62 results found
Comi A, Whyte J, 2018, Future Making and Visual Artefacts: An Ethnographic Study of a Design Project, Organization Studies, Vol: 39, Pages: 1055-1083, ISSN: 0170-8406
© The Author(s) 2017. Current research on strategizing and organizing has explored how practitioners make sense of an uncertain future, but provides limited explanations of how they actually make a realizable course of action for the future. A focus on making rather than sensemaking brings into view the visual artefacts that practitioners use in giving form to what is ‘not yet’ – drawings, models and sketches. We explore how visual artefacts are used in making a realizable course of action, by analysing ethnographic data from an architectural studio designing a development strategy for their client. We document how visual artefacts become enrolled in practices of imagining, testing, stabilizing and reifying, through which abstract imaginings of the future are turned into a realizable course of action. We then elaborate on higher-order findings that are generalizable to a wide range of organizational settings, and discuss their implications for future research in strategizing and organizing. This paper contributes in two ways: first, it offers future making as an alternative perspective on how practitioners orient themselves towards the future (different from current perspectives such as foreseeing, future perfect thinking and wayfinding). Second, it advances our understanding of visual artefacts and their performativity in the making of organizational futures.
Tee R, Davies A, Whyte J, 2018, Modular designs and integrating practices: Managing collaboration through coordination and cooperation, Research Policy, ISSN: 0048-7333
© 2018 Elsevier B.V. Collaboration in large-scale projects introduces challenges involving both coordination (the ability to collaborate) as well as cooperation (the willingness to do so). Existing research has shown how modular designs can improve coordination by locating interdependencies within rather than between different modules. Based on an in-depth case study of collaboration in a large-scale infrastructure project, our study highlights an effect of modularity on collaboration that previously has been overlooked. Specifically, we show that while modular designs may help overcome coordination challenges by reducing interdependencies between modules, they can in turn hamper collaboration by emphasizing specialization within modules. Therefore, though existing work typically perceives modularity and integration as opposites, we clarify how they can also act as complements. In particular, we show how firms need to complement modular designs with integrating practices that stimulate cooperation. Overall, we contribute to the literature on collaboration and modularity by explaining when and how organizations can combine modularity and integration.
Brookes N, Sage D, Dainty A, et al., 2017, An island of constancy in a sea of change: Rethinking project temporalities with long-term megaprojects, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT, Vol: 35, Pages: 1213-1224, ISSN: 0263-7863
Lobo S, Whyte J, 2017, Aligning and Reconciling: Building project capabilities for digital delivery, RESEARCH POLICY, Vol: 46, Pages: 93-107, ISSN: 0048-7333
Soman RK, Birch D, Whyte JK, 2017, Framework for shared visualization and real-Time information flow to the construction site, Pages: 286-293
The aim of this paper is to develop a framework for shared visualization between design office and construction office using augmented reality as a platform with a focus on the security of Building Information Model. The current paper is part of an ongoing study aimed at creating a real-Time bi-directional information flow between the construction office and site and focuses on a shared visualisation context. A framework architecture for enabling shared visualisation with a stress on the security of Building Information Model is discussed. A prototype application based on the framework was deployed on an Android device in a controlled environment for testing. The application augmented Building Information objects dynamically to the real-world without any latency. Salient features of the prototype include dynamic loading of Building Information content during the runtime, data encapsulation based on user privileges, deployability on portable low-end computing devices etc. Using shared visualization would empower the construction engineers with real-Time models updates with access to many near-optimal management solutions. This enables the engineers to narrow in on the best solution under given constraints.
Whyte JK, Hartmann T, 2017, How digitizing building information transforms the built environment., Building Research and Information, Vol: 45, Pages: 591-595, ISSN: 0961-3218
Whyte J, 2016, The future of systems integration within civil infrastructure: A review and directions for research, Pages: 1541-1555, ISSN: 2334-5837
Whyte J, Lindkvist C, Jaradat S, 2016, Passing the baton? Handing over digital data from the project to operations, Engineering Project Organization Journal, Vol: 6, Pages: 2-14, ISSN: 2157-3727
Whyte J, Stasis A, Lindkvist C, 2016, Managing change in the delivery of complex projects: Configuration management, asset information and 'big data', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT, Vol: 34, Pages: 339-351, ISSN: 0263-7863
Whyte J, Tryggestad K, Comi A, 2016, Visualizing practices in project-based design: tracing connections through cascades of visual representations, Engineering Project Organization Journal, Vol: 6, Pages: 115-128, ISSN: 2157-3727
Sacks R, Whyte J, Swissa D, et al., 2015, Safety by design: dialogues between designers and builders using virtual reality, CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMICS, Vol: 33, Pages: 55-72, ISSN: 0144-6193
Whyte J, 2015, Towards a new craft of architecture, Building Research and Information, Vol: 43, Pages: 263-265, ISSN: 0961-3218
The Death of Drawing discusses the far-reaching impact of design tools on the craft and meaning of architecture, critically reflecting on how new digital methods of working will transform the architecture profession and ultimately reshape architecture to an extent not seen in over 500 years. Engagement with drawing is thus seen as a means to interrogate and understand building materials, and to understand more profoundly the form of buildings. The discussion raises questions about how architects can use digital tools, particularly tools such as BIM that become collectively shared, in generating design. The reader wants to know more about the relationships between BIM and computational design, and how their use relate to other digital technologies such as building management systems and data-capture technologies.
Ramalingam S, Lobo S, Mahalingam A, et al., 2014, Achieving reliability in transnational work on complex projects: new directions for research, Engineering Project Organization Journal, Vol: 4, Pages: 193-208, ISSN: 2157-3727
Jaradat S, Whyte J, Luck R, 2013, Professionalism in digitally mediated project work, BUILDING RESEARCH AND INFORMATION, Vol: 41, Pages: 51-59, ISSN: 0961-3218
Larsen GD, Whyte J, 2013, Safe construction through design: perspectives from the site team, Construction Management and Economics, Vol: 31, Pages: 675-690, ISSN: 0144-6193
How does the work of designers impact on the safety of operatives at the construction site? Safety research and policy emphasize the importance of designing for safe construction, yet the interface between design and construction is poorly understood: accidents have multiple causes making it hard to establish causal links between design choices and safety outcomes. An in-depth case study of a major station project examines how professionals on the construction site perceive and manage the safety challenges of a building design. Analyses reveal understandings that, on the project studied, design has an impact on safety because of: (1) the timing of design work, where the volume of late design changes increased the difficulty of planning safe procedures, e.g. for working at height, lifting heavy items, refurbishing and demolishing old buildings; and (2) inputs from design stakeholders with insufficient practical knowledge of construction and operation required unplanned work-arounds, e.g. to coordinate different sub-systems, provide maintenance access, and manage loads during construction. These findings suggest that safety suffers where projects are under-designed, and that alongside regulation, there is a need for robust management attention to the contractual structures, incentives, processes and tools that enable clients and designers to understand material practices of construction and operation. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Lindkvist C, Stasis A, Whyte J, 2013, Configuration management in complex engineering projects, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Lindkvist C, Whyte J, 2013, Challenges and opportunities involving facilities management in data handover: London 2012 case study, Pages: 670-679
There is an increasing interest of the usage of project data for the life-cycle with the evolution of Building Information Modelling, which promotes the incremental collection of data. This research considers the role of facilities management in developing data for handover at project completion by empirically studying the delivery of the London 2012 games. Eighteen interviews were conducted with project participants. Backgrounds of participants included project sponsors (client representative), delivery partners and facility manager professionals. Our findings suggest a number of approaches taken by a client for the transition of knowledge into the practices of facilities management. These approaches are 1) creating a culture for knowledge transfer in the project; 2) strategic knowledge transfer through guides and processes; 3) knowledge transfer through social interactions; 4) knowledge transfer through the representation of facilities management. There were a number of enablers identified that were aimed at progressing knowledge transfer into facilities management in the project to different degrees such as a transition phase for data handover of up to 6 months in projects. However, there were challenges that limited knowledge transfer as end-user links with the project came to an end with project completion. The contribution of this paper outlines how the client can involve facilities management professionals in the project through incorporating their knowledge during the data handover phase. However, this does not have to be one way and the implications of this study is that having a project representative after the data is handed over to the end user will further enable knowledge transfer from projects into facilities management practices. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Maradza E, Whyte J, Larsen GD, 2013, Standardisation of building information modelling in the UK and USA: Challenges and opportunities, Pages: 457-466
Standardisation provides an invisible digital infrastructure within which digital design technologies support coordination by heterogeneous actors in the construction sector. Inadequate standards pose challenges to design technologies such as Building Information Modelling (BIM). In its latest strategy mandating the use of BIM, the UK government blames the construction industry's lack of collaboration and inefficiency on low levels of standardisation. This paper investigates the development of standards as invisible digital infrastructures for facilitating collaboration in construction projects in the USA and the UK. The paper draws on a) interviews with key standards development consultants in the UK and USA and b) industry publication and revisions to the British standard through the publicly available specification (PAS) 1192 and NBIMS in the USA. The literature on standardisation suggests that engagement in standard development is often motivated by self-interest; and that standards are developed through consensus building, political processes of aligning multiple standards, and end-user participation. Findings from the empirical work to date suggest a rapid process of development, excessive self-interest, minimal end user participation and incompatible processes. The study concludes with observations on how digital infrastructures develop and could be useful in shaping practice and how such artefacts are integrated in dynamic, unstructured and rapidly developing project based environments. The paper contributes to literature on evolution and proliferation of digital infrastructures in sectorial systems of innovation. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Stasis A, Whyte J, Dentten R, 2013, A Critical Examination of Change Control Processes, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Whyte J, 2013, Beyond the computer: Changing medium from digital to physical, INFORMATION AND ORGANIZATION, Vol: 23, Pages: 41-57, ISSN: 1471-7727
Whyte J, Lindkvist C, Ibrahim NH, 2013, From projects into operations: Lessons for data handover, Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers: Management, Procurement and Law, Vol: 166, Pages: 86-93, ISSN: 1751-4304
Data from civil engineering projects can inform the operation of built infrastructure. This paper captures lessons for such data handover, from projects into operations, through interviews with leading clients and their supply chain. Clients are found to value receiving accurate and complete data. They recognise opportunities to use high-quality information in decision-making about capital and operational expenditure, as well as in ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements. Providing this value to clients is a motivation for information management in projects. However, data handover is difficult as key people leave before project completion, and different data formats and structures are used in project delivery and operations. Lessons learnt from leading practice include defining data requirements at the outset, involving operations teams at an early stage, shaping the evolution of interoperable systems and standards, developing handover processes to check data rather than documentation and fostering skills to use and update project data in operations.
Whyte J, Harty C, 2012, Socio-material Practices of Design Coordination: Objects as Plastic and Partisan, Materiality and Organizing: Social Interaction in a Technological World, ISBN: 9780191745423
© Oxford University Press 2012. All rights reserved. Drawing on detailed research on a construction megaproject, the chapter takes a practice-based approach to examining the practical and theoretical tensions between existing ways of working and the introduction of new digital coordination tools in design. The chapter analyzes the new hybrid practices that emerge, using insights from actor network theory, to articulate the delegation of actions to physical and digital objects within ecologies of practice. The three vignettes that we discuss highlight this delegation of actions, the "plugging" and "patching" of ecologies occurring across media and the continual iterations of working practices between different types of media. By shifting the focus from tools to these wider ecologies of practice, the approach has important implications for the stabilization of new technologies and practices and for managing technological change in the design of physical infrastructure.
Zhou W, Whyte J, Sacks R, 2012, Construction safety and digital design: A review, AUTOMATION IN CONSTRUCTION, Vol: 22, Pages: 102-111, ISSN: 0926-5805
Whyte J, 2011, Managing digital coordination of design: emerging hybrid practices in an institutionalized project setting, Engineering Project Organization Journal, Vol: 1, Pages: 159-168, ISSN: 2157-3727
Whyte J, Levitt R, 2011, Information Management and the Management of Projects, The Oxford Handbook of Project Management, ISBN: 9780191724879
© Oxford University Press 2011. All rights reserved. This article argues that emerging digital technologies are enabling new forms of project management in project-based industries. The 1960s project management approach originated in the mature project-based industries of petrochemicals, military, advanced manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, buildings, and infrastructure. This approach, which is termed "Project Management 1.0" (PM 1.0), evolved to manage small numbers of large, complex projects in business and regulatory environments that were relatively stable by today's standards. It involves detailed up-front planning, using multiple layers of hierarchical work breakdown structures. It then manages these projects by tracking and eliminating variance from plans. The approach is alive and well in some of those same industries, and has been greatly enhanced by widespread use of digital technologies for planning, visualization, communication, procurement, logistics, and other functions. However, there are important ways in which the use of information technology begins to challenge this traditional project management approach.
Whyte J, Sexton M, 2011, Motivations for innovation in the built environment: new directions for research, BUILDING RESEARCH AND INFORMATION, Vol: 39, Pages: 473-482, ISSN: 0961-3218
Harty C, Whyte J, 2010, Emerging Hybrid Practices in Construction Design Work: Role of Mixed Media, JOURNAL OF CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT-ASCE, Vol: 136, Pages: 468-476, ISSN: 0733-9364
Whyte J, Lobo S, 2010, Coordination and control in project-based work: Digital objects and infrastructures for delivery, Construction Management and Economics, Vol: 28, Pages: 557-567, ISSN: 0144-6193
A major infrastructure project is used to investigate the role of digital objects in the coordination of engineering design work. From a practice-based perspective, research emphasizes objects as important in enabling cooperative knowledge work and knowledge sharing. The term 'boundary object' has become used in the analysis of mutual and reciprocal knowledge sharing around physical and digital objects. The aim is to extend this work by analysing the introduction of an extranet into the public-private partnership project used to construct a new motorway. Multiple categories of digital objects are mobilized in coordination across heterogeneous, cross-organizational groups. The main findings are that digital objects provide mechanisms for accountability and control, as well as for mutual and reciprocal knowledge sharing; and that different types of objects are nested, forming a digital infrastructure for project delivery. Reconceptualizing boundary objects as a digital infrastructure for delivery has practical implications for management practices on large projects and for the use of digital tools, such as building information models, in construction. It provides a starting point for future research into the changing nature of digitally enabled coordination in project-based work. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.
Whyte JK, Cardellino P, 2010, Learning by Design: Visual Practices and Organizational Transformation in Schools, DESIGN ISSUES, Vol: 26, Pages: 59-69, ISSN: 0747-9360
Ewenstein B, Whyte J, 2009, Knowledge Practices in Design: The Role of Visual Representations as 'Epistemic Objects', ORGANIZATION STUDIES, Vol: 30, Pages: 7-30, ISSN: 0170-8406
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