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    Hervy M, Bock F, Lee KY, 2018,

    Thinner and better: (Ultra-)low grammage bacterial cellulose nanopaper-reinforced polylactide composite laminates

    , Composites Science and Technology, Vol: 167, Pages: 126-133, ISSN: 0266-3538

    One of the rate-limiting steps in the large-scale production of cellulose nanopaper-reinforced polymer composites is the time consuming dewatering step to produce the reinforcing cellulose nanopapers. In this work, we show that the dewatering time of bacterial cellulose (BC)-in-water suspension can be reduced by reducing the grammage of BC nanopaper to be produced. The influence of BC nanopaper grammage on the tensile properties of BC nanopaper-reinforced polylactide (PLLA) composites is also investigated in this work. BC nanopaper with grammages of 5, 10, 25 and 50 g m−2 were produced and it was found that reducing the grammage of BC nanopaper from 50 g m−2 to 5 g m−2 led to a three-fold reduction in the dewatering time of BC-in-water suspension. The porosity of the BC nanopapers, however, increased with decreasing BC nanopaper grammage. While the tensile properties of BC nanopapers were found to decrease with decreasing BC nanopaper grammage, no significant difference in the reinforcing ability of BC nanopaper with different grammages for PLLA was observed. All PLLA composite laminates reinforced with BC nanopapers possessed similar tensile modulus of 10.5–11.8 GPa and tensile strength of 95–111 MPa, respectively, at a BC loading fraction  = 39–53 vol.-%, independent of the grammage and tensile properties of the reinforcing BC nanopaper.

    Mohammed A, Bissoon R, Bajnath E, Mohammed K, Lee T, Bissram M, John N, Jalsa NK, Lee KY, Ward Ket al., 2018,

    Multistage extraction and purification of waste Sargassum natans to produce sodium alginate: an optimization approach

    , Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol: 198, Pages: 109-118, ISSN: 0144-8617

    Sargassum in the Caribbean region has affected the livelihood of several coastal communities due to the influx of large quantities of the seaweed in recent times. This article seeks to explore how waste Sargassum natans can be utilized to produce sodium alginate. The novelty in this research lies in the optimization process, whereby multistage extraction and precipitation were investigated over commonly used single stage processing, in an effort to maximize both yield and purity. The results showed that a maximum yield of 19% was observed after 1 stage, while the purity was 74% after 4 stages. In addition, optimization of the multistage precipitation process using the Global Optimization Toolbox in MATLAB R2017b provided a novel model which indicated that a compromise between the maximum purity and yield can be obtained at 3 stages; 71–74% and 12–16% respectively. Furthermore, characterization was done using FTIR and NMR, with results comparable to a commercial sodium alginate brand, giving absorption bands at 1610 cm−1and 1395 cm-1and an M/G ratio of 0.51 respectively.

    Narducci E, Lee K-Y, Pinho ST, 2018,

    Realising damage-tolerant nacre-inspired CFRP

    , JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICS AND PHYSICS OF SOLIDS, Vol: 116, Pages: 391-402, ISSN: 0022-5096
    Narducci F, Lee K-Y, Pinho ST, 2018,

    Interface micro-texturing for interlaminar toughness tailoring: a film-casting technique

    , COMPOSITES SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 156, Pages: 203-214, ISSN: 0266-3538
    Mautner A, Mayer F, Hervy M, Lee K-Y, Bismarck Aet al., 2018,

    Better together: synergy in nanocellulose blends

    Santmarti A, Lee K, 2018,

    Crystallinity and Thermal Stability of Nanocellulose

    , Nanocellulose and Sustainability Production, Properties, Applications, and Case Studies, Editors: Lee, Publisher: Taylor and Francis / CRC Press, Pages: 67-86, ISBN: 9781498761031
  • BOOK
    Lee K-Y, 2018,

    Nanocellulose and Sustainability: Production, Properties, Applications, and Case Studies

    , Publisher: CRC Press/Taylor Francis, ISBN: 9781498761031
    Song W, Tagarielli VL, Lee KY, 2018,

    Enhancing the Fracture Resistance and Impact Toughness of Mechanically Frothed Epoxy Foams with Hollow Elastomeric Microspheres

    , Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, ISSN: 1438-7492

    © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Nonporous elastomeric particles are often employed to improve the toughness of brittle epoxy foams but this also decreases their compressive strength and stiffness. Herein, a novel strategy utilizing hollow elastomeric microspheres as toughening agent for epoxy foams is presented. The addition of 0.5 wt.% hollow elastomeric microspheres into epoxy foam leads to a 15% increase in critical stress intensity factor (K1c) to 0.38 MPa m0.5and 33% increase in Charpy impact strength (acU) to 1.05 kJ m−2, respectively, compared to unfilled epoxy foam (K1c = 0.33 MPa m0.5and acU= 0.79 kJ m−2). However, a further increase in the hollow elastomeric microsphere concentration to 1.0 wt.% leads to microsphere agglomeration, which reduces both K1cand acUto 0.35 MPa m0.5and 0.93 kJ m−2, respectively. Nevertheless, the added hollow elastomeric microspheres do not lead to a reduction in the quasi-static compressive properties of the epoxy foams.

    Hervy M, Blaker JJ, Braz AL, Lee KYet al., 2017,

    Mechanical response of multi-layer bacterial cellulose nanopaper reinforced polylactide laminated composites

    , Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol: 107, Pages: 155-163, ISSN: 1359-835X

    In this study, we investigated the mechanical response of polylactide (PLLA) reinforced with multiple layers of BC nanopaper. Laminated composites consisting of 1, 3, 6 and 12 sheet(s) of BC nanopaper were produced. It was observed that increasing the number of BC nanopaper led to an increase in the porosity of the resulting BC nanopaper-reinforced PLLA laminated composites. The tensile moduli of the laminated composites were found to be ∼12.5 – 13.5 GPa, insensitive to the number of sheets of BC nanopaper in the composites. However, the tensile strength of the laminated composites decreased by 21% (from 121 MPa to 95 MPa) when the number of reinforcing BC nanopaper sheets increased from 1 to 12 sheets. This was attributed to the presence and severity of the scale-induced defects increased with increasing BC nanopaper sheets in the PLLA laminated composites.

    Kontturi KS, Biegaj K, Mautner A, Woodward RT, Wilson BP, Johansson L-S, Lee K-Y, Heng JYY, Bismarck A, Kontturi Eet al., 2017,

    Noncovalent Surface Modification of Cellulose Nanopapers by Adsorption of Polymers from Aprotic Solvents

    , LANGMUIR, Vol: 33, Pages: 5707-5712, ISSN: 0743-7463
    Song Y, Li Y, Song W, Yee K, Lee K-Y, Tagarielli VLet al., 2017,

    Measurements of the mechanical response of unidirectional 3D-printed PLA

    , MATERIALS & DESIGN, Vol: 123, Pages: 154-164, ISSN: 0264-1275
    Song W, Barber K, Lee K-Y, 2017,

    Heat-induced bubble expansion as a route to increase the porosity of foam-templated bio-based macroporous polymers

    , POLYMER, Vol: 118, Pages: 97-106, ISSN: 0032-3861
    Lee K, Daud NJ, 2017,

    Surface Modification of Nanocellulose

    , Handbook of Nanocellulose and Cellulose Nanocomposites, 2 Volume Set, Editors: Kargarzadeh, Ahmad, Thomas, Dufresne, Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Pages: 101-122, ISBN: 9783527338665

    With its coverage of a wide variety of materials, important characterization tools and resulting applications, this is an essential reference for beginners as well as experienced researchers.

    Hervy M, Santmarti A, Lahtinen P, Tammelin T, Lee K-Yet al., 2017,

    Sample geometry dependency on the measured tensile properties of cellulose nanopapers

    , MATERIALS & DESIGN, Vol: 121, Pages: 421-429, ISSN: 0264-1275
    Fortea-Verdejo M, Bumbaris E, Burgstaller C, Bismarck A, Lee Ket al., 2017,

    Plant fibre reinforced polymers: where do we stand in terms of tensile properties?

    , International Materials Reviews, Vol: 62, Pages: 441-464, ISSN: 1743-2804

    Plant fibres have a unique set of properties ranging from being stiff and brittle, such as hemp and flax, to more ductile, such as coir, combining these properties with their cost and availability makes them attractive alternative reinforcements for the production of greener composites. This article reviews the tensileproperties ofvarious plant fibreor plant based natural fibre-reinforced polymersreported in the literature. We critically discuss the use of plant fibres as reinforcement for the production of bio-based,renewable or green polymer composites, showing the evolution of the properties of plant fibre composites. The reported tensile properties of plant fibre-reinforced polymer composites arecompared against various renewable and non-renewableengineering/commoditypolymers as well as the tensile propertiesof commercially available randomly oriented glass fibre-reinforced polymers (GFRP). Green composites containing random short plant fibres dohave similar properties to randomly oriented GFRP at a lower overall part weight. Unidirectional plant fibre-reinforced polymers offer better performance than randomly oriented GFRP and could have the potential to be adapted in applications requiring even higher mechanical performance, especially in areas where the useof costly synthetic fibres might be less attractive. Furthermore, plant fibres can also be regarded as effective fillers to replace more expensive polymersand improve the green credentialsof final composite parts. These features may motivate the industry to introduce more plant fibre-based products to the market.

    Shamsuddin S-R, Lee K-Y, Bismarck A, 2016,

    Ductile unidirectional continuous rayon fibre-reinforced hierarchical composites

    Lee KY, Bismarck A, 2016,

    Bacterial NanoCellulose as Reinforcement for Polymer Matrices

    , Bacterial Nanocellulose: From Biotechnology to Bio-Economy, Pages: 109-122, ISBN: 9780444634665

    © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Bacterial NanoCellulose (BNC) is a promising material for the production of high performance renewable composites because of its high tensile properties, low density, and low toxicity. In this chapter, we start with the discussion of both theoretical and experimental tensile properties of nanometer-scale cellulose fibrils, more commonly known as nanocellulose. This is then followed by what neat BNC offers as nanoreinforcement for polymers. The tensile properties of various neat BNC-reinforced polymer nanocomposites published in the literature to date were reviewed and are tabulated. In addition we critically discuss the micromechanical models that are suitable to describe the tensile properties of BNC-reinforced polymer nanocomposites.

    Ferguson A, Khan U, Walsh M, Lee K-Y, Bismarck A, Shaffer MSP, Coleman JN, Bergin SDet al., 2016,

    Understanding the Dispersion and Assembly of Bacterial Cellulose in Organic Solvents

    , BIOMACROMOLECULES, Vol: 17, Pages: 1845-1853, ISSN: 1525-7797
    Fortea-Verdejo M, Lee K-Y, Zimmermann T, Bismarck Aet al., 2016,

    Upgrading flax nonwovens: Nanocellulose as binder to produce rigid and robust flax fibre preforms

    Hervy M, Evangelisti S, Lettieri P, Lee K-Yet al., 2015,

    Life cycle assessment of nanocellulose-reinforced advanced fibre composites

    , COMPOSITES SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 118, Pages: 154-162, ISSN: 0266-3538
    Lee K, Quero F, Coveney A, Lewandowska AE, Richardson RM, Díaz-Calderón P, Eichhorn SJ, Ashraf Alam M, Enrione Jet al., 2015,

    Stress Transfer Quantification in Gelatin-Matrix Natural Composites with Tunable Optical Properties

    , Biomacromolecules, Vol: 16, Pages: 1784-1793, ISSN: 1526-4602

    This work reports on the preparation and characterization of natural composite materials prepared from bacterial cellulose (BC) incorporated into a gelatin matrix. Composite morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy and 2D Raman imaging revealing an inhomogeneous dispersion of BC within the gelatin matrix. The composite materials showed controllable degrees of transparency to visible light and opacity to UV light depending on BC weight fraction. By adding a 10 wt % fraction of BC in gelatin, visible (λ = 550 nm) and UV (λ = 350 nm) transmittances were found to decrease by ∼35 and 40%, respectively. Additionally, stress transfer occurring between the gelatin and BC fibrils was quantified using Raman spectroscopy. This is the first report for a gelatin–matrix composite containing cellulose. As a function of strain, two distinct domains, both showing linear relationships, were observed for which an average initial shift rate with respect to strain of −0.63 ± 0.2 cm–1%–1 was observed, followed by an average shift rate of −0.25 ± 0.03 cm–1%–1. The average initial Raman band shift rate value corresponds to an average effective Young’s modulus of 39 ± 13 GPa and 73 ± 25 GPa, respectively, for either a 2D and 3D network of BC fibrils embedded in the gelatin matrix. As a function of stress, a linear relationship was observed with a Raman band shift rate of −27 ± 3 cm–1GPa–1. The potential use of these composite materials as a UV blocking food coating is discussed.

    Lee K-Y, Bismarck A, 2015,

    Single step functionalization of celluloses with differing degrees of reactivity as a route for in situ production of all-cellulose nanocomposites

    , NANOCOMPOSITES, Vol: 1, Pages: 214-222, ISSN: 2055-0324
    Mautner A, Lee K-Y, Tammelin T, Mathew AP, Nedoma AJ, Li K, Bismarck Aet al., 2015,

    Cellulose nanopapers as tight aqueous ultra-filtration membranes

    , REACTIVE & FUNCTIONAL POLYMERS, Vol: 86, Pages: 209-214, ISSN: 1381-5148
    Lee K-Y, Aitomaki Y, Berglund LA, Oksman K, Bismarck Aet al., 2014,

    On the use of nanocellulose as reinforcement in polymer matrix composites

    , COMPOSITES SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 105, Pages: 15-27, ISSN: 0266-3538
    Lee K-Y, Blaker JJ, Heng JYY, Murakami R, Bismarck Aet al., 2014,

    pH-triggered phase inversion and separation of hydrophobised bacterial cellulose stabilised Pickering emulsions

    , REACTIVE & FUNCTIONAL POLYMERS, Vol: 85, Pages: 208-213, ISSN: 1381-5148
    Montrikittiphant T, Tang M, Lee K-Y, Williams CK, Bismarck Aet al., 2014,

    Bacterial Cellulose Nanopaper as Reinforcement for Polylactide Composites: Renewable Thermoplastic NanoPaPreg

    , MACROMOLECULAR RAPID COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 35, Pages: 1640-1645, ISSN: 1022-1336
    Blaker JJ, Lee K-Y, Walters M, Drouet M, Bismarck Aet al., 2014,

    Aligned unidirectional PLA/bacterial cellulose nanocomposite fibre reinforced PDLLA composites

    , Reactive & Functional Polymers, Vol: 85, Pages: 185-192, ISSN: 1381-5148

    In an effort to enhance the properties of polylactide (PLA), we have developed melt-spinning techniques to produce both PLA/nanocellulose composite fibres, and a method akin to layered filament winding followed by compression moulding to produce self-reinforced PLA/nanocellulose composites. Poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) fibres were filled with 2 wt.% neat and modified bacterial cellulose (BC) in an effort to improve the tensile properties over neat PLA fibres. BC increased the viscosity of the polymer melt and reduced the draw-ratio of the fibres, resulting in increased fibre diameters. Nonetheless, strain induced chain orientation due to melt spinning led to PLLA fibres with enhanced tensile modulus (6 GPa) and strength (127 MPa), over monolithic PLLA, previously measured at 1.3 GPa and 61 MPa, respectively. The presence of BC also enhanced the nucleation and growth of crystals in PLA. We further produced PLA fibres with 7 wt.% cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), which is higher than the percolation threshold (equivalent to 6 vol.%). These fibres were spun in multiple, alternating controlled layers onto spools, and subsequently compression moulded to produce unidirectional self-reinforced PLA composites consisting of 60 vol.% PLLA fibres reinforced with 7 wt.% CNC in a matrix of amorphous PDLLA, which itself contained 7 wt.% of CNC. We observed improvements in viscoelastic properties of up to 175% in terms of storage moduli in bending. Furthermore, strains to failure for PLLA fibre reinforced PDLLA were recorded at 17%.

    Yata T, Lee K-Y, Dharakul T, Songsivilai S, Bismarck A, Mintz PJ, Hajitou Aet al., 2014,

    Hybrid Nanomaterial Complexes for Advanced Phage-guided Gene Delivery

    Lee K-Y, Bismarck A, 2014,

    Advanced bacterial cellulose composites

    , Handbook of Green Materials: Processing Technologies, Properties and Applications (in 4 Volumes), Editors: Oksman, Mathew, Bismarck, ISBN: 9789814566452
    Lee K-Y, Bismarck A, 2014,

    Chemical surface modification and adhesion of nanocellulose

    , Handbook of Green Materials: Processing Technologies, Properties and Applications (in 4 Volumes), Editors: Oksman, Mathew, Bismarck, ISBN: 9789814566452
    Lee K-Y, Bismarck A, 2014,

    Handbook of Green Materials (volume 3): Processing Technologies, Properties and Applications

    , Handbook of Green Materials: Processing Technologies, Properties and Applications (in 4 Volumes), Editors: Oksman, Mathew, Bismarck, ISBN: 9789814566452
    Lee K-Y, Shamsuddin SR, Fortea-Verdejo M, Bismarck Aet al., 2014,

    Manufacturing Of Robust Natural Fiber Preforms Utilizing Bacterial Cellulose as Binder

    , Jove-Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN: 1940-087X
    Lee K-Y, Blaker JJ, Murakami R, Heng JYY, Bismarck Aet al., 2014,

    Phase Behavior of Medium and High Internal Phase Water-in-Oil Emulsions Stabilized Solely by Hydrophobized Bacterial Cellulose Nanofibrils

    , LANGMUIR, Vol: 30, Pages: 452-460, ISSN: 0743-7463
    Lee K-Y, Buldum G, Mantalaris A, Bismarck Aet al., 2014,

    More Than Meets the Eye in Bacterial Cellulose: Biosynthesis, Bioprocessing, and Applications in Advanced Fiber Composites

    , MACROMOLECULAR BIOSCIENCE, Vol: 14, Pages: 10-32, ISSN: 1616-5187
    Mautner A, Lee K-Y, Lahtinen P, Hakalahti M, Tammelin T, Li K, Bismarck Aet al., 2014,

    Nanopapers for organic solvent nanofiltration

    , CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 50, Pages: 5778-5781, ISSN: 1359-7345
    Lau THM, Wong LLC, Lee K-Y, Bismarck Aet al., 2013,

    Tailored for simplicity: creating high porosity, high performance bio-based macroporous polymers from foam templates

    , Green Chemistry, Vol: 16, Pages: 1931-1940, ISSN: 1744-1560

    Mechanical frothing can be used to create gas–liquid monomer foams, which can then be subsequently polymerised to produce macroporous polymers. Until recently, this technique was limited to producing low porosity macroporous polymers with poor pore morphology and compression properties. In this study, we show that high porosity (75–80%) biobased macroporous polymers with excellent mechanical compression properties (E = 163 MPa, σ = 4.9 MPa) can be produced by curing of epoxy resin foams made by mechanical frothing. The key to this is to utilise the very viscous nature and very short working time of a biobased epoxy resin. It was found that increasing the frothing time of the biobased epoxy resin reduces the pore diameter of the resulting macroporous polymers. These macroporous polymers were also found to be partially interconnected. The compression properties of the macroporous polymers with smaller average pore diameter were found to be higher than those of foams with larger pore diameters. Unlike emulsion templating, which uses high internal phase emulsions to produce macroporous polymers, called polyHIPEs, the mechanical frothing technique has the advantage of creating macroporous polymers from monomers which cannot be easily emulsified.

    Tang M, Purcell M, Steele JAM, Lee K-Y, McCullen S, Shakesheff KM, Bismarck A, Stevens MM, Howdle SM, Williams CKet al., 2013,

    Porous Copolymers of epsilon-Caprolactone as Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

    , MACROMOLECULES, Vol: 46, Pages: 8136-8143, ISSN: 0024-9297
    Seydibeyoglu MO, Misra M, Mohanty A, Blaker JJ, Lee K-Y, Bismarck A, Kazemizadeh Met al., 2013,

    Green polyurethane nanocomposites from soy polyol and bacterial cellulose

    , JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE, Vol: 48, Pages: 2167-2175, ISSN: 0022-2461
    Lee K-Y, Qian H, Tay FH, Blaker JJ, Kazarian SG, Bismarck Aet al., 2013,

    Bacterial cellulose as source for activated nanosized carbon for electric double layer capacitors

    , JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE, Vol: 48, Pages: 367-376, ISSN: 0022-2461
    Quero F, Eichhorn SJ, Nogi M, Yano H, Lee K-Y, Bismarck Aet al., 2012,

    Interfaces in Cross-Linked and Grafted Bacterial Cellulose/Poly(Lactic Acid) Resin Composites

    , JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 20, Pages: 916-925, ISSN: 1566-2543
    Lee K-Y, Bharadia P, Blaker JJ, Bismarck Aet al., 2012,

    Short sisal fibre reinforced bacterial cellulose polylactide nanocomposites using hairy sisal fibres as reinforcement

    Lee K-Y, Tang M, Williams CK, Bismarck Aet al., 2012,

    Carbohydrate derived copoly(lactide) as the compatibilizer for bacterial cellulose reinforced polylactide nanocomposites

    , COMPOSITES SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 72, Pages: 1646-1650, ISSN: 0266-3538
    Lee K-Y, Ho KKC, Schlufter K, Bismarck Aet al., 2012,

    Hierarchical composites reinforced with robust short sisal fibre preforms utilising bacterial cellulose as binder

    , COMPOSITES SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 72, Pages: 1479-1486, ISSN: 0266-3538
    Bismarck A, Burgstaller C, Lee KY, Madsen B, Muessig J, Santulli C, Scarponi Cet al., 2012,

    Recent Progress in Natural Fibre Composites: Selected Papers from the 3rd International Conference on Innovative Natural Fibre Composites for Industrial Applications, Ecocomp 2011 and BEPS 2011

    , JOURNAL OF BIOBASED MATERIALS AND BIOENERGY, Vol: 6, Pages: 343-345, ISSN: 1556-6560
    Lee K-Y, Tammelin T, Schulfter K, Kiiskinen H, Samela J, Bismarck Aet al., 2012,

    High Performance Cellulose Nanocomposites: Comparing the Reinforcing Ability of Bacterial Cellulose and Nanofibrillated Cellulose

    , ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, Vol: 4, Pages: 4078-4086, ISSN: 1944-8244
    Lee K-Y, Bismarck A, 2012,

    Susceptibility of never-dried and freeze-dried bacterial cellulose towards esterification with organic acid

    , CELLULOSE, Vol: 19, Pages: 891-900, ISSN: 0969-0239
    Shamsuddin S-R, Ho KKC, Lee K-Y, Hodgkinson JM, Bismarck Aet al., 2012,

    Carbon fibres: Properties, testing and analysis

    , Wiley Encyclopedia of Composites, 5 Volume Set, Editors: Nicolais, Borzacchiello, Lee, Publisher: Wiley, ISBN: 9780470128282

    Written by prominent international experts from industry and academia, the Wiley Encyclopedia of Composites, Second Edition presents over 260 new and revised articles addressing the new technological advances in properties, processing, ...

    Lee K-Y, Bharadia P, Bismarck A, 2012,

    Nanocellulose surface coated support material

    , US9193130
    Ege D, Lee K, Bismarck A, Best S, Cameron Ret al., 2012,

    Evaluation of the degradation properties of carbonate substituted hydroxyapatite-poly(ε-caprolactone) composites

    , Key Engineering Materials, Vol: 493-494, Pages: 120-125, ISSN: 1013-9826

    The aim of this work is to produce and characterise carbonate substituted hydroxyapatite (CHA) reinforced polycaprolactone (PCL) nanocomposites with a controlled degradation rate in order to match the rate of bone in-growth. The ideal degradation time for this purpose is estimated to be around 5-6 months however, in vivo, PCL degrades over a period of 2 to 3 years. It has been reported that NaOH surface treatment can accelerate the degradation of PCL [1-3]. In order to further modify the degradation rate of PCL, the effects of the incorporation of different volume fractions of CHA in samples surface treated with NaOH was investigated. CHA was produced by wet chemical synthesis. Samples comprising 8, 19, 25 wt% uncalcined CHA-PCL composites were produced by twin screw extrusion which were then injection moulded into cylinders. In order to accelerate the degradation rate of PCL, it was surface treated with 5 M NaOH for 3 days prior to PBS studies. The degradation profile was examined by % weight loss and % water uptake measurements. NaOH treatment was observed to erode the polymer surface and the polymer-filler interface. On subsequently degrading the pre-treated samples in PBS, it was observed that with increasing fraction of CHA, the degradation rate in PBS of the sample increased. Up to 8 wt % CHA filler there appeared to be little change in the degradation properties of the NaOH treated samples with the onset occurring after 60 days. However there was a marked acceleration of degradation for samples containing 19 wt% when degradation appeared to occur immediately. In conclusion, the addition of CHA significantly affects the behaviour of PCL. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications.

    Lee K-Y, Quero F, Blaker JJ, Hill CAS, Eichhorn SJ, Bismarck Aet al., 2011,

    Surface only modification of bacterial cellulose nanofibres with organic acids

    , CELLULOSE, Vol: 18, Pages: 595-605, ISSN: 0969-0239

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