscholski R, Leatherbarrow R, Vilar Ret al., 2014,

    New vanadium complexes as optical probes to detect Cys sulfenic modifications in PTEN

    , 12th European Biological Inorganic Chemistry Conference (EuroBIC), Publisher: Springer Verlag (Germany), Pages: S873-S873, ISSN: 1432-1327
  • Conference paper
    Stafford V, Shivalingam A, Suntharalingam K, Mann D, Vilar Ret al., 2014,

    Interaction of metal complexes with G-quadruplex DNA and their effects on gene expression

    , 12th European Biological Inorganic Chemistry Conference (EuroBIC), Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: S740-S740, ISSN: 0949-8257
  • Journal article
    Zhou W, Vilar R, Ying L, Harding SEet al., 2014,

    Transcriptional regulatory roles of G-quadruplex DNA in promoters of genes involved in beta-adrenergic signaling pathway

    , CARDIOVASCULAR RESEARCH, Vol: 103, ISSN: 0008-6363
  • Journal article
    Sala R, Quang-De N, Patel CBK, Mann D, Steinke JHG, Vilar R, Aboagye EOet al., 2014,

    Phosphorylation Status of Thymidine Kinase 1 Following Antiproliferative Drug Treatment Mediates 3 '-Deoxy-3 '-[F-18]-Fluorothymidine Cellular Retention

    , PLOS ONE, Vol: 9, ISSN: 1932-6203
  • Journal article
    Ghosh S, Mendoza O, Cubo L, Rosu F, Gabelica V, White AJP, Vilar Ret al., 2014,

    Assembly of Palladium(II) and Platinum(II) Metallo-Rectangles with a Guanosine-Substituted Terpyridine and Study of Their Interactions with Quadruplex DNA

    , CHEMISTRY-A EUROPEAN JOURNAL, Vol: 20, Pages: 4772-4779, ISSN: 0947-6539

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