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  • Journal article
    Humphreys AM, Barraclough TG, 2014,

    The evolutionary reality of higher taxa in mammals

  • Journal article
    Frost GS, Walton GE, Swann JR, Psichas A, Costabile A, Johnson LP, Sponheimer M, Gibson GR, Barraclough TGet al., 2014,

    Impacts of Plant-Based Foods in Ancestral Hominin Diets on the Metabolism and Function of Gut Microbiota In Vitro

    , mBio, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2161-2129
  • Journal article
    Garcia RA, Cabeza M, Rahbek C, Araujo MBet al., 2014,

    Multiple Dimensions of Climate Change and Their Implications for Biodiversity

    , SCIENCE, Vol: 344, Pages: 486-+, ISSN: 0036-8075
  • Journal article
    Zaehle S, Medlyn BE, De Kauwe MG, Walker AP, Dietze MC, Hickler T, Luo Y, Wang Y-P, El-Masri B, Thornton P, Jain A, Wang S, Warlind D, Weng E, Parton W, Iversen CM, Gallet-Budynek A, McCarthy H, Finzi AC, Hanson PJ, Prentice IC, Oren R, Norby RJet al., 2014,

    Evaluation of 11 terrestrial carbon-nitrogen cycle models against observations from two temperate Free-Air CO2 Enrichment studies

    , NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Vol: 202, Pages: 803-822, ISSN: 0028-646X
  • Journal article
    Saslis-Lagoudakis CH, Hawkins JA, Greenhill SJ, Pendry CA, Watson MF, Tuladhar-Douglas W, Baral SR, Savolainen Vet al., 2014,

    The evolution of traditional knowledge: environment shapes medicinal plant use in Nepal

  • Journal article
    Garcia RA, Araujo MB, Burgess ND, Foden WB, Gutsche A, Rahbek C, Cabeza Met al., 2014,

    Matching species traits to projected threats and opportunities from climate change

    , JOURNAL OF BIOGEOGRAPHY, Vol: 41, Pages: 724-735, ISSN: 0305-0270
  • Journal article
    O'Loughlin SM, Magesa S, Mbogo C, Mosha F, Midega J, Lomas S, Burt Aet al., 2014,

    Genomic Analyses of Three Malaria Vectors Reveals Extensive Shared Polymorphism but Contrasting Population Histories

    , MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION, Vol: 31, Pages: 889-902, ISSN: 0737-4038
  • Journal article
    Davies TK, Mees CC, Milner-Gulland EJ, 2014,

    The past, present and future use of drifting fish aggregating devices (FADs) in the Indian Ocean

    , MARINE POLICY, Vol: 45, Pages: 163-170, ISSN: 0308-597X
  • Journal article
    Rosa IMD, Ahmed SE, Ewers RM, 2014,

    The transparency, reliability and utility of tropical rainforest land-use and land-cover change models

    , Glob Change Biol, Pages: n/a-n/a, ISSN: 1365-2486
  • Journal article
    Metcalf JL, Prost S, Nogues-Bravo D, DeChaine EG, Anderson C, Batra P, Araujo MB, Cooper A, Guralnick RPet al., 2014,

    Integrating multiple lines of evidence into historical biogeography hypothesis testing: a Bison bison case study

  • Journal article
    Knott EJ, Bunnefeld N, Huber D, Reljic S, Kerezi V, Milner-Gulland EJet al., 2014,

    The potential impacts of changes in bear hunting policy for hunting organisations in Croatia

    , EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE RESEARCH, Vol: 60, Pages: 85-97, ISSN: 1612-4642
  • Journal article
    Murchison EP, Wedge DC, Alexandrov LB, Fu B, Martincorena I, Ning Z, Tubio JMC, Werner EI, Allen J, De Nardi AB, Donelan EM, Marino G, Fassati A, Campbell PJ, Yang F, Burt A, Weiss RA, Stratton MRet al., 2014,

    Transmissable Dog Cancer Genome Reveals the Origin and History of an Ancient Cell Lineage

    , SCIENCE, Vol: 343, Pages: 437-440, ISSN: 0036-8075
  • Journal article
    Heuertz M, Duminil J, Dauby G, Savolainen V, Hardy OJet al., 2014,

    Comparative Phylogeography in Rainforest Trees from Lower Guinea, Africa

    , PLOS ONE, Vol: 9, ISSN: 1932-6203
  • Journal article
    Edwards CTT, Bunnefeld N, Balme GA, Milner-Gulland EJet al., 2014,

    Data-poor management of African lion hunting using a relative index of abundance

  • Journal article
    Araújo MB, Rozenfeld A, 2014,

    The geographic scaling of biotic interactions

    , Ecography, Vol: 37, Pages: 406-415, ISSN: 0906-7590

    A central tenet of ecology and biogeography is that the broad outlines of species ranges are determined by climate, whereas the effects of biotic interactions are manifested at local scales. While the first proposition is supported by ample evidence, the second is still a matter of controversy. To address this question, we develop a mathematical model that predicts the spatial overlap, i.e. co-occurrence, between pairs of species subject to all possible types of interactions. We then identify the scale of resolution in which predicted range overlaps are lost. We found that co-occurrence arising from positive interactions, such as mutualism (+/+) and commensalism (+/0), are manifested across scales. Negative interactions, such as competition (-/-) and amensalism (-/0), generate checkerboard patterns of co-occurrence that are discernible at finer resolutions but that are lost and increasing scales of resolution. Scale dependence in consumer-resource interactions (+/-) depends on the strength of positive dependencies between species. If the net positive effect is greater than the net negative effect, then interactions scale up similarly to positive interactions. Our results challenge the widely held view that climate alone is sufficient to characterize species distributions at broad scales, but also demonstrate that the spatial signature of competition is unlikely to be discernible beyond local and regional scales. © 2013 The Authors.

  • Journal article
    Nogues-Bravo D, Pulido F, Araujo MB, Diniz-Filho JAF, Garcia-Valdes R, Kollmann J, Svenning J-C, Valladares F, Zavala MAet al., 2014,

    Phenotypic correlates of potential range size and range filling in European trees

  • Journal article
    Jones IL, Bull JW, Milner-Gulland EJ, Esipov AV, Suttle KBet al., 2014,

    Quantifying habitat impacts of natural gas infrastructure to facilitate biodiversity offsetting

    , ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION, Vol: 4, Pages: 79-90, ISSN: 2045-7758
  • Journal article
    Valente LM, Britton AW, Powell MP, Papadopulos AST, Burgoyne PM, Savolainen Vet al., 2014,

    Correlates of hyperdiversity in southern African ice plants (Aizoaceae)

    , BOTANICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Vol: 174, Pages: 110-129, ISSN: 0024-4074
  • Journal article
    Woodhouse E, McGowan P, Milner-Gulland EJ, 2014,

    Fungal gold and firewood on the Tibetan plateau: examining access to diverse ecosystem provisioning services within a rural community

    , ORYX, Vol: 48, Pages: 30-38, ISSN: 0030-6053
  • Journal article
    Dyer RJ, Pellicer J, Savolainen V, Leitch IJ, Schneider Het al., 2013,

    Genome size expansion and the relationship between nuclear DNA content and spore size in the Asplenium monanthes fern complex (Aspleniaceae)

    , BMC PLANT BIOLOGY, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1471-2229
  • Journal article
    Prentice IC, Dong N, Gleason SM, Maire V, Wright IJet al., 2013,

    Balancing the costs of carbon gain and water transport: testing a new theoretical framework for plant functional ecology

    , Ecology Letters, Vol: 17, Pages: 82-91, ISSN: 1461-023X

    A novel framework is presented for the analysis of ecophysiological field measurements and modelling. The hypothesis ‘leaves minimise the summed unit costs of transpiration and carboxylation’ predicts leaf‐internal/ambient CO2 ratios (ci/ca) and slopes of maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) or leaf nitrogen (Narea) vs. stomatal conductance. Analysis of data on woody species from contrasting climates (cold‐hot, dry‐wet) yielded steeper slopes and lower mean ci/ca ratios at the dry or cold sites than at the wet or hot sites. High atmospheric vapour pressure deficit implies low ci/ca in dry climates. High water viscosity (more costly transport) and low photorespiration (less costly photosynthesis) imply low ci/ca in cold climates. Observed site‐mean ci/ca shifts are predicted quantitatively for temperature contrasts (by photorespiration plus viscosity effects) and approximately for aridity contrasts. The theory explains the dependency of ci/ca ratios on temperature and vapour pressure deficit, and observed relationships of leaf δ13C and Narea to aridity.

  • Journal article
    Bistinas I, Oom D, Sa ACL, Harrison SP, Prentice IC, Pereira JMCet al., 2013,

    Relationships between Human Population Density and Burned Area at Continental and Global Scales

    , PLOS ONE, Vol: 8, ISSN: 1932-6203

    We explore the large spatial variation in the relationship between population density and burned area, usingcontinental-scale Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) based on 13 years of satellite-derived burned areamaps from the global fire emissions database (GFED) and the human population density from the gridded populationof the world (GPW 2005). Significant relationships are observed over 51.5% of the global land area, and the areaaffected varies from continent to continent: population density has a significant impact on fire over most of Asia andAfrica but is important in explaining fire over < 22% of Europe and Australia. Increasing population density isassociated with both increased and decreased in fire. The nature of the relationship depends on land-use: increasingpopulation density is associated with increased burned are in rangelands but with decreased burned area incroplands. Overall, the relationship between population density and burned area is non-monotonic: burned areainitially increases with population density and then decreases when population density exceeds a threshold. Thesethresholds vary regionally. Our study contributes to improved understanding of how human activities relate to burnedarea, and should contribute to a better estimate of atmospheric emissions from biomass burning.

  • Journal article
    Zhou S, Duursma RA, Medlyn BE, Kelly JWG, Prentice ICet al., 2013,

    How should we model plant responses to drought? An analysis of stomatal and non-stomatal responses to water stress

    , AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST METEOROLOGY, Vol: 182, Pages: 204-214, ISSN: 0168-1923
  • Journal article
    Medlyn BE, Duursma RA, De Kauwe MG, Prentice ICet al., 2013,

    The optimal stomatal response to atmospheric CO2 concentration: Alternative solutions, alternative interpretations

    , AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST METEOROLOGY, Vol: 182, Pages: 200-203, ISSN: 0168-1923
  • Journal article
    Pooley SP, Mendelsohn JA, Milner-Gulland EJ, 2013,

    Hunting Down the Chimera of Multiple Disciplinarity in Conservation Science

    , Conservation Biology

    The consensus is that both ecological and social factors are essential dimensions of conservation research and practice. However, much of the literature on multiple disciplinary collaboration focuses on the difficulties of undertaking it. This review of the challenges of conducting multiple disciplinary collaboration offers a framework for thinking about the diversity and complexity of this endeavor. We focused on conceptual challenges, of which 5 main categories emerged: methodological challenges, value judgments, theories of knowledge, disciplinary prejudices, and interdisciplinary communication. The major problems identified in these areas have proved remarkably persistent in the literature surveyed (c.1960–2012). Reasons for these failures to learn from past experience include the pressure to produce positive outcomes and gloss over disagreements, the ephemeral nature of many such projects and resulting lack of institutional memory, and the apparent complexity and incoherence of the endeavor. We suggest that multiple disciplinary collaboration requires conceptual integration among carefully selected multiple disciplinary team members united in investigating a shared problem or question. We outline a 9-point sequence of steps for setting up a successful multiple disciplinary project. This encompasses points on recruitment, involving stakeholders, developing research questions, negotiating power dynamics and hidden values and conceptual differences, explaining and choosing appropriate methods, developing a shared language, facilitating on-going communications, and discussing data integration and project outcomes. Although numerous solutions to the challenges of multiple disciplinary research have been proposed, lessons learned are often lost when projects end or experienced individuals move on. We urge multiple disciplinary teams to capture the challenges recognized, and solutions proposed, by their researchers while projects are in process. A database of we

  • Journal article
    Bryden J, Gill RJ, Mitton RAA, Raine NE, Jansen VAAet al., 2013,

    Chronic sublethal stress causes bee colony failure

    , ECOLOGY LETTERS, Vol: 16, Pages: 1463-1469, ISSN: 1461-023X
  • Journal article
    Nuno A, Bunnefeld N, Naiman LC, Milner-Gulland EJet al., 2013,

    A novel approach to assessing the prevalence and drivers of illegal bushmeat hunting in the serengeti

    , Conservation Biology, Vol: 27, Pages: 1355-1365, ISSN: 1523-1739

    Assessing anthropogenic effects on biological diversity, identifying drivers of human behavior, and motivating behavioral change are at the core of effective conservation. Yet knowledge of people's behaviors is often limited because the true extent of natural resource exploitation is difficult to ascertain, particularly if it is illegal. To obtain estimates of rule-breaking behavior, a technique has been developed with which to ask sensitive questions. We used this technique, unmatched-count technique (UCT), to provide estimates of bushmeat poaching, to determine motivation and seasonal and spatial distribution of poaching, and to characterize poaching households in the Serengeti. We also assessed the potential for survey biases on the basis of respondent perceptions of understanding, anonymity, and discomfort. Eighteen percent of households admitted to being involved in hunting. Illegal bushmeat hunting was more likely in households with seasonal or full-time employment, lower household size, and longer household residence in the village. The majority of respondents found the UCT questions easy to understand and were comfortable answering them. Our results suggest poaching remains widespread in the Serengeti and current alternative sources of income may not be sufficiently attractive to compete with the opportunities provided by hunting. We demonstrate that the UCT is well suited to investigating noncompliance in conservation because it reduces evasive responses, resulting in more accurate estimates, and is technically simple to apply. We suggest that the UCT could be more widely used, with the trade-off being the increased complexity of data analyses and requirement for large sample sizes.

  • Journal article
    O'Loughlin S, Burt A, 2013,


    , PATHOGENS AND GLOBAL HEALTH, Vol: 107, Pages: 416-416, ISSN: 2047-7724
  • Journal article
    Woodward G, Gray C, Baird DJ, 2013,

    Biomonitoring for the 21st Century: new perspectives in an age of globalisation and emerging environmental threats

    , LIMNETICA, Vol: 32, Pages: 159-173, ISSN: 0213-8409
  • Journal article
    Bunnefeld N, Edwards CTT, Atickem A, Hailu F, Milner-Gulland EJet al., 2013,

    Incentivizing Monitoring and Compliance in Trophy Hunting

    , Conservation Biology, Vol: 27, Pages: 1344-1354, ISSN: 1523-1739

    Conservation scientists are increasingly focusing on the drivers of human behavior and on theimplications of various sources of uncertainty for management decision making. Trophy hunting has beensuggested as a conservation tool because it gives economic value to wildlife, but recent examples show thatoverharvesting is a substantial problem and that data limitations are rife. We use a case study of trophyhunting of an endangered antelope, the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), to explore how uncertaintiesgenerated by population monitoring and poaching interact with decision making by 2 key stakeholders: thesafari companies and the government. We built a management strategy evaluation model that encompassesthe population dynamics of mountain nyala, a monitoring model, and a company decision making model. Weinvestigated scenarios of investment into antipoaching and monitoring by governments and safari companies.Harvest strategy was robust to the uncertainty in the population estimates obtained from monitoring, butpoaching had a much stronger effect on quota and sustainability. Hence, reducing poaching is in the interestsof companies wishing to increase the profitability of their enterprises, for example by engaging communitymembers as game scouts. There is a threshold level of uncertainty in the population estimates beyond whichthe year-to-year variation in the trophy quota prevented planning by the safari companies. This suggests a rolefor government in ensuring that a baseline level of population monitoring is carried out such that this levelis not exceeded. Our results illustrate the importance of considering the incentives of multiple stakeholderswhen designing frameworks for resource use and when designing management frameworks to address theparticular sources of uncertainty that affect system sustainability most heavily.

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