This information is for September 2019 entry; information for September 2020 entry will be updated shortly.
The Computing courses are held wholly within the Department of Computing. The MEng courses are of four year duration and lead to the MEng Honours degree of Imperial College and the Associateship of the City and Guilds of London Institute (ACGI).
The BEng course is of three year duration and leads to the BEng Honours degree of Imperial College and the Associateship of the City and Guilds of London Institute (ACGI).
Computing - BEng and MEng
The degree structure for all of our Computing degrees is very flexible providing many option courses. There is also a central spine of engineering project and design work running through all years. A substantial part of the final year (fourth year for MEng Students, third year for BEng students) is devoted to an individual project allowing detailed study of a topic relevant to the student's chosen specialisation.
Students following one of the specialised MEng courses will select some of their options from a group of advanced courses set down for that specialisation. All MEng courses include an approved period of professional formation - this will be either industrial placement, extended project work or placement in a European industry or university. It takes place during the period between Easter and the start of the fourth year. The Computing Integrated Engineering Study Scheme has been developed to satisfy the requirements set down by the engineering institutions.
Accreditation for all courses is given by the Institute of Engineering and Technology (IET) and British Computer Society (BCS).
Students following the MEng Computing (International Programme of Study) spend either the first two terms of their third year abroad or their entire fourth year abroad in a recognised institution of higher education (with which Imperial College has an exchange arrangement). Currently this involves institutions in the European Union and worldwide.
The scheme has been designed to give each student an overview of computing, an understanding of the basic concepts and principles, skills in their application and extension, the ability to appreciate and to adapt to changes in the state of the art, and practical experience in applied computing. Special emphasis is placed on the fundamental principles underlying computing and on an understanding of the engineering considerations involved in computing system design, implementation and usage.
A solid background is given in discrete mathematics (logic, sets, relations and grammars) which is the basic mathematics of computing, as well as in the classical mathematics and statistics relevant to applications engineering and management. Students are introduced to computing architecture and hardware alongside the software which can exploit them. Advanced techniques such as artificial intelligence are presented throughout the scheme.
All courses are supported by laboratory and problem solving classes which give 'hands-on' experience.
International Programme of Study
The MEng Computing (International Programme of Study) provides development of linguistic and technical skills through a programme of engineering study in the UK and abroad at a participating institution. All courses have a two-year common study period. To give maximum flexibility students may transfer between courses, within the Computing Integrated Engineering Study Scheme, at any time within that period.
All students will initially be registered on the MEng Computing course. Current participating Erasmus exchange institutions are: France - ENSIMAG (INP Grenoble); Germany - RWTH-Aachen; Switzerland - ETH Zurich. Besides this there is the possibility of an optional exchange with the USA - University of California where MEng students spend the first two terms of their third year abroad.
|G400||Computing (BEng)||3 years|
|G401||Computing (MEng)||4 years|
|G700||Computing (Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning) (MEng)||4 years|
|GG47||Computing (Visual Computing and Robotics) (MEng)
|G402||Computing (International Programme of Study) (MEng)||4 years|
|G501||Computing (Management and Finance) (MEng)
|G600||Computing (Software Engineering) (MEng)||4 years|
|G610||Computing (Security and Reliability) (MEng) (new for 2019 entry)||4 years|
How to Apply
All applications for all our undergraduate Computing degrees are made through UCAS in the first instance. Note that we cannot accept direct applications from applicants. The college provides a complete description of how to go about applying through UCAS. You are advised to get your application in as early as possible and before the 15 January UCAS deadline.
ONLINE ADMISSIONS TEST
Applicants demonstrating sufficient potential will be invited to complete an online admissions test, which will test their logical, reasoning and problem-solving skills. No prior preparation is required for the test. The test will include a practice session, and should not take more than 90 minutes.
The test must be taken on a computer with an internet connection.
Candidates are invited to the department to attend an interview day based on the strength of their UCAS applications and their performance in the online admissions test. Applicants are not judged by academic ability alone, but upon a wider profile to assess their potential for success in an engineering degree. Interviews also give you the opportunity to raise questions about the courses or College life in general.
Candidates passing their interview will usually be made an offer within 4-5 weeks of the interview day. The interview day consists of:
- a welcome presentation by the Admissions tutor and Director of Studies
- a tour of the College and Department facilities
- demonstrations of undergraduate projects
- a one-to-one academic interview with one of our lecturers
We prefer all applicants to attend an interview day in person, but where there are reasons as to why this would not be possible, alternative arrangements such as Skype may be considered on a case by case basis. Reasonable circumstances of not being able to attend an interview day may include interview days clashing with exams or other important school dates, financial considerations, or time constraints in applying for a visa.
Interview days for 2018/19 are as follows:
- Wednesday, 7 November 2018
- Wednesday, 21 November 2018
- Wednesday, 28 November 2018
- Wednesday, 5 December 2018
- Wednesday, 23 January 2019
- Wednesday, 6 February 2019
- Wednesday, 13 February 2019
- Wednesday, 27 February 2019
Please note that we consider all aspects of each application, including academic record, predicted grades/marks, and evidence of motivation for Computing. Competition for the limited number of places on our courses is intense and regrettably, we have to turn down many excellent candidates. Even if your application is very strong, you may unfortunately not receive an offer.
Our offers are individually tailored, and aim at helping our future students to be fully prepared for the challenges ahead, should they join our courses. Our advertised grades are "minimum", and our offers may be more demanding and include further qualifications: please see Qualification Advice for Computing (next tab). We may also consider any applicant marginally below our standard offer (e.g. with a prediction of A in A-level Maths rather than A*).
Imperial has an English language requirement which equates to a Grade 6 in English Language GCSE or an IELTS score of 6.5. Note that, even if students have studied English as part of their qualification, this may not satisfy the College requirement and an IELTS test or equivalent may still be required.
Standard UK Qualifications
Our typical A-level offer is A*AA - A*AAA with an A* in Maths. Typical offers also require STEP I/II.
For further recommendations on A-levels, see the tab on Qualification Advice for Computing. We strongly encourage applicants to take Further Maths at A2 level.
We also accept the Edexcel International A levels.
Our typical IB offer is 42–44 points overall with a 7 in Maths at higher level and a 7 in at least one further relevant subject at higher level. Typical offers also require STEP I/II.
Cambridge Pre-U Diploma and Pre-U Subjects
Our minimum requirement is distinction in three principal subjects, including D2 in Maths. Typical offers also require STEP I/II.
Scottish Advanced Highers
Our standard minimum Scottish Advanced Higher offer is: A1, A, A with an A1 in Advanced Higher Maths. Typical offers also require STEP I/II. Applied Maths: Mechanics is a preferred subject.
We only accept students from the two high-quality UK foundation courses described below. These are specialised courses for overseas students whose home qualifications are not usually accepted for study at UK universities.
The University Preparatory Certificate for Science and Engineering is a high quality foundation programme. Our standard minimum offer is 80% or above overall, with 80% in Maths and 80% in Biology, Chemistry or Physics.
The Higher Education Foundation Programme has a Science & Engineering specialisation that we accept. Our standard minimum offer is 80% or above, with 80% in Maths and 80% in Biology, Chemistry or Physics.
Insufficient UK Qualifications
We do not accept the Welsh Baccalaureate and BTEC.
Standard International Qualifications
We accept qualifications from all over the world. Below is the list of qualifications we typically accept, with standard minimum requirements, followed by the list of qualifications we do not accept. If you have a query about a particular qualification not included in these lists, please contact the Admissions Tutor, providing details on the qualification (subjects, grades etc.).
|European Baccalaureate. 85% overall, including 9 in Maths and 8.5 in one other relevant subject.|
ACT / WACE - AAA Mathematics and two other relevant subjects
NSW HSC - 45 Mathematics / 42 in two other relevant subjects
NT HSC / SACE / VCE - A+ Mathematics / AA in two other relevant subjects
TCE - EA Mathematics / HA, HA in two other relevant subjects
QCE - VHA Mathematics / HA, HA in two other relevant subjects
|Austria||Award of the Matura / Reifeprüfung studied at a Gymnasium AHS or preferably a Realgymnasium AHS. 1 in the majority of subjects, including 1 in Maths. Overall grade of 1.5 or lower.|
|Belgium||Abschlusszeugnis der Oberstufe des Sekundarunterrichts, Certificat d'enseignement secondaire supérieur (CESS), or Diploma van secundair onderwijs. Overall 8.25 out of 10, with 9 in relevant subjects, including Maths.|
|Bulgaria||Diploma za Sredno Obrazvanie awarded with an overall Grade of 5.9, including a grade 6 in Maths and 6 in one additional relevant subject.|
|Canada||Relevant High School Diploma from Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon. 87.5% Overall, with 90% Mathematics (G12) and 85% in 4 other relevant subjects (G12).|
|Caribbean||Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examination (CAPE). Six units, with at least two double-unit courses, including Maths, with Grade 1 (AAA) in both units. All units to be achieved with grade 1 overall and module grades of AAA.|
|Croatia||Svjedodžba o Maturi/Matura from a Grammar School. Scores of 5 (Excellent) in Maths (Higher Level) and 5 in at least 2 other relevant subjects at Higher Level.|
|Cyprus||Apolytirion of Lykieo from a Lycieum. 19 overall, with a 20 in Maths and 19 in one other relevant subject, as well as A* in Maths A level and A in one more relevant A level.|
|Czech Republic||Maturita. Award of Vysvědčení o maturitní zkoušce with Výborný grade 1 in the majority of subjects, including 1 in Maths (Common).|
|Denmark||Studentereksamen. 11 overall, with 12 in Maths and 11 in at least two relevant subjects.|
|Estonia||Gümnaasiumi lõputunnistus and Riigieksamitunnistus. 91% Mathematics Extensive (State Exam), and 5 in all other relevant subjects, including Maths.|
|Finland||Ylioppilastutkinto / Studentexamen (Matriculation examination). 4 subjects at grade 6 or 7, with at least three relevant subjects at grade 7, including Maths (advanced).|
|France||Baccalaureate (usually Scientific Stream) or Option Internationale (OIB). 16 or higher overall, including 16 in Maths and 15 in one other relevant subject.|
|Germany||Abitur. 1.3 or less overall, with 14 in Maths (abiturprufung) and 14 in one other relevant subject (abiturprufung).|
|Greece||Apolytirion. 19 overall, with 20 in Maths and 19 in one other relevant subject, as well as A* in Maths A level and A in one more relevant A level.|
|Hong Kong||Diploma of Secondary Education (HKDSE). 5* in Maths and 5 in two or three other relevant subjects.|
|Hungary||Matura/ Érettségi from a gimnazium. 5 overall, including a 5 in Maths (HL) and 5 in four more relevant subjects (HL).|
|Iceland||Studentspróf from a Gymnasium, with an overall score of 9 or better, and scores of 9 in Maths and 9 in one more relevant subject.|
|India||CISCE – ISC/CBSE-AISSE, with 91% overall with at least 95% in Maths and at least 90% in two additional core relevant subjects.|
|Iran||Award of High School Diploma in a theoretical stream. 18+ overall, including a 19 in Maths. Top 15% Rank in the Konkoor.|
|Ireland||Irish Leaving Certificate (ILC). Pre 2017 - A1A2A2A2A2A2, with A1 in Maths. Post 2017 – H1 in Maths, H1 in one other relevant subject and H2 in 4 other subjects.|
|Israel||Bargut (Matriculation Certificate). 90% overall, including 95 in Maths (5-unit subject) and 90 in at least two other relevant 5-unit subjects.|
|Italy||Esame di Stato from a Liceo Scientifico (Scientific Stream School). 98 overall with 10 in Maths and 9 in at least 2 relevant subjects.|
|Liechtenstein||Matura. 6 in Maths and 6 in at least 4 other relevant subjects.|
|Luxembourg||Diplôme de Fin d'Etudes Secondaires, normally from stream B or C. 55/60 overall, including 55 or higher in Maths and two other relevant subjects.|
|Malaysia||Sijil Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia (STPM). AAA or AAAA, including Maths and other relevant subjects. Further Mathematics preferred additional subject choice, ICT Not Accepted.|
|Malta||Matriculation Certificate Examination. AA at advanced level, including Maths and one other relevant subject and AAAA at intermediate level in relevant subjects.|
|Monaco||Baccalaureat. Grades of 16/20 or better overall, with high scores in other relevant subjects, including 16 in Maths.|
|Montenegro||Matura. Overall score of 5, including 5 in Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology.|
|Netherlands||VWO (Voorbereidend wetenschappelijk onderwijs). 9 overall in a relevant stream, with scores of 9 in relevant subjects, including Maths.|
|New Zealand||National Certificates of Educational Achievement (NCEA) Level 3. Excellent Overall (L3 NCEA) with Excellent in the majority of subjects, including Maths.|
|Norway||Vitnemål for videregående opplæring. Grade 5 overall with 6 in Maths and 5 in all other relevant subjects.|
|Poland||Matura. At least 87% in Maths (advanced level) and 9th Stanine, and 8th Stanine in the other subjects at advanced level.|
|Portugal||Diploma Nível Secundário de Educação. 18 overall with 19 in Maths and 18 in other relevant subjects.|
|Romania||Diploma de Bacalaureat. 9.6 overall, with 9.6 in Maths and one other relevant subject.|
|Serbia||Matura/Secondary School Leaving Certificate. Overall score of 4.75, including 5 in Maths and 5 in at least one other relevant subject.|
|Singapore||A level and SIPCAL: AAA in H2 subjects, including Maths. Polytechnic Diploma: 3.8 Overall with 3.8 in Maths and substantial Maths and Computing course content. National University of Singapore Diploma: 4.5 overall with 4.5 in Maths and substantial Maths and Computing course content.|
|Slovakia||Vysvedčenie o maturitnej skúške from a gymnázia. Výborný (1) in the majority of subjects, including Maths.|
|Slovenia||Maturitetno Spricevalo from a grammar school. 5 in the majority of subjects, including Maths.|
|Spain||Bachillerato. Overall 9, with at least 9.5 in Maths and 8.5 in 2 other relevant subjects.|
|Sri Lanka||Advanced Level AAA-AAAA, including Maths.|
|Sweden||Swedish Avgångsbetyg/ Slutbetyg. A in the majority of subjects including Maths.|
|Switzerland||Gymnasialer Maturitätsausweis, certificat de maturité gymnasiale and attestato di maturità liceale. 5.25 overall with 5.5 in Maths and 5 in at least 2 other relevant subjects.|
|United States of America||Advanced Placement. Minimum requirements is three subjects at grade 5, including Calculus BC. Prefer five subjects at grade 5, including Calculus BC.|
A number of countries offer A-Levels or qualifications based on the UK A-Level. The qualifications below can be considered as being equivalent to A-Level standard and therefore meeting our entry requirements. Students would need to achieve the standard minimum A level entry requirements.
|Bahamas||Bahamas GCE A Level|
|Macao||Cambridge Overseas Higher School Certificate/GCE A-Level|
|Maldives||UCLES A Level|
|Mauritius||Cambridge Overseas Higher School Certificate/GCE A-Level|
|Namibia||Cambridge Overseas Higher School Certificate/GCE A-Level|
|Tanzania||Cambridge Overseas Higher School Certificate/East African Advanced Certificate of Education|
|Seychelles||Cambridge Overseas Higher School Certificate|
|Swaziland||Cambridge Overseas Higher School Certificate|
|Uganda||Cambridge Overseas Higher School Certificate/Advanced Certificate of Education|
Insufficient International Qualifications
We do not accept the following qualifications:
|Albania||Certificate of Maturity/Secondary School Leaving Certificate|
|Algeria||School leaving qualifications/Baccalauréat de l'Enseignement Secondaire|
|Argentina||School Leaving Qualifications (e.g. Titulo de Bachiller)|
|Armenia||Mijnakarg Yndhanur Krtoutian Attestat (Certificate of completed Secondary Education)|
|Azerbaijan||Secondary School Leaving Certificate|
|Bahrain||Tawjahiya (Secondary School Leaving Certificate)|
|Bangladesh||School leaving qualifications|
|Belarus||Certificate of Secondary Education|
|Bhutan||Bhutan Higher Secondary Education Certificate/Indian School Certificate|
|Bosnia-Hertzegovina||Secondary School Leaving Diploma|
|Botswana||Botswana General Certificate of Secondary Education Examination|
|Brazil||Certificado de Ensino Medio or University entrance examination|
|Burkina Faso||Baccalaureat/Diplome de Bachelier|
|Burundi||Diplôme des Humanités Complètes|
|Cambodia||Certificate of Upper Secondary Education|
|Central African Republic (The)||Baccalaureat|
|Chile||Licencia de Educación Media|
|China||Senior Higher School Diploma, Chinese University Entrance Examination or ‘GaoKao’|
|Cuba||Titulo de Bachiller|
|Cyprus||Turkish-Cypriot School Leaving Qualifications: Devlet Lise Diplomasi (State High School Diploma) and Lise Bitirme Diplomasi (High School Finishing Diploma)|
|D R Congo (The)||Diplôme d'Etat d'Etudes Secondaires du Cycle Long|
|Egypt||The Thanaweya A’ama|
|Eritrea||Eritrean Secondary Education Certificate Examination|
|Ethiopia||School Leaving Certificate/Higher Education Entrance Examination|
|Fiji||School Leaving Certificate/Form 7 examination|
|Gambia (The)||West African Senior School Certificate Examination|
|Georgia||Secondary School Leaving Certificate|
|Ghana||West African Senior School Certificate Examination|
|India||Qualifications other than ISC-CISCE/CBSE-AISSE class XII|
|Indonesia||Surat Tamat Sekolah Menengah Umum Tinglat Atas/STTB: SMA (Senior Secondary School Certificate of Completion)|
|Iraq||Certificate of Preparatory Education/Sixth Form Baccalaureate|
|Ivory Coast (The)||Diplôme de Bachelier de l'Enseignement du Second Degré / Baccalauréat|
|Japan||Kotogakko Sotsugyo Shomeisho (Upper Secondary School Leaving Certificate)|
|Jordan||Tawjihi (General Secondary Education Certificate)|
|Kazakhstan||Attest/Svidetel’stvo o Srednam Obrazovanii (Certificate of Secondary Education)|
|Kenya||Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education|
|Kuwait||Shahadat-al-thanawia-al-a’ama (General Secondary School Certificate)|
|Kyrgyzstan||Certificate of Completed Secondary Education|
|Latvia||Atestāts par vispārējo vidējo izglītību|
|Lesotho||School Leaving Certificate|
|Liberia||Senior School Certificate|
|Libya||Secondary Education Certificate|
|Malawi||Malawi School Certificate of Education (MSCE)|
|Malaysia||Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM/Certificate of Education) or Unified Examination Certificate (UEC)|
|Mauritania||Diplôme de Bachelier de I'Enseignement du Second Degré|
|Moldova||Certificate of Secondary Education|
|Mongolia||School Leaving Certificate (Gerchilgee)|
|Morocco||Diplôme du Baccalauréat|
|Mozambique||Certificado de Habilitações Literarias (Secondary School Leaving Certificate)|
|Myanmar||School Leaving Certificate|
|Nepal||Higher School Certificate|
|Nigeria||West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) or Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE)|
|Oman||Thanawiya Amma (Secondary School Leaving Certificate)|
|Pakistan||Higher Secondary School Leaving Certificate (HSSC)|
|Papua New Guinea||Higher School Certificate|
|Paraguay||Titulo de Bachillerato|
|Peru||Certificado de Educación Secundaria Común Completa|
|Philippines||High School Diploma|
|Puerto Rico||High School Graduation Diploma|
|Qatar||Thanawaya Aa’ma Qatari (Qatar General Secondary Education Certificate)|
|Russian Federation||Attestat o Srednam Obrazovanii (Certificate of Secondary Education)|
|Rwanda||Diplôme des Humanités Complètes|
|Samoa||Pacific Senior Secondary Certificate|
|Saudi Arabia||Tawjihiyah (General Secondary Education Certificate)|
|Senegal||Diplôme de Bachelier de l'Enseignement du Second Degré / Baccalauréat|
|Sierra Leone||West African Senior School Certificate|
|Solomon Islands (The)||Pacific Senior Secondary Certificate|
|Somalia||Secondary School Leaving Certificate|
|South Africa||Senior Certificate/Matriculation Certificate|
|South Korea||Il Banky e Kodung Hakkyo (General High School Diploma)|
|Sudan||Sudan School Certificate|
|Syria||Al Shahada Al Thanawiya (Secondary School Leaving Certificate)|
|Taiwan||Senior High School Certificate or the Senior High School Diploma|
|Tajikistan||Certificate of Completed Secondary Education/ Diploma of Specialised Secondary Education|
|Thailand||Mathtayom Suksa 6 (M6)|
|Tonga||Pacific Senior Secondary Certificate|
|Turkmenistan||Certificate of Secondary Education/Diploma of Specialised Secondary Education|
|Turkey||Devlet Lise Diplomasi (State High School Diploma)/ Lise Bitirme Diplomasi (Private High School Diploma)|
|UAE||Tawjihiyya (General Secondary Education Certificate)|
|Ukraine||Matura or Attestat|
|United States of America||SAT Subject Tests/High School Diplomas|
|Uruguay||Titulo de Bachillerato Diversificado|
|Uzbekistan||Attestat o rednem obrazovanii (Certificate of Secondary Education)|
|Vanuatu||Pacific Senior Secondary Certificate|
|Venezuela||Titulo de Bachiller|
|Vietnam||Tot Nghiep Pho Thong Trung Hoc (Upper Secondary School Graduation Certificate)|
|Yemen||Al Thanawiya (General Secondary Education Certificate)|
|Zambia||Zambia School Certificate|
Many applicants ask us what A-levels we would recommend. In an effort to provide helpful advice, we have developed the following suggestions:
Very useful A-levels*
|Maths||Further Maths||Ancient Language
We strongly encourage applicants to take Further Maths at A2 level. If your school offers Further Maths, we expect you to take it. If your school does not offer you the chance to take Further Maths, please make sure this is stated in your school reference. We will take this into account and will still welcome your application.
Some candidates choose to take Further Maths independently through a local Further Maths Network Centre. We also accept AEA or STEP Maths qualifications in place of Further Maths and may include these in your offer. If your school does not offer you Further Maths, our preferred A-level is a science subject, such as Physics, Chemistry or Computer Science.
*We do not accept ICT, Business Studies, General Studies and Critical Thinking.
We should emphasise that, with the exception of the required A-level Maths and the A-levels we do not accept, Category 3 is only a set of suggestions. If your A-level selection does not match this exact pattern, you should not worry unduly.
We do understand that some schools do not offer Computing for students wishing to study the subject for A-level. We will not hold this against an applicant as we do not require Computing as an A-level subject for any applicant, so if you would prefer to take another subject, then this would be fine.
For students looking for a good grounding in the principles of Computing pre A-level, we do recommend the new OCR GCSE in Computing. Again, however, this is not a requirement for admission to any of our degrees.
Relevant Subjects Selection
Many applicants ask us what relevant subjects we would recommend, for example at higher level for the IB. Below are our suggestions:
- Computer Science
Each year, over half of our incoming students have no prior programming experience.
If you are in this category and are thinking of applying to our courses but are worried that a lack of computing experience will leave you at a disadvantage, don't be: we teach 5 programming languages from scratch in the first and second year, so this is not a problem. You do not need to have taken A-level Computer Science for our degrees.
We look for people who are good at Maths and are excited by computing and its many applications and are or have the potential to be great problem-solvers, lateral-thinkers or systematic thinkers. We welcome people with a wide variety of A-level subjects for our courses.
All applicants (particularly those not taking an A-level in Further Maths) are encouraged, and may be asked, to take a STEP exam in Maths. These can often be sat at your local examination centre. Please note that regardless of whether an applicant is planning to take a STEP exam in maths or not, one or more may form part of a conditional offer that we make to an applicant.
The STEP Maths exam consists of 3 papers. Papers I and II are based on the A-level Maths syllabus. Paper III is based on the A-level Further Maths syllabus. Extra tuition is advisable; the style of question is markedly different to that of A-level. For applications to Computing courses, where requested, we will usually ask for a Grade 1 or Grade 2 in STEP I or STEP II or both.
- STEP Mathematics website
- Wikipedia STEP resources
- Meikleriggs' STEP solutions
- Mathematics in Education and Industry (MEI)
International Programme of Study
Applicants for admission to the G402, MEng Computing in International Programme of Study, should normally hold a GCSE in a foreign language at grade B or above, or otherwise be able to demonstrate linguistic competence.