7 results found
Pecci F, Abraham E, Stoianov I, 2019, Global optimality bounds for the placement of control valves in water supply networks, Optimization and Engineering, Vol: 20, Pages: 457-495, ISSN: 1389-4420
© 2018, The Author(s). This manuscript investigates the problem of optimal placement of control valves in water supply networks, where the objective is to minimize average zone pressure. The problem formulation results in a nonconvex mixed integer nonlinear program (MINLP). Due to its complex mathematical structure, previous literature has solved this nonconvex MINLP using heuristics or local optimization methods, which do not provide guarantees on the global optimality of the computed valve configurations. In our approach, we implement a branch and bound method to obtain certified bounds on the optimality gap of the solutions. The algorithm relies on the solution of mixed integer linear programs, whose formulations include linear relaxations of the nonconvex hydraulic constraints. We investigate the implementation and performance of different linear relaxation schemes. In addition, a tailored domain reduction procedure is implemented to tighten the relaxations. The developed methods are evaluated using two benchmark water supply networks and an operational water supply network from the UK. The proposed approaches are shown to outperform state-of-the-art global optimization solvers for the considered benchmark water supply networks. The branch and bound algorithm converges to good quality feasible solutions in most instances, with bounds on the optimality gap that are comparable to the level of parameter uncertainty usually experienced in water supply network models.
Pecci F, Abraham E, Stoianov I, 2019, Model Reduction and Outer Approximation for Optimizing the Placement of Control Valves in Complex Water Networks, Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, Vol: 145, ISSN: 0733-9496
© 2019 American Society of Civil Engineers. The optimal placement and operation of pressure control valves in water distribution networks is a challenging engineering problem. When formulated in a mathematical optimization framework, this problem results in a nonconvex mixed integer nonlinear program (MINLP), which has combinatorial computational complexity. As a result, the considered MINLP becomes particularly difficult to solve for large-scale looped operational networks. We extend and combine network model reduction techniques with the proposed optimization framework in order to lower the computational burden and enable the optimal placement and operation of control valves in these complex water distribution networks. An outer approximation algorithm is used to solve the considered MINLPs on reduced hydraulic models. We demonstrate that the restriction of the considered optimization problem on a reduced hydraulic model is not equivalent to solving the original larger MINLP, and its solution is therefore sub-optimal. Consequently, we investigate the trade-off between reducing computational complexity and the potential sub-optimality of the solutions that can be controlled with a parameter of the model reduction routine. The efficacy of the proposed method is evaluated using two large scale water distribution network models.
Pecci F, Abraham E, Stoianov I, 2017, Outer approximation methods for the solution of co-design optimisation problems in water distribution networks, 20th IFAC World Congress, Publisher: Elsevier, Pages: 5373-5379, ISSN: 1474-6670
In the present manuscript, we investigate and demonstrate the use of outer approximation methods for simultaneously optimising the placement and operation of control valves in water distribution networks. The problem definition results in a mixed-integer nonlinear program with nonconvex constraints. We simplify the formulation, compared to previous literature, in order to reduce the degree of nonlinearity in the constraints and decrease the total problem size. We then formulate the application of outer approximation based methods for the generation of good quality local optimal solutions for the considered co-design problem. Finally, we present the results of applying the developed techniques to two case studies, and also comparing the performances of the outer approximation approaches with those of other local mixed integer nonlinear programming solution methods.
Pecci F, Abraham E, Stoianov I, 2017, Quadratic head loss approximations for optimisation problems in water supply networks, Journal of Hydroinformatics, Vol: 19, Pages: 493-506, ISSN: 1464-7141
© 2017 The Authors. This paper presents a novel analysis of the accuracy of quadratic approximations for the Hazen-Williams (HW) head loss formula, which enables the control of constraint violations in optimisation problems for water supply networks. The two smooth polynomial approximations considered here minimise the absolute and relative errors, respectively, from the original non-smooth HW head loss function over a range of flows. Since quadratic approximations are used to formulate head loss constraints for different optimisation problems, we are interested in quantifying and controlling their absolute errors, which affect the degree of constraint violations of feasible candidate solutions. We derive new exact analytical formulae for the absolute errors as a function of the approximation domain, pipe roughness and relative error tolerance. We investigate the efficacy of the proposed quadratic approximations in mathematical optimisation problems for advanced pressure control in an operational water supply network. We propose a strategy on how to choose the approximation domain for each pipe such that the optimisation results are sufficiently close to the exact hydraulically feasible solution space. By using simulations with multiple parameters, the approximation errors are shown to be consistent with our analytical predictions.
Pecci F, Abraham E, Stoianov I, 2017, Penalty and relaxation methods for the optimal placement and operation of control valves in water supply networks, Computational Optimization and Applications, Vol: 67, Pages: 201-223, ISSN: 0926-6003
© 2016, The Author(s). In this paper, we investigate the application of penalty and relaxation methods to the problem of optimal placement and operation of control valves in water supply networks, where the minimization of average zone pressure is the objective. The optimization framework considers both the location and settings of control valves as decision variables. Hydraulic conservation laws are enforced as nonlinear constraints and binary variables are used to model the placement of control valves, resulting in a mixed-integer nonlinear program. We review and discuss theoretical and algorithmic properties of two solution approaches. These include penalty and relaxation methods that solve a sequence of nonlinear programs whose stationary points converge to a stationary point of the original mixed-integer program. We implement and evaluate the algorithms using a benchmarking water supply network. In addition, the performance of different update strategies for the penalty and relaxation parameters are investigated under multiple initial conditions. Practical recommendations on the numerical implementation are provided.
Pecci F, Abraham E, Stoianov I, 2017, Scalable Pareto set generation for multiobjective co-design problems in water distribution networks: a continuous relaxation approach, Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, Vol: 55, Pages: 857-869, ISSN: 1615-147X
© 2016, The Author(s). In this paper, we study the multiobjective co-design problem of optimal valve placement and operation in water distribution networks, addressing the minimization of average pressure and pressure variability indices. The presented formulation considers nodal pressures, pipe flows and valve locations as decision variables, where binary variables are used to model the placement of control valves. The resulting optimization problem is a multiobjective mixed integer nonlinear optimization problem. As conflicting objectives, average zone pressure and pressure variability can not be simultaneously optimized. Therefore, we present the concept of Pareto optima sets to investigate the trade-offs between the two conflicting objectives and evaluate the best compromise. We focus on the approximation of the Pareto front, the image of the Pareto optima set through the objective functions, using the weighted sum, normal boundary intersection and normalized normal constraint scalarization techniques. Each of the three methods relies on the solution of a series of single-objective optimization problems, which are mixed integer nonlinear programs (MINLPs) in our case. For the solution of each single-objective optimization problem, we implement a relaxation method that solves a sequence of nonlinear programs (NLPs) whose stationary points converge to a stationary point of the original MINLP. The relaxed NLPs have a sparse structure that come from the sparse water network graph constraints. In solving the large number of relaxed NLPs, sparsity is exploited by tailored techniques to improve the performance of the algorithms further and render the approaches scalable for large scale networks. The features of the proposed scalarization approaches are evaluated using a published benchmarking network model.
Pecci F, Abraham E, Stoianov I, 2015, Mathematical programming methods for pressure management in water distribution systems, Pages: 937-946
© 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. In this paper, we survey mathematical programming methods for the management of pressure in water distribution systems through optimal placement and operation of control valves. The optimization framework addresses the minimization of average zone pressure under multiple demand scenarios, enforcing hydraulic equations as nonlinear constraints. Binary variables are used to model the placement of valves. The derived nonlinear optimization problem is a non-convex MINLP. We implement and evaluate a direct MINLP solver and two different reformulation methods for MINLPs that solve sequences of regular NLPs. Moreover, we investigate the solutions under different design and operation loading conditions.
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