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  • Journal article
    Shaheen AF, Bull AMJ, Alexander CM, 2015,

    Rigid and Elastic taping changes scapular kinematics and pain in subjects with shoulder impingement syndrome; an experimental study

    , JOURNAL OF ELECTROMYOGRAPHY AND KINESIOLOGY, Vol: 25, Pages: 84-92, ISSN: 1050-6411
  • Journal article
    Bonner TJ, Newell N, Karunaratne A, Pullen AD, Amis AA, Bull AMJ, Masouros SDet al., 2015,

    Strain-rate sensitivity of the lateral collateral ligament of the knee

    , JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS, Vol: 41, Pages: 261-270, ISSN: 1751-6161
  • Journal article
    Cleather DJ, Southgate DFL, Bull AMJ, 2014,

    On the Role of the Patella, ACL and Joint Contact Forces in the Extension of the Knee

    , PLoS ONE, Vol: 9, ISSN: 1932-6203

    Traditional descriptions of the knee suggest that the function of the patella is tofacilitate knee extension by increasing the moment arm of the quadriceps muscles.Through modelling and evidence from the literature it is shown in this paper that thepresence of the patella makes the ability of the quadriceps to rotate the thighgreater than their ability to rotate the tibia. Furthermore, this difference increases asthe knee is flexed, thus demonstrating a pattern that is consistent with many humanmovements. This paper also shows that the anterior cruciate ligament plays apreviously unheralded role in extending the shank and that translation at thetibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints is important in improving the capacity for thighrotation when the knee is flexed. This study provides new insights as to how thestructure of the knee is adapted to its purpose and illustrates how the functionalanatomy of the knee contributes to its extension function.

  • Journal article
    Cleather DJ, Southgate DFL, Bull AMJ, 2014,

    The role of the biarticular hamstrings and gastrocnemius muscles in closed chain lower limb extension

    , Journal of Theoretical Biology

    The role of the biarticular muscles is a topic that has received considerable attention however their function is not well understood. In this paper, we argue that an analysis that is based upon considering the effect of the biarticular muscles on the segments that they span (rather than their effect on joint rotations) can be illuminating. We demonstrate that this understanding is predicated on a consideration of the relative sizes of the moment arms of a biarticular muscle about the two joints that it crosses. The weight of the previous literature suggests that the moment arms of both the biarticular hamstrings and gastrocnemius are smaller at the knee than at the hip or ankle (respectively). This in turn leads to the conclusion that both biarticular hamstrings and gastrocnemius are extensors of the lower limb. We show that the existence of these biarticular structures lends a degree of flexibility to the motor control strategies available for lower limb extension. In particular, the role of the gastrocnemius and biarticular hamstrings in permitting a large involvement of the quadriceps musculature in closed chain lower limb extension may be more important than is typically portrayed. Finally, the analysis presented in this paper demonstrates the importance of considering the effects of muscles on the body as a whole, not just on the joints they span.

  • Journal article
    Prinold JAI, Bull AMJ, 2014,

    Scaling and kinematics optimisation of the scapula and thorax in upper limb musculoskeletal models

    , Journal of Biomechanics, Vol: 47, Pages: 2813-2819, ISSN: 0021-9290

    Accurate representation of individual scapula kinematics and subject geometries is vital in musculoskeletal models applied to upper limb pathology and performance. In applying individual kinematics to a model׳s cadaveric geometry, model constraints are commonly prescriptive. These rely on thorax scaling to effectively define the scapula׳s path but do not consider the area underneath the scapula in scaling, and assume a fixed conoid ligament length. These constraints may not allow continuous solutions or close agreement with directly measured kinematics.A novel method is presented to scale the thorax based on palpated scapula landmarks. The scapula and clavicle kinematics are optimised with the constraint that the scapula medial border does not penetrate the thorax. Conoid ligament length is not used as a constraint. This method is simulated in the UK National Shoulder Model and compared to four other methods, including the standard technique, during three pull-up techniques (n=11). These are high-performance activities covering a large range of motion.Model solutions without substantial jumps in the joint kinematics data were improved from 23% of trials with the standard method, to 100% of trials with the new method. Agreement with measured kinematics was significantly improved (more than 10° closer at p<0.001) when compared to standard methods. The removal of the conoid ligament constraint and the novel thorax scaling correction factor were shown to be key. Separation of the medial border of the scapula from the thorax was large, although this may be physiologically correct due to the high loads and high arm elevation angles.

  • Journal article
    Eftaxiopoulou T, Macdonald W, Britzman D, Bull AMJet al., 2014,

    Gait compensations in rats after a temporary nerve palsy quantified using temporo-spatial and kinematic parameters

    , JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE METHODS, Vol: 232, Pages: 16-23, ISSN: 0165-0270
  • Journal article
    Buckeridge EM, Bull AMJ, McGregor AH, 2014,

    Biomechanical determinants of elite rowing technique and performance

    , Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, Vol: 25, Pages: e176-e183, ISSN: 0905-7188
  • Journal article
    Gupte CM, Schaerf DA, Sandison A, Bull AMJ, Amis AAet al., 2014,

    Neural Structures within Human Meniscofemoral Ligaments: A Cadaveric Study.

    , ISRN Anatomy, Vol: 2014, ISSN: 2314-4726

    Aim. To investigate the existence of neural structures within the meniscofemoral ligaments (MFLs) of the human knee. Methods. The MFLs from 8 human cadaveric knees were harvested. 5 μm sections were H&E-stained and examined under light microscopy. The harvested ligaments were then stained using an S100 monoclonal antibody utilising the ABC technique to detect neural components. Further examination was performed on 60–80 nm sections under electron microscopy. Results. Of the 8 knees, 6 were suitable for examination. From these both MFLs existed in 3, only anterior MFLs were present in 2, and an isolated posterior MFL existed in 1. Out of the 9 MFLs, 4 demonstrated neural structures on light and electron microscopy and this was confirmed with S100 staining. The ultrastructure of these neural components was morphologically similar to mechanoreceptors. Conclusion. Neural structures are present in MFLs near to their meniscal attachments. It is likely that the meniscofemoral ligaments contribute not only as passive secondary restraints to posterior draw but more importantly to proprioception and may therefore play an active role in providing a neurosensory feedback loop. This may be particularly important when the primary restraint has reduced function as in the posterior cruciate ligament—deficient human knee.

  • Journal article
    Stoddard JE, Deehan DJ, Bull AMJ, McCaskie AW, Amis AAet al., 2014,

    No difference in patellar tracking between symmetrical and asymmetrical femoral component designs in TKA

    , KNEE SURGERY SPORTS TRAUMATOLOGY ARTHROSCOPY, Vol: 22, Pages: 534-542, ISSN: 0942-2056
  • Conference paper
    Grigoriadis G, Newell N, Masouros SD, Bull AMJet al., 2014,

    The material properties of the human heel fat pad across strain-rates: An inverse finite element approach

    , Pages: 478-479

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