381 results found
Balcombe P, Brandon NP, Hawkes AD, 2018, Characterising the distribution of methane and carbon dioxide emissions from the natural gas supply chain, JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, Vol: 172, Pages: 2019-2032, ISSN: 0959-6526
Balcombe P, Speirs J, Johnson E, et al., 2018, The carbon credentials of hydrogen gas networks and supply chains, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol: 91, Pages: 1077-1088, ISSN: 1364-0321
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Projections of decarbonisation pathways have typically involved reducing dependence on natural gas grids via greater electrification of heat using heat pumps or even electric heaters. However, many technical, economic and consumer barriers to electrification of heat persist. The gas network holds value in relation to flexibility of operation, requiring simpler control and enabling less expensive storage. There may be value in retaining and repurposing gas infrastructure where there are feasible routes to decarbonisation. This study quantifies and analyses the decarbonisation potential associated with the conversion of gas grids to deliver hydrogen, focusing on supply chains. Routes to produce hydrogen for gas grids are categorised as: reforming natural gas with (or without) carbon capture and storage (CCS); gasification of coal with (or without) CCS; gasification of biomass with (or without) CCS; electrolysis using low carbon electricity. The overall range of greenhouse gas emissions across routes is extremely large, from − 371 to 642 gCO 2 eq/kW h H2 . Therefore, when including supply chain emissions, hydrogen can have a range of carbon intensities and cannot be assumed to be low carbon. Emissions estimates for natural gas reforming with CCS lie in the range of 23–150 g/kW h H2 , with CCS typically reducing CO 2 emissions by 75%. Hydrogen from electrolysis ranges from 24 to 178 gCO 2 eq/kW h H2 for renewable electricity sources, where wind electricity results in the lowest CO 2 emissions. Solar PV electricity typically exhibits higher emissions and varies significantly by geographical region. The emissions from upstream supply chains is a major contributor to total emissions and varies considerably across different routes to hydrogen. Biomass gasification is characterised by very large negative emissions in the supply chain and very large positive emissions in the gasification process. Therefore, improvements in total emissions
Chen Z, Wang X, Brandon N, et al., 2018, Numerical Study of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Contacting Mechanics, FUEL CELLS, Vol: 18, Pages: 42-50, ISSN: 1615-6846
Few S, Schmidt O, Offer GJ, et al., 2018, Prospective improvements in cost and cycle life of off-grid lithium-ion battery packs: An analysis informed by expert elicitations, ENERGY POLICY, Vol: 114, Pages: 578-590, ISSN: 0301-4215
Hack J, Heenan TMM, Iacoviello F, et al., 2018, A Structure and Durability Comparison of Membrane Electrode Assembly Fabrication Methods: Self-Assembled Versus Hot-Pressed, JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 165, Pages: F3045-F3052, ISSN: 0013-4651
Mazur C, Offer GJ, Contestabile M, et al., 2018, Comparing the Effects of Vehicle Automation, Policy-Making and Changed User Preferences on the Uptake of Electric Cars and Emissions from Transport, SUSTAINABILITY, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2071-1050
Song B, Ruiz-Trejo E, Bertei A, et al., 2018, Quantification of the degradation of Ni-YSZ anodes upon redox cycling, JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, Vol: 374, Pages: 61-68, ISSN: 0378-7753
Song B, Ruiz-Trejo E, Brandon NP, 2018, Enhanced mechanical stability of Ni-YSZ scaffold demonstrated by nanoindentation and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Journal of Power Sources, Vol: 395, Pages: 205-211, ISSN: 0378-7753
© 2018 The Authors The electrochemical performance of Ni-YSZ SOFC anodes can quickly degrade during redox cycling. Mechanical damage at interfaces significantly decreases the number of active triple phase boundaries. This study firstly focuses on the sintering temperature impact on YSZ scaffold mechanical properties. The YSZ scaffold sintered at 1200 °C exhibited 56% porosity, 28.3 GPa elastic modulus and 0.97 GPa hardness and was selected for further redox cycling study. The Ni infiltrated YSZ scaffold operated at 550 °C had an initial stabilized polarisation resistance equal to 0.62 Ω cm 2 and only degraded to 2.85 Ω cm 2 after 15 redox cycles. The active triple phase boundary density was evaluated by FIB-SEM tomography, and degraded from 28.54 μm −2 to 19.36 μm −2 . The YSZ scaffold structure was robust after 15 redox cycles, as there was no observation of the framework fracturing in both SEM and FIB-SEM images, which indicated that the mechanical stability of YSZ scaffold improves the anode stability during redox cycling. Nonetheless, Ni agglomeration could not be prevented within Ni-YSZ scaffolds and this needs further consideration.
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd There is an ongoing debate over future decarbonisation of gas networks using biomethane, and increasingly hydrogen, in gas network infrastructure. Some emerging research presents gas network decarbonisation options as a tractable alternative to ‘all-electric’ scenarios that use electric appliances to deliver the traditional gas services such as heating and cooking. However, there is some uncertainty as to the technical feasibility, cost and carbon emissions of gas network decarbonisation options. In response to this debate the Sustainable Gas Institute at Imperial College London has conducted a rigorous systematic review of the evidence surrounding gas network decarbonisation options. The study focuses on the technologies used to generate biomethane and hydrogen, and examines the technical potentials, economic costs and emissions associated with the full supply chains involved. The following summarises the main findings of this research. The report concludes that there are a number of options that could significantly decarbonise the gas network, and doing so would provide energy system flexibility utilising existing assets. However, these options will be more expensive than the existing gas system, and the GHG intensity of these options may vary significantly. In addition, more research is required, particularly in relation to the capabilities of existing pipework to transport hydrogen safely.
Balcombe P, Anderson K, Speirs J, et al., 2017, The Natural Gas Supply Chain: The Importance of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING, Vol: 5, Pages: 3-20, ISSN: 2168-0485
Bertei A, Ruiz-Trejo E, Kareh K, et al., 2017, The fractal nature of the three-phase boundary: A heuristic approach to the degradation of nanostructured solid oxide fuel cell anodes, NANO ENERGY, Vol: 38, Pages: 526-536, ISSN: 2211-2855
Bertei A, Tariq F, Yufit V, et al., 2017, Guidelines for the Rational Design and Engineering of 3D Manufactured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Composite Electrodes, JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 164, Pages: F89-F98, ISSN: 0013-4651
Biton M, Tariq F, Yufit V, et al., 2017, Integrating multi-length scale high resolution 3D imaging and modelling in the characterisation and identification of mechanical failure sites in electrochemical dendrites, ACTA MATERIALIA, Vol: 141, Pages: 39-46, ISSN: 1359-6454
Biton M, Yufit V, Tariq F, et al., 2017, Enhanced Imaging of Lithium Ion Battery Electrode Materials, JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 164, Pages: A6032-A6038, ISSN: 0013-4651
Brandon N, Hagen A, Dawson R, et al., 2017, “Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, Electrolyzers and Reactors: From Development to Delivery – EFCF2016”, Fuel Cells, Vol: 17, ISSN: 1615-6846
Brandon NP, Kurban Z, 2017, Clean energy and the hydrogen economy, PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY A-MATHEMATICAL PHYSICAL AND ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Vol: 375, ISSN: 1364-503X
Brandon NP, Ruiz-Trejo E, Boldrin P, 2017, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Lifetime and Reliability: Critical Challenges in Fuel Cells, ISBN: 9780128097243
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Lifetime and Reliability: Critical Challenges in Fuel Cells presents in one volume the most recent research that aims at solving key issues for the deployment of SOFC at a commercial scale and for a wider range of applications. To achieve that, authors from different regions and backgrounds address topics such as electrolytes, contaminants, redox cycling, gas-tight seals, and electrode microstructure. Lifetime issues for particular elements of the fuel cells, like cathodes, interconnects, and fuel processors, are covered as well as new materials. They also examine the balance of SOFC plants, correlations between structure and electrochemical performance, methods for analysis of performance and degradation assessment, and computational and statistical approaches to quantify degradation. For its holistic approach, this book can be used both as an introduction to these issues and a reference resource for all involved in research and application of solid oxide fuel cells, especially those developing understanding in industrial applications of the lifetime issues. This includes researchers in academia and industrial R & D, graduate students and professionals in energy engineering, electrochemistry, and materials sciences for energy applications. It might also be of particular interest to analysts who are looking into integrating SOFCs into energy systems. Brings together in a single volume leading research and expert thinking around the broad topic of SOFC lifetime and durability. Explores issues that affect solid oxide fuel cells elements, materials, and systems with a holistic approach. Provides a practical reference for overcoming some of the common failure mechanisms of SOFCs. Features coverage of integrating SOFCs into energy systems.
Chakrabarti B, Nir D, Yufit V, et al., 2017, Performance Enhancement of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified Carbon Electrodes for Vanadium Redox-Flow Systems, CHEMELECTROCHEM, Vol: 4, Pages: 194-200, ISSN: 2196-0216
Chen J, Bertei A, Ruiz-Trejo E, et al., 2017, Characterization of Degradation in Nickel Impregnated Scandia-Stabilize Zirconia Electrodes during Isothermal Annealing, JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 164, Pages: F935-F943, ISSN: 0013-4651
Chen J, Ruiz-Trejo E, Atkinson A, et al., 2017, Microstructural and electrochemical characterisation of degradation in nickel impregnated scandia-stabilised zirconia electrode during isothermal annealing, Pages: 1125-1137, ISSN: 1938-5862
© The Electrochemical Society. In this study, we examine the degradation of nickel impregnated scandia-stabilised zirconia (ScSZ) electrode in wet hydrogen at a working temperature of SOFCs. Continuous van der Pauw measurement was carried out when the electrode was aged at 650oC in an atmosphere with 5 vol% hydrogen and 95 vol% nitrogen. A fall in sheet conductivity was found in the electrode during ageing within 1000 min. Electrochemical impedance spectra were collected at a constant time intervals during isothermal annealing at 650oC, 800oC and 950oC for the impregnated electrode, at open circuit. Three resistance contributions were decoupled by equivalent circuit fitting, i.e. the ohmic resistance, the anodic reaction resistance, and the gas diffusion resistance. Secondary electron images of electrodes before and after ageing showed an increase in nickel particle size and a decrease in the number of particles, providing microstructural evidence of coarsening. Nickel coarsening was identified as the main mechanism of degradation for the electrode in wet hydrogen.
Chen X, Liu X, Childs P, et al., 2017, A Low Cost Desktop Electrochemical Metal 3D Printer, ADVANCED MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2365-709X
Chen Y, Ji L, Brandon N, et al., 2017, A study on the flow field design of lead flow batteries, Pages: 199-200
Chen Z, Atkinson A, Brandon N, 2017, Characterization of deformation and damage in porous sofc components via spherical indentation and simulation, Pages: 143-157, ISSN: 0196-6219
© 2017 by The American Ceramic Society. The aim of this work is to present the methodology to characterize deformation and contact damage initiation and evolution in porous bulk and film components used in solid oxide fuel cells, based on indentation and simulation. Spherical indentation tests at a broad range of loads (50-10000 mN) were carried out on porous bulk and film electrodes with different levels of porosity, and on bilayer system. An axisymmetric model based on the Gurson model used for porous materials was developed to simulate the indentation processes. Elasticity and hardness of each component were reliably determined via both experiments and modelling. Inverse analysis via comparison of experimental indentation response curves and simulation-generated curves shows a very different relation between hardness and yield stress, compared with dense materials. Cracking behaviour was examined and appropriately explained by FEM results. Further insight of the deformation and damage behaviour was also obtained based on microstructural study using FIB-SEM. Overall, the study shows that the model developed in this work is highly applicable for the description the deformation and damage characteristics in porous bulk and film ceramics.
Chen Z, Wang X, Brandon N, et al., 2017, Analysis of spherical indentation of porous ceramic films, JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Vol: 37, Pages: 1031-1038, ISSN: 0955-2219
Chen Z, Wang X, Brandon N, et al., 2017, Spherical indentation of bilayer ceramic structures: Dense layer on porous substrate, JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Vol: 37, Pages: 4763-4772, ISSN: 0955-2219
Cooper SJ, Brandon NP, 2017, An Introduction to Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Materials, Technology and Applications, ISBN: 9780128097243
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This chapter begins with a brief history of fuel cell development and introduces solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) as high efficiency energy conversion devices. Following this the fundamentals of SOFC performance and cell design are explored, with special focus given to the significance of operating temperature and microstructure. Next the current commercial status of SOFCs is outlined in brief. Finally, SOFC degradation, the major theme of this book, is introduced; the various mechanisms are split into the two broad categories of physical and chemical degradation.
Cooper SJ, brandon NP, 2017, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Lifetime and Reliability, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Lifetime and Reliability Critical Challenges in Fuel Cells, Editors: Ruiz-Trejo, BOLDRIN, Publisher: Academic Press, Pages: 1-15, ISBN: 9780128097243
For its holistic approach, this book can be used both as an introduction to these issues and a reference resource for all involved in research and application of solid oxide fuel cells, especially those developing understanding in ...
Jais AA, Ali SAM, Anwar M, et al., 2017, Enhanced ionic conductivity of scandia-ceria-stabilized-zirconia (10Sc1CeSZ) electrolyte synthesized by the microwave-assisted glycine nitrate process, CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 43, Pages: 8119-8125, ISSN: 0272-8842
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