367 results found
Song B, Ruiz-Trejo E, Bertei A, et al., 2018, Quantification of the degradation of Ni-YSZ anodes upon redox cycling, Journal of Power Sources, Vol: 374, Pages: 61-68, ISSN: 0378-7753
© 2017 The Authors Ni-YSZ anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells are vulnerable to microstructural damage during redox cycling leading to a decrease in the electrochemical performance. This study quantifies the microstructural changes as a function of redox cycles at 800 °C and associates it to the deterioration of the mechanical properties and polarisation resistance. A physically-based model is used to estimate the triple-phase boundary (TPB) length from impedance spectra, and satisfactorily matches the TPB length quantified by FIB-SEM tomography: within 20 redox cycles, the TPB density decreases from 4.63 μm −2 to 1.06 μm −2 . Although the polarisation resistance increases by an order of magnitude after 20 cycles, after each re-reduction the electrode polarisation improves consistently due to the transient generation of Ni nanoparticles around the TPBs. Nonetheless, the long-term degradation overshadows this transient improvement due to the nickel agglomeration. In addition, FIB-SEM tomography reveals fractures along YSZ grain boundaries, Ni-YSZ detachment and increased porosity in the composite that lead to irreversible mechanical damage: the elastic modulus diminishes from 36.4 GPa to 20.2 GPa and the hardness from 0.40 GPa to 0.15 GPa. These results suggest that microstructural, mechanical and electrochemical properties are strongly interdependent in determining the degradation caused by redox cycling.
Balcombe P, Anderson K, Speirs J, et al., 2017, The Natural Gas Supply Chain: The Importance of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING, Vol: 5, Pages: 3-20, ISSN: 2168-0485
Balcombe P, Brandon NP, Hawkes AD, 2017, Characterising the distribution of methane and carbon dioxide emissions from the natural gas supply chain, Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN: 0959-6526
Methane and CO2 emissions from the natural gas supply chain have been shown to vary widely butthere is little understanding about the distribution of emissions across supply chain routes,processes, regions and operational practises. This study defines the distribution of total methaneand CO2 emissions from the natural gas supply chain, identifying the contribution from each stageand quantifying the effect of key parameters on emissions. The study uses recent high-resolutionemissions measurements with estimates of parameter distributions to build a probabilistic emissionsmodel for a variety of technological supply chain scenarios. The distribution of emissions resemblesa log-log-logistic distribution for most supply chain scenarios, indicating an extremely heavy tailedskew: median estimates which represent typical facilities are modest at 18 – 24 g CO2 eq./ MJ HHV,but mean estimates which account for the heavy tail are 22 – 107 g CO2 eq./ MJ HHV. To place thesevalues into context, emissions associated with natural gas combustion (e.g. for heat) areapproximately 55 g CO2/ MJ HHV. Thus, some supply chain scenarios are major contributors to totalgreenhouse gas emissions from natural gas. For methane-only emissions, median estimates are 0.8 –2.2% of total methane production, with mean emissions of 1.6 - 5.5%. The heavy tail distribution isthe signature of the disproportionately large emitting equipment known as super-emitters, whichappear at all stages of the supply chain. The study analyses the impact of different technologicaloptions and identifies a set of best technological option (BTO) scenarios. This suggests thatemissions-minimising technology can reduce supply chain emissions significantly, with this studyestimating median emissions of 0.9% of production. However, even with the emissions-minimisingtechnologies, evidence suggests that the influence of the super-emitters remains. Therefore,emissions-minimising technology is only part of the soluti
Bertei A, Ruiz-Trejo E, Kareh K, et al., 2017, The fractal nature of the three-phase boundary: A heuristic approach to the degradation of nanostructured solid oxide fuel cell anodes, NANO ENERGY, Vol: 38, Pages: 526-536, ISSN: 2211-2855
Bertei A, Tariq F, Yufit V, et al., 2017, Guidelines for the Rational Design and Engineering of 3D Manufactured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Composite Electrodes, JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 164, Pages: F89-F98, ISSN: 0013-4651
Biton M, Tariq F, Yufit V, et al., 2017, Integrating multi-length scale high resolution 3D imaging and modelling in the characterisation and identification of mechanical failure sites in electrochemical dendrites, ACTA MATERIALIA, Vol: 141, Pages: 39-46, ISSN: 1359-6454
Biton M, Yufit V, Tariq F, et al., 2017, Enhanced Imaging of Lithium Ion Battery Electrode Materials, JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 164, Pages: A6032-A6038, ISSN: 0013-4651
Brandon NP, Kurban Z, 2017, Clean energy and the hydrogen economy, PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY A-MATHEMATICAL PHYSICAL AND ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Vol: 375, ISSN: 1364-503X
Brandon NP, Ruiz-Trejo E, Boldrin P, 2017, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Lifetime and Reliability: Critical Challenges in Fuel Cells, ISBN: 9780128097243
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Lifetime and Reliability: Critical Challenges in Fuel Cells presents in one volume the most recent research that aims at solving key issues for the deployment of SOFC at a commercial scale and for a wider range of applications. To achieve that, authors from different regions and backgrounds address topics such as electrolytes, contaminants, redox cycling, gas-tight seals, and electrode microstructure. Lifetime issues for particular elements of the fuel cells, like cathodes, interconnects, and fuel processors, are covered as well as new materials. They also examine the balance of SOFC plants, correlations between structure and electrochemical performance, methods for analysis of performance and degradation assessment, and computational and statistical approaches to quantify degradation. For its holistic approach, this book can be used both as an introduction to these issues and a reference resource for all involved in research and application of solid oxide fuel cells, especially those developing understanding in industrial applications of the lifetime issues. This includes researchers in academia and industrial R & D, graduate students and professionals in energy engineering, electrochemistry, and materials sciences for energy applications. It might also be of particular interest to analysts who are looking into integrating SOFCs into energy systems. Brings together in a single volume leading research and expert thinking around the broad topic of SOFC lifetime and durability. Explores issues that affect solid oxide fuel cells elements, materials, and systems with a holistic approach. Provides a practical reference for overcoming some of the common failure mechanisms of SOFCs. Features coverage of integrating SOFCs into energy systems.
Chakrabarti B, Nir D, Yufit V, et al., 2017, Performance Enhancement of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified Carbon Electrodes for Vanadium Redox-Flow Systems, CHEMELECTROCHEM, Vol: 4, Pages: 194-200, ISSN: 2196-0216
Chen J, Bertei A, Ruiz-Trejo E, et al., 2017, Characterization of Degradation in Nickel Impregnated Scandia-Stabilize Zirconia Electrodes during Isothermal Annealing, JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 164, Pages: F935-F943, ISSN: 0013-4651
Chen J, Ruiz-Trejo E, Atkinson A, et al., 2017, Microstructural and electrochemical characterisation of degradation in nickel impregnated scandia-stabilised zirconia electrode during isothermal annealing, Pages: 1125-1137, ISSN: 1938-5862
© The Electrochemical Society. In this study, we examine the degradation of nickel impregnated scandia-stabilised zirconia (ScSZ) electrode in wet hydrogen at a working temperature of SOFCs. Continuous van der Pauw measurement was carried out when the electrode was aged at 650oC in an atmosphere with 5 vol% hydrogen and 95 vol% nitrogen. A fall in sheet conductivity was found in the electrode during ageing within 1000 min. Electrochemical impedance spectra were collected at a constant time intervals during isothermal annealing at 650oC, 800oC and 950oC for the impregnated electrode, at open circuit. Three resistance contributions were decoupled by equivalent circuit fitting, i.e. the ohmic resistance, the anodic reaction resistance, and the gas diffusion resistance. Secondary electron images of electrodes before and after ageing showed an increase in nickel particle size and a decrease in the number of particles, providing microstructural evidence of coarsening. Nickel coarsening was identified as the main mechanism of degradation for the electrode in wet hydrogen.
Chen X, Liu X, Childs P, et al., 2017, A Low Cost Desktop Electrochemical Metal 3D Printer, ADVANCED MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2365-709X
Chen Z, Wang X, Brandon N, et al., 2017, Analysis of spherical indentation of porous ceramic films, JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Vol: 37, Pages: 1031-1038, ISSN: 0955-2219
Chen Z, Wang X, Brandon N, et al., 2017, Spherical indentation of bilayer ceramic structures: Dense layer on porous substrate, JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Vol: 37, Pages: 4763-4772, ISSN: 0955-2219
Cooper SJ, Brandon NP, 2017, An Introduction to Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Materials, Technology and Applications, ISBN: 9780128097243
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This chapter begins with a brief history of fuel cell development and introduces solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) as high efficiency energy conversion devices. Following this the fundamentals of SOFC performance and cell design are explored, with special focus given to the significance of operating temperature and microstructure. Next the current commercial status of SOFCs is outlined in brief. Finally, SOFC degradation, the major theme of this book, is introduced; the various mechanisms are split into the two broad categories of physical and chemical degradation.
Cooper SJ, brandon NP, 2017, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Lifetime and Reliability, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Lifetime and Reliability Critical Challenges in Fuel Cells, Editors: Ruiz-Trejo, BOLDRIN, Publisher: Academic Press, Pages: 1-15, ISBN: 9780128097243
For its holistic approach, this book can be used both as an introduction to these issues and a reference resource for all involved in research and application of solid oxide fuel cells, especially those developing understanding in ...
Jais AA, Ali SAM, Anwar M, et al., 2017, Enhanced ionic conductivity of scandia-ceria-stabilized-zirconia (10Sc1CeSZ) electrolyte synthesized by the microwave-assisted glycine nitrate process, CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 43, Pages: 8119-8125, ISSN: 0272-8842
Jamil Z, Ruiz-Trejo E, Brandon NP, 2017, Nickel Electrodeposition on Silver for the Development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes and Catalytic Membranes, JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 164, Pages: D210-D217, ISSN: 0013-4651
Jing R, Wang M, Brandon N, et al., 2017, Multi-criteria evaluation of solid oxide fuel cell based combined cooling heating and power (SOFC-CCHP) applications for public buildings in China, Energy, Vol: 141, Pages: 273-289, ISSN: 0360-5442
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of solid oxide fuel cell based combined cooling heating and power (SOFC-CCHP) applications in public buildings of China from different perspectives. Operations of the natural gas fueled SOFC-CCHP systems for 20 years’ have been simulated for five categories of public buildings in five locations of China. Parallel simulations of combustion based CCHP systems and conventional system have been conducted for comparison. By single criterion assessment, SOFC-CCHP systems demonstrate outstanding performance on energy efficiency as well as reducing carbon emission, air pollution and human health damage cost. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) turns out to be competitive with commercial electricity price, but a long payback period (SPP) has also been identified. To further assess the overall performance of SOFC-CCHP systems, a multi-criteria assessment model has been developed by combining the gray relational analysis (GRA) approach and the entropy-weighting method. The result indicates that hospital, hotel, and supermarket achieve more benefits than office and school; warmer regions rank slightly higher than colder regions. In addition, sensitivity analysis has been performed on SPP and LCOE. Overall, this paper provides theoretical guidance and evaluation approach for SOFC-CCHP demonstrations in China.
Jing R, Wang M, Wang W, et al., 2017, Economic and environmental multi-optimal design and dispatch of solid oxide fuel cell based CCHP system, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol: 154, Pages: 365-379, ISSN: 0196-8904
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Combined cooling, heating and power system (CCHP) is an efficient alternative for building energy supply. Meanwhile, the advantages of high energy efficiency and low emission for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) make the technology a promising prime mover for CCHP systems. In this study, a SOFC based CCHP system design and operation optimization model has been developed using the Mixed Integer Non-linear Programming (MINLP) approach. The model provides two capacity sizing options of the fixed size (user specified), and the optimal sizing. In the fixed size option, four dispatch strategies are considered, namely baseload, day/night, full-load, and electrical load following. In the optimal sizing option, the installed capacity of devices and the dispatch strategy are both optimized. Moreover, multi-objective optimizations are also conducted to optimize two conflicting objectives simultaneously by the Ɛ-constraint method. The optimal results are displayed by Pareto frontiers and the most desired solutions have been identified and verified by two decision-making approaches of LINMAP and TOPSIS. To make the model applicable to real world operation, novel constraints including part-load efficiency, equipment on/off, and numbers of start constraints are applied. Finally, the proposed model is applied to a case study of a hospital in Shanghai, China considering state-of-the-art technical specifications, time-of-use energy pricing, and emission factors. The results indicate environmental advantages of SOFC based CCHP system. Moreover, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) identified by the proposed optimal design and dispatch model would be 0.17 $/kWh, which is lower than the conventional energy system.
Liu X, Wu B, Brandon N, et al., 2017, Tough Ionogel-in-Mask Hybrid Gel Electrolytes in Supercapacitors with Durable Pressure and Thermal Tolerances, ENERGY TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 5, Pages: 220-224, ISSN: 2194-4288
Mukerjee S, Leah R, Selby M, et al., 2017, Life and Reliability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Based Products: A Review, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Lifetime and Reliability: Critical Challenges in Fuel Cells, Pages: 173-191, ISBN: 9780128097243
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are a technology rapidly developing toward widespread commercialization, with hundreds of megawatts of generation capacity installed in the field for large-scale power generation (100. kW-1. MW), and small-scale distributed power generation ( < 5. kW scale) undergoing large precommercial field trials in Europe and Japan. Although rapidly improving, challenges still remain in achieving SOFC stack operating lives of up to 90,000. h at a cost competitive with more established power generation technology. This chapter provides a review of the current development status of the main SOFC developers and technology variants based on publicly available literature. The techniques being developed to accelerate technology development cycles by enabling lifetime prediction from relatively short-duration tests are also discussed.
Ouyang M, Boldrin P, Brandon NP, 2017, Methane pulse study on nickel impregnated gadolinium doped ceria, Pages: 1353-1366, ISSN: 1938-5862
© The Electrochemical Society. Ni/CGO was prepared via impregnation. A facile methane pulse experiment was performed on Ni/CGO under SOFC operating condition. The outlet gas was monitored by a quadrupole mass spectrometer. A Van-Mars Krevelen type mechanism was proposed for methane reaction on Ni/CGO and analyzed in detail. The method showed promising prospect in analyzing mechanism of hydrocarbon oxidation and the results provide a new insight in the strategy of preventing carbon deposition on nickel catalyst when operating as a SOFC anode materials.
Ruiz-Trejo E, Bertei A, Maserati A, et al., 2017, Oxygen Reduction, Transport and Separation in Low Silver Content Scandia-Stabilized Zirconia Composites, JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 164, Pages: F3045-F3054, ISSN: 0013-4651
Ruiz-Trejo E, Puolamaa M, Sum B, et al., 2017, New Method for the Deposition of Nickel Oxide in Porous Scaffolds for Electrodes in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers, CHEMSUSCHEM, Vol: 10, Pages: 258-265, ISSN: 1864-5631
Somalu MR, Muchtar A, Brandon NP, 2017, Properties of screen-printed nickel/scandia-stabilized-zirconia anodes fabricated using rheologically optimized inks during redox cycles, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE, Vol: 52, Pages: 7175-7185, ISSN: 0022-2461
Somalu MR, Muchtar A, Daud WRW, et al., 2017, Screen-printing inks for the fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell films: A review, RENEWABLE & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY REVIEWS, Vol: 75, Pages: 426-439, ISSN: 1364-0321
Speirs JF, balcombe P, johnson E, et al., 2017, A Greener Gas Grid: What Are the Options?
This data is extracted from the Web of Science and reproduced under a licence from Thomson Reuters. You may not copy or re-distribute this data in whole or in part without the written consent of the Science business of Thomson Reuters.