Imperial College London

ProfessorKennethLong

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Physics

Professor of Experimental Particle Physics
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 7812k.long Website

 
 
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Assistant

 

Mrs Paula Brown +44 (0)20 7594 7823

 
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Location

 

1105Blackett LaboratorySouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

347 results found

Abud AA, Abi B, Acciarri R, Acero MA, Adames MR, Adamov G, Adamowski M, Adams D, Adinolfi M, Aduszkiewicz A, Aguilar J, Ahmad Z, Ahmed J, Aimard B, Ali-Mohammadzadeh B, Alion T, Allison K, Monsalve SA, AlRashed M, Alt C, Alton A, Alvarez R, Amedo P, Anderson J, Andreopoulos C, Andreotti M, Andrews M, Andrianala F, Andringa S, Anfimov N, Ankowski A, Antoniassi M, Antonova M, Antoshkin A, Antusch S, Aranda-Fernandez A, Arellano L, Arnold LO, Arroyave MA, Asaadi J, Asquith L, Aurisano A, Aushev V, Autiero D, Lara VA, Ayala-Torres M, Azfar F, Babicz M, Back A, Back H, Back JJ, Backhouse C, Bagaturia I, Bagby L, Balashov N, Balasubramanian S, Baldi P, Baller B, Bambah B, Barao F, Barenboim G, Barker G, Barkhouse W, Barnes C, Barr G, Barranco Monarca J, Barros A, Barros N, Barrow JL, Basharina-Freshville A, Bashyal A, Basque V, Batchelor C, das Chagas EB, Battat J, Battisti F, Bay F, Bazetto MCQ, Bazo Alba J, Beacom JF, Bechetoille E, Behera B, Beigbeder C, Bellantoni L, Bellettini G, Bellini V, Beltramello O, Benekos N, Benitez Montiel C, Neves FB, Berger J, Berkman S, Bernardini P, Berner RM, Bersani A, Bertolucci S, Betancourt M, Betancur Rodriguez A, Bevan A, Bezawada Y, Bezerra TS, Bhardwaj A, Bhatnagar V, Bhattacharjee M, Bhattarai D, Bhuller S, Bhuyan B, Biagi S, Bian J, Biassoni M, Biery K, Bilki B, Bishai M, Bitadze A, Blake A, Blaszczyk F, Blazey G, Blucher E, Boissevain J, Bolognesi S, Bolton T, Bomben L, Bonesini M, Bongrand M, Bonilla-Diaz C, Bonini F, Booth A, Boran F, Bordoni S, Borkum A, Bostan N, Bour P, Bourgeois C, Boyden D, Bracinik J, Braga D, Brailsford D, Branca A, Brandt A, Bremer J, Breton D, Brew C, Brice SJ, Brizzolari C, Bromberg C, Brooke J, Bross A, Brunetti G, Brunetti M, Buchanan N, Budd H, Butorov I, Cagnoli I, Cai T, Caiulo D, Calabrese R, Calafiura P, Calcutt J, Calin M, Calvez S, Calvo E, Caminata A, Campanelli M, Caratelli D, Carber D, Carceller J, Carini G, Carlus B, Carneiro MF, Carniti P, Terrazas IC, Carranza H, Carroll T, Castanoet al., 2022, Separation of track- and shower-like energy deposits in ProtoDUNE-SP using a convolutional neural network, European Physical Journal C: Particles and Fields, Vol: 82, Pages: 1-19, ISSN: 1124-1861

Liquid argon time projection chamber detector technology provides high spatial and calorimetric resolutions on the charged particles traversing liquid argon. As a result, the technology has been used in a number of recent neutrino experiments, and is the technology of choice for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). In order to perform high precision measurements of neutrinos in the detector, final state particles need to be effectively identified, and their energy accurately reconstructed. This article proposes an algorithm based on a convolutional neural network to perform the classification of energy deposits and reconstructed particles as track-like or arising from electromagnetic cascades. Results from testing the algorithm on experimental data from ProtoDUNE-SP, a prototype of the DUNE far detector, are presented. The network identifies track- and shower-like particles, as well as Michel electrons, with high efficiency. The performance of the algorithm is consistent between experimental data and simulation.

Journal article

Athar MS, Barwick SW, Brunner T, Cao J, Danilov M, Inoue K, Kajita T, Kowalski M, Lindner M, Long KR, Palanque-Delabrouille N, Rodejohann W, Schellman H, Scholberg K, Seo S-H, Smith NJT, Winter W, Zeller GP, Funchal RZet al., 2022, Status and perspectives of neutrino physics, PROGRESS IN PARTICLE AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS, Vol: 124, ISSN: 0146-6410

Journal article

Abud AA, Abi B, Acciarri R, Acero MA, Adames MR, Adamov G, Adams D, Adinolfi M, Aduszkiewicz A, Aguilar J, Ahmad Z, Ahmed J, Aimard B, Ali-Mohammadzadeh B, Alion T, Allison K, Monsalve SA, AlRashed M, Alt C, Alton A, Amedo P, Anderson J, Andreopoulos C, Andreotti M, Andrews MP, Andrianala F, Andringa S, Anfimov N, Ankowski A, Antoniassi M, Antonova M, Antoshkin A, Antusch S, Aranda-Fernandez A, Arnold LO, Arroyave MA, Asaadi J, Asquith L, Aurisano A, Aushev V, Autiero D, Ayala-Torres M, Azfar F, Back A, Back H, Back JJ, Backhouse C, Bagaturia I, Bagby L, Balashov N, Balasubramanian S, Baldi P, Baller B, Bambah B, Barao F, Barenboim G, Barker GJ, Barkhouse W, Barnes C, Barr G, Barranco Monarca J, Barros A, Barros N, Barrow JL, Basharina-Freshville A, Bashyal A, Basque V, Belchior E, Battat JBR, Battisti F, Bay F, Bazo Alba JL, Beacom JF, Bechetoille E, Behera B, Bellantoni L, Bellettini G, Bellini V, Beltramello O, Benekos N, Benitez Montiel C, Neves FB, Berger J, Berkman S, Bernardini P, Berner RM, Bertolucci S, Betancourt M, Betancur Rodriguez A, Bevan A, Bezawada Y, Bezerra TJC, Bhardwaj A, Bhatnagar V, Bhattacharjee M, Bhuller S, Bhuyan B, Biagi S, Bian J, Biassoni M, Biery K, Bilki B, Bishai M, Bitadze A, Blake A, Blaszczyk FDM, Blazey GC, Blucher E, Boissevain J, Bolognesi S, Bolton T, Bomben L, Bonesini M, Bongrand M, Bonilla-Diaz C, Bonini F, Booth A, Boran F, Bordoni S, Borkum A, Bostan N, Bour P, Bourgeois C, Boyden D, Bracinik J, Braga D, Brailsford D, Branca A, Brandt A, Bremer J, Brew C, Brice SJ, Brizzolari C, Bromberg C, Brooke J, Bross A, Brunetti G, Brunetti M, Buchanan N, Budd H, Butorov I, Cagnoli I, Caiulo D, Calabrese R, Calafiura P, Calcutt J, Calin M, Calvez S, Calvo E, Caminata A, Campanelli M, Caratelli D, Carini G, Carlus B, Carneiro MF, Carniti P, Terrazas IC, Carranza H, Carroll T, Castano Forero JF, Castillo A, Castromonte C, Catano-Mur E, Cattadori C, Cavalier F, Cavanna F, Centro S, Cerati G, Cervelli A, Cervera Villanueva A, Chalifouret al., 2022, Low exposure long-baseline neutrino oscillation sensitivity of the DUNE experiment, Physical Review D: Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, Vol: 105, ISSN: 1550-2368

The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will produce world-leading neutrino oscillation measurements over the lifetime of the experiment. In this work, we explore DUNE’s sensitivity to observe charge-parity violation (CPV) in the neutrino sector, and to resolve the mass ordering, for exposures of up to 100 kiloton-megawatt-calendar years (kt-MW-CY), where calendar years include an assumption of 57% accelerator uptime based on past accelerator performance at Fermilab. The analysis includes detailed uncertainties on the flux prediction, the neutrino interaction model, and detector effects. We demonstrate that DUNE will be able to unambiguously resolve the neutrino mass ordering at a 4σ (5σ) level with a 66 (100) kt-MW-CY far detector exposure, and has the ability to make strong statements at significantly shorter exposures depending on the true value of other oscillation parameters, with a median sensitivity of 3σ for almost all true δCP values after only 24 kt-MW-CY. We also show that DUNE has the potential to make a robust measurement of CPV at a 3σ level with a 100 kt-MW-CY exposure for the maximally CP-violating values δCP=±π/2. Additionally, the dependence of DUNE’s sensitivity on the exposure taken in neutrino-enhanced and antineutrino-enhanced running is discussed. An equal fraction of exposure taken in each beam mode is found to be close to optimal when considered over the entire space of interest.

Journal article

Abud AA, Abi B, Acciarri R, Acero MA, Adames MR, Adamov G, Adams D, Adinolfi M, Aduszkiewicz A, Aguilar J, Ahmad Z, Ahmed J, Ali-Mohammadzadeh B, Alion T, Allison K, Monsalve SA, Alrashed M, Alt C, Alton A, Amedo P, Anderson J, Andreopoulos C, Andreotti M, Andrews MP, Andrianala F, Andringa S, Anfimov N, Ankowski A, Antoniassi M, Antonova M, Antoshkin A, Antusch S, Aranda-Fernandez A, Ariga A, Arnold LO, Arroyave MA, Asaadi J, Asquith L, Aurisano A, Aushev V, Autiero D, Ayala-Torres M, Azfar F, Back A, Back H, Back JJ, Backhouse C, Baesso P, Bagaturia I, Bagby L, Balashov N, Balasubramanian S, Baldi P, Baller B, Bambah B, Barao F, Barenboim G, Barker GJ, Barkhouse W, Barnes C, Barr G, Barranco Monarca J, Barros A, Barros N, Barrow JL, Basharina-Freshville A, Bashyal A, Basque V, Belchior E, Battat JBR, Battisti F, Bay F, Alba JLB, Beacom JF, Bechetoille E, Behera B, Bellantoni L, Bellettini G, Bellini V, Beltramello O, Belver D, Benekos N, Montiel CB, Neves FB, Berger J, Berkman S, Bernardini P, Berner RM, Berns H, Bertolucci S, Betancourt M, Betancur Rodriguez A, Bevan A, Bezerra TJC, Bhattacharjee M, Bhuller S, Bhuyan B, Biagi S, Bian J, Biassoni M, Biery K, Bilki B, Bishai M, Bitadze A, Blake A, Blaszczyk FDM, Blazey GC, Blucher E, Boissevain J, Bolognesi S, Bolton T, Bomben L, Bonesini M, Bongrand M, Bonini F, Booth A, Booth C, Boran F, Bordoni S, Borkum A, Boschi T, Bostan N, Bour P, Bourgeois C, Boyd SB, Boyden D, Bracinik J, Braga D, Brailsford D, Branca A, Brandt A, Bremer J, Brew C, Brianne E, Brice SJ, Brizzolari C, Bromberg C, Brooijmans G, Brooke J, Bross A, Brunetti G, Brunetti M, Buchanan N, Budd H, Butorov I, Cagnoli I, Caiulo D, Calabrese R, Calafiura P, Calcutt J, Calin M, Calvez S, Calvo E, Caminata A, Campanelli M, Cankocak K, Caratelli D, Carini G, Carlus B, Carneiro MF, Carniti P, Terrazas IC, Carranza H, Carroll T, Casta JF, Castillo A, Castromonte C, Catano-Mur E, Cattadori C, Cavalier F, Cavanna F, Centro S, Cerati G, Cervelli A, Cervera Villet al., 2022, Design, construction and operation of the ProtoDUNE-SP liquid argon TPC, Journal of Instrumentation, Vol: 17, ISSN: 1748-0221

The ProtoDUNE-SP detector is a single-phase liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) that was constructed and operated in the CERN North Area at the end of the H4 beamline. This detector is a prototype for the first far detector module of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), which will be constructed at the Sandford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, U.S.A. The ProtoDUNE-SP detector incorporates full-size components as designed for DUNE and has an active volume of 7 × 6 × 7.2 m3. The H4 beam delivers incident particles with well-measured momenta and high-purity particle identification. ProtoDUNE-SP's successful operation between 2018 and 2020 demonstrates the effectiveness of the single-phase far detector design. This paper describes the design, construction, assembly and operation of the detector components.

Journal article

collaboration TMICE, Bogomilov M, Tsenov R, Vankova-Kirilova G, Song YP, Tang JY, Li ZH, Bertoni R, Bonesini M, Chignoli F, Mazza R, Palladino V, Bari AD, Orestano D, Tortora L, Kuno Y, Sakamoto H, Sato A, Ishimoto S, Chung M, Sung CK, Filthaut F, Fedorov M, Jokovic D, Maletic D, Savic M, Jovancevic N, Nikolov J, Vretenar M, Ramberger S, Asfandiyarov R, Blondel A, Drielsma F, Karadzhov Y, Charnley G, Collomb N, Dumbell K, Gallagher A, Grant A, Griffiths S, Hartnett T, Martlew B, Moss A, Muir A, Mullacrane I, Oates A, Owens P, Stokes G, Warburton P, White C, Adams D, Bayliss V, Boehm J, Bradshaw TW, Brown C, Courthold M, Govans J, Hills M, Lagrange J-B, Macwaters C, Nichols A, Preece R, Ricciardi S, Rogers C, Stanley T, Tarrant J, Tucker M, Watson S, Wilson A, Bayes R, Nugent JC, Soler FJP, Gamet R, Cooke P, Blackmore VJ, Colling D, Dobbs A, Dornan P, Franchini P, Hunt C, Jurj PB, Kurup A, Long K, Martyniak J, Middleton S, Pasternak J, Uchida MA, Cobb JH, Booth CN, Hodgson P, Langlands J, Overton E, Pec V, Smith PJ, Wilbur S, Chatzitheodoridis GT, Dick AJ, Ronald K, Whyte CG, Young AR, Boyd S, Greis JR, Lord T, Pidcott C, Taylor I, Ellis M, Gardener RBS, Kyberd P, Nebrensky JJ, Palmer M, Witte H, Adey D, Bross AD, Bowring D, Hanlet P, Liu A, Neuffer D, Popovic M, Rubinov P, DeMello A, Gourlay S, Lambert A, Li D, Luo T, Prestemon S, Virostek S, Freemire B, Kaplan DM, Mohayai TA, Rajaram D, Snopok P, Torun Y, Cremaldi LM, Sanders DA, Summers DJ, Coney LR, Hanson GG, Heidt Cet al., 2021, Performance of the MICE diagnostic system, Journal of Instrumentation, Vol: 16, Pages: P08046-P08046, ISSN: 1748-0221

Muon beams of low emittance provide the basis for the intense,well-characterised neutrino beams of a neutrino factory and for multi-TeVlepton-antilepton collisions at a muon collider. The international MuonIonization Cooling Experiment (MICE) has demonstrated the principle ofionization cooling, the technique by which it is proposed to reduce thephase-space volume occupied by the muon beam at such facilities. This paperdocuments the performance of the detectors used in MICE to measure themuon-beam parameters, and the physical properties of the liquid hydrogen energyabsorber during running.

Journal article

Nonnenmacher T, Dascalu T-S, Bingham R, Cheung CL, Lau H-T, Long K, Pozimski J, Whyte Cet al., 2021, Anomalous beam transport through Gabor (plasma) lens prototype, Applied Sciences-Basel, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 2076-3417

An electron plasma lens is a cost-effective, compact, strong-focusing element that can ensure efficient capture of low-energy proton and ion beams from laser-driven sources. A Gabor lens prototype was built for high electron density operation at Imperial College London. The parameters of the stable operation regime of the lens and its performance during a beam test with 1.4 MeV protons are reported here. Narrow pencil beams were imaged on a scintillator screen 67 cm downstream of the lens. The lens converted the pencil beams into rings that show position-dependent shape and intensity modulation that are dependent on the settings of the lens. Characterisation of the focusing effect suggests that the plasma column exhibited an off-axis rotation similar to the m=1 diocotron instability. The association of the instability with the cause of the rings was investigated using particle tracking simulations.

Journal article

Abi B, Acciarri R, Acero MA, Adamov G, Adams D, Adinolfi M, Ahmad Z, Ahmed J, Alion T, Monsalve SA, Alt C, Anderson J, Andreopoulos C, Andrews MP, Andrianala F, Andringa S, Ankowski A, Antonova M, Antusch S, Aranda-Fernandez A, Ariga A, Arnold LO, Arroyave MA, Asaadi J, Aurisano A, Aushev V, Autiero D, Azfar F, Back H, Back JJ, Backhouse C, Baesso P, Bagby L, Bajou R, Balasubramanian S, Baldi P, Bambah B, Barao F, Barenboim G, Barker GJ, Barkhouse W, Barnes C, Barr G, Barranco Monarca J, Barros N, Barrow JL, Bashyal A, Basque V, Bay F, Bazo Alba JL, Beacom JF, Bechetoille E, Behera B, Bellantoni L, Bellettini G, Bellini V, Beltramello O, Belver D, Benekos N, Neves FB, Berger J, Berkman S, Bernardini P, Berner RM, Berns H, Bertolucci S, Betancourt M, Bezawada Y, Bhattacharjee M, Bhuyan B, Biagi S, Bian J, Biassoni M, Biery K, Bilki B, Bishai M, Bitadze A, Blake A, Siffert BB, Blaszczyk FDM, Blazey GC, Blucher E, Boissevain J, Bolognesi S, Bolton T, Bonesini M, Bongrand M, Bonini F, Booth A, Booth C, Bordoni S, Borkum A, Boschi T, Bostan N, Bour P, Boyd SB, Boyden D, Bracinik J, Braga D, Brailsford D, Brandt A, Bremer J, Brew C, Brianne E, Brice SJ, Brizzolari C, Bromberg C, Brooijmans G, Brooke J, Bross A, Brunetti G, Buchanan N, Budd H, Caiulo D, Calafiura P, Calcutt J, Calin M, Calvez S, Calvo E, Camilleri L, Caminata A, Campanelli M, Caratelli D, Carini G, Carlus B, Carniti P, Terrazas IC, Carranza H, Castillo A, Castromonte C, Cattadori C, Cavalier F, Cavanna F, Centro S, Cerati G, Cervelli A, Cervera Villanueva A, Chalifour M, Chang C, Chardonnet E, Chatterjee A, Chattopadhyay S, Chaves J, Chen H, Chen M, Chen Y, Cherdack D, Chi C, Childress S, Chiriacescu A, Cho K, Choubey S, Christensen A, Christian D, Christodoulou G, Church E, Clarke P, Coan TE, Cocco AG, Coelho JAB, Conley E, Conrad JM, Convery M, Corwin L, Cotte P, Cremaldi L, Cremonesi L, Crespo-Anadon J, Cristaldo E, Cross R, Cuesta C, Cui Y, Cussans D, Dabrowski M, da Motta H, Peres LDS, David C, Davidet al., 2021, Supernova neutrino burst detection with the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, European Physical Journal C: Particles and Fields, Vol: 81, Pages: 1-26, ISSN: 1124-1861

The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), a 40-kton underground liquid argon time projection chamber experiment, will be sensitive to the electron-neutrino flavor component of the burst of neutrinos expected from the next Galactic core-collapse supernova. Such an observation will bring unique insight into the astrophysics of core collapse as well as into the properties of neutrinos. The general capabilities of DUNE for neutrino detection in the relevant few- to few-tens-of-MeV neutrino energy range will be described. As an example, DUNE’s ability to constrain the νe spectral parameters of the neutrino burst will be considered.

Journal article

Chakraborty K, Goswami S, Long K, 2021, New physics at nuSTORM, Physical Review D: Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, Vol: 103, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 1550-2368

In this work we investigate the usefulness of nuSTORM as a probe of two new-physics scenarios that are sterile neutrinos and nonunitarity of the neutrino mixing matrix. For the sterile neutrino we show the importance of the neutral current events when combined with the charged current events to constrain the effective mixing angle, θμμ, and the sterile mixing angles θ14 and θ24. We also study the role nuSTORM will play in the study of neutrino oscillation physics if the three generation neutrino mixing matrix is nonunitary. In this context we elucidate the role of nuSTORM, considering both charged current and neutral current events, in constraining the various nonunitarity parameters such as α11, |α21|, and α22.

Journal article

Abi B, Acciarri R, Acero MA, Adamov G, Adams D, Adinolfi M, Ahmad Z, Ahmed J, Alion T, Monsalve SA, Alt C, Anderson J, Andreopoulos C, Andrews MP, Andrianala F, Andringa S, Ankowski A, Antonova M, Antusch S, Aranda-Fernandez A, Ariga A, Arnold LO, Arroyave MA, Asaadi J, Aurisano A, Aushev V, Autiero D, Azfar F, Back H, Back JJ, Backhouse C, Baesso P, Bagby L, Bajou R, Balasubramanian S, Baldi P, Bambah B, Barao F, Barenboim G, Barker GJ, Barkhouse W, Barnes C, Barr G, Monarca JB, Barros N, Barrow JL, Bashyal A, Basque V, Bay F, Alba JLB, Beacom JF, Bechetoille E, Behera B, Bellantoni L, Bellettini G, Bellini V, Beltramello O, Belver D, Benekos N, Neves FB, Berger J, Berkman S, Bernardini P, Berner RM, Berns H, Bertolucci S, Betancourt M, Bezawada Y, Bhattacharjee M, Bhuyan B, Biagi S, Bian J, Biassoni M, Biery K, Bilki B, Bishai M, Bitadze A, Blake A, Siffert BB, Blaszczyk FDM, Blazey GC, Blucher E, Boissevain J, Bolognesi S, Bolton T, Bonesini M, Bongrand M, Bonini F, Booth A, Booth C, Bordoni S, Borkum A, Boschi T, Bostan N, Bour P, Boyd SB, Boyden D, Bracinik J, Braga D, Brailsford D, Brandt A, Bremer J, Brew C, Brianne E, Brice SJ, Brizzolari C, Bromberg C, Brooijmans G, Brooke J, Bross A, Brunetti G, Buchanan N, Budd H, Caiulo D, Calafiura P, Calcutt J, Calin M, Calvez S, Calvo E, Camilleri L, Caminata A, Campanelli M, Caratelli D, Carini G, Carlus B, Carniti P, Terrazas IC, Carranza H, Castillo A, Castromonte C, Cattadori C, Cavalier F, Cavanna F, Centro S, Cerati G, Cervelli A, Villanueva AC, Chalifour M, Chang C, Chardonnet E, Chatterjee A, Chattopadhyay S, Chaves J, Chen H, Chen M, Chen Y, Cherdack D, Chi C, Childress S, Chiriacescu A, Cho K, Choubey S, Christensen A, Christian D, Christodoulou G, Church E, Clarke P, Coan TE, Cocco AG, Coelho JAB, Conley E, Conrad JM, Convery M, Corwin L, Cotte P, Cremaldi L, Cremonesi L, Crespo-Anadon JI, Cristaldo E, Cross R, Cuesta C, Cui Y, Cussans D, Dabrowski M, da Motta H, Peres LDS, David C, David Q, Davies GS, Daviet al., 2021, Prospects for beyond the standard model physics searches at the deep underground neutrino experiment DUNE collaboration, European Physical Journal C: Particles and Fields, Vol: 81, Pages: 1-51, ISSN: 1124-1861

The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will be a powerful tool for a variety of physics topics. The high-intensity proton beams provide a large neutrino flux, sampled by a near detector system consisting of a combination of capable precision detectors, and by the massive far detector system located deep underground. This configuration sets up DUNE as a machine for discovery, as it enables opportunities not only to perform precision neutrino measurements that may uncover deviations from the present three-flavor mixing paradigm, but also to discover new particles and unveil new interactions and symmetries beyond those predicted in the Standard Model (SM). Of the many potential beyond the Standard Model (BSM) topics DUNE will probe, this paper presents a selection of studies quantifying DUNE’s sensitivities to sterile neutrino mixing, heavy neutral leptons, non-standard interactions, CPT symmetry violation, Lorentz invariance violation, neutrino trident production, dark matter from both beam induced and cosmogenic sources, baryon number violation, and other new physics topics that complement those at high-energy colliders and significantly extend the present reach.

Journal article

Long KR, Lucchesi D, Palmer MA, Pastrone N, Schulte D, Shiltsev Vet al., 2021, Muon colliders to expand frontiers of particle physics, Nature Physics, Vol: 17, Pages: 289-292, ISSN: 1745-2473

Muon colliders offer enormous potential for the exploration of the particle physics frontier but are challenging to realize. A new international collaboration is forming to make such a muon collider a reality.

Journal article

Abi B, Abud AA, Acciarri R, Acero MA, Adamov G, Adamowski M, Adams D, Adrien P, Adinolfi M, Ahmad Z, Ahmed J, Alion T, Monsalve SA, Alt C, Anderson J, Andreopoulos C, Andrews MP, Andrianala F, Andringa S, Ankowski A, Antonova M, Antusch S, Aranda-Fernandez A, Ariga A, Arnold LO, Arroyave MA, Asaadi J, Aurisano A, Aushev V, Autiero D, Azfar F, Back H, Back JJ, Backhouse C, Baesso P, Bagby L, Bajou R, Balasubramanian S, Baldi P, Bambah B, Barao F, Barenboim G, Barker GJ, Barkhouse W, Barnes C, Barr G, Monarca JB, Barros N, Barrow JL, Bashyal A, Basque V, Bay F, Alba JLB, Beacom JF, Bechetoille E, Behera B, Bellantoni L, Bellettini G, Bellini V, Beltramello O, Belver D, Benekos N, Neves FB, Berger J, Berkman S, Bernardini P, Berner RM, Berns H, Bertolucci S, Betancourt M, Bezawada Y, Bhattacharjee M, Bhuyan B, Biagi S, Bian J, Biassoni M, Biery K, Bilki B, Bishai M, Bitadze A, Blake A, Siffert BB, Blaszczyk FDM, Blazey GC, Blucher E, Boissevain J, Bolognesi S, Bolton T, Bonesini M, Bongrand M, Bonini F, Booth A, Booth C, Bordoni S, Borkum A, Boschi T, Bostan N, Bour P, Boyd SB, Boyden D, Bracinik J, Braga D, Brailsford D, Brandt A, Bremer J, Brew C, Brianne E, Brice SJ, Brizzolari C, Bromberg C, Brooijmans G, Brooke J, Bross A, Brunetti G, Buchanan N, Budd H, Caiulo D, Calafiura P, Calcutt J, Calin M, Calvez S, Calvo E, Camilleri L, Caminata A, Campanelli M, Caratelli D, Carini G, Carlus B, Carniti P, Terrazas IC, Carranza H, Castillo A, Castromonte C, Cattadori C, Cavalier F, Cavanna F, Centro S, Cerati G, Cervelli A, Villanueva AC, Chalifour M, Chang C, Chardonnet E, Charitonidis N, Chatterjee A, Chattopadhyay S, Chatzidaki P, Chaves J, Chen H, Chen M, Chen Y, Cherdack D, Chi C, Childress S, Chiriacescu A, Cho K, Choubey S, Christensen A, Christian D, Christodoulou G, Church E, Clarke P, Coan TE, Cocco AG, Coelho JAB, Conley E, Conrad JM, Convery M, Corwin L, Cotte P, Cremaldi L, Cremonesi L, Crespo-Anadon J, Cristaldo E, Cross R, Cuesta C, Cui Y, Cussans D, Dabrowsket al., 2020, First results on ProtoDUNE-SP liquid argon time projection chamber performance from a beam test at the CERN Neutrino Platform, Journal of Instrumentation, Vol: 15, Pages: 1-100, ISSN: 1748-0221

The ProtoDUNE-SP detector is a single-phase liquid argon time projection chamber with an active volume of 7.2× 6.1× 7.0 m3. It is installed at the CERN Neutrino Platform in a specially-constructed beam that delivers charged pions, kaons, protons, muons and electrons with momenta in the range 0.3 GeV/c to 7 GeV/c. Beam line instrumentation provides accurate momentum measurements and particle identification. The ProtoDUNE-SP detector is a prototype for the first far detector module of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, and it incorporates full-size components as designed for that module. This paper describes the beam line, the time projection chamber, the photon detectors, the cosmic-ray tagger, the signal processing and particle reconstruction. It presents the first results on ProtoDUNE-SP's performance, including noise and gain measurements, dE/dx calibration for muons, protons, pions and electrons, drift electron lifetime measurements, and photon detector noise, signal sensitivity and time resolution measurements. The measured values meet or exceed the specifications for the DUNE far detector, in several cases by large margins. ProtoDUNE-SP's successful operation starting in 2018 and its production of large samples of high-quality data demonstrate the effectiveness of the single-phase far detector design.

Journal article

Aymar G, Becker T, Boogert S, Borghesi M, Bingham R, Brenner C, Burrows PN, Ettlinger OC, Dascalu T, Gibson S, Greenshaw T, Gruber S, Gujral D, Hardiman C, Hughes J, Jones WG, Kirkby K, Kurup A, Lagrange J-B, Long K, Luk W, Matheson J, McKenna P, McLauchlan R, Najmudin Z, Lau HT, Parsons JL, Pasternak J, Pozimski J, Prise K, Puchalska M, Ratoff P, Schettino G, Shields W, Smith S, Thomason J, Towe S, Weightman P, Whyte C, Xiao Ret al., 2020, LhARA: The Laser-hybrid accelerator for radiobiological applications, Frontiers in Physics, Vol: 8, Pages: 1-21, ISSN: 2296-424X

The “Laser-hybrid Accelerator for Radiobiological Applications,” LhARA, is conceived as a novel, flexible facility dedicated to the study of radiobiology. The technologies demonstrated in LhARA, which have wide application, will be developed to allow particle-beam therapy to be delivered in a new regimen, combining a variety of ion species in a single treatment fraction and exploiting ultra-high dose rates. LhARA will be a hybrid accelerator system in which laser interactions drive the creation of a large flux of protons or light ions that are captured using a plasma (Gabor) lens and formed into a beam. The laser-driven source allows protons and ions to be captured at energies significantly above those that pertain in conventional facilities, thus evading the current space-charge limit on the instantaneous dose rate that can be delivered. The laser-hybrid approach, therefore, will allow the radiobiology that determines the response of tissue to ionizing radiation to be studied with protons and light ions using a wide variety of time structures, spectral distributions, and spatial configurations at instantaneous dose rates up to and significantly beyond the ultra-high dose-rate “FLASH” regime. It is proposed that LhARA be developed in two stages. In the first stage, a programme of in vitro radiobiology will be served with proton beams with energies between 10 and 15 MeV. In stage two, the beam will be accelerated using a fixed-field alternating-gradient accelerator (FFA). This will allow experiments to be carried out in vitro and in vivo with proton beam energies of up to 127 MeV. In addition, ion beams with energies up to 33.4 MeV per nucleon will be available for in vitro and in vivo experiments. This paper presents the conceptual design for LhARA and the R&D programme by which the LhARA consortium seeks to establish the facility.

Journal article

Abi B, Acciarri R, Acero MA, Adamov G, Adams D, Adinolfi M, Ahmad Z, Ahmed J, Alion T, Monsalve SA, Alt C, Anderson J, Andreopoulos C, Andrews M, Andrianala F, Andringa S, Ankowski A, Antonova M, Antusch S, Aranda-Fernandez A, Ariga A, Arnold LO, Arroyave MA, Asaadi J, Aurisano A, Aushev V, Autiero D, Azfar F, Back H, Back JJ, Backhouse C, Baesso P, Bagby L, Bajou R, Balasubramanian S, Baldi P, Bambah B, Barao F, Barenboim G, Barker G, Barkhouse W, Barnes C, Barr G, Barranco Monarca J, Barros N, Barrow JL, Bashyal A, Basque V, Bay F, Bazo Alba J, Beacom JF, Bechetoille E, Behera B, Bellantoni L, Bellettini G, Bellini V, Beltramello O, Belver D, Benekos N, Neves FB, Berger J, Berkman S, Bernardini P, Berner RM, Berns H, Bertolucci S, Betancourt M, Bezawada Y, Bhattacharjee M, Bhuyan B, Biagi S, Bian J, Biassoni M, Biery K, Bilki B, Bishai M, Bitadze A, Blake A, Siffert BB, Blaszczyk F, Blazey G, Blucher E, Boissevain J, Bolognesi S, Bolton T, Bonesini M, Bongrand M, Bonini F, Booth A, Booth C, Bordoni S, Borkum A, Boschi T, Bostan N, Bour P, Boyd S, Boyden D, Bracinik J, Braga D, Brailsford D, Brandt A, Bremer J, Brew C, Brianne E, Brice SJ, Brizzolari C, Bromberg C, Brooijmans G, Brooke J, Bross A, Brunetti G, Buchanan N, Budd H, Caiulo D, Calafiura P, Calcutt J, Calin M, Calvez S, Calvo E, Camilleri L, Caminata A, Campanelli M, Caratelli D, Carini G, Carlus B, Carniti P, Terrazas IC, Carranza H, Castillo A, Castromonte C, Cattadori C, Cavalier F, Cavanna F, Centro S, Cerati G, Cervelli A, Cervera Villanueva A, Chalifour M, Chang C, Chardonnet E, Chatterjee A, Chattopadhyay S, Chaves J, Chen H, Chen M, Chen Y, Cherdack D, Chi C, Childress S, Chiriacescu A, Cho K, Choubey S, Christensen A, Christian D, Christodoulou G, Church E, Clarke P, Coan TE, Cocco AG, Coelho J, Conley E, Conrad J, Convery M, Corwin L, Cotte P, Cremaldi L, Cremonesi L, Crespo-Anadon J, Cristaldo E, Cross R, Cuesta C, Cui Y, Cussans D, Dabrowski M, Da Motta H, Peres LDS, David Q, Davies GS, Davinet al., 2020, Volume III DUNE far detector technical coordination, Journal of Instrumentation, Vol: 15, Pages: 1-193, ISSN: 1748-0221

The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, the dynamics of the supernovae that produced the heavy elements necessary for life, and whether protons eventually decay—these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our universe, its current state, and its eventual fate. The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is an international world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions as it searches for leptonic charge-parity symmetry violation, stands ready to capture supernova neutrino bursts, and seeks to observe nucleon decay as a signature of a grand unified theory underlying the standard model. The DUNE far detector technical design report (TDR) describes the DUNE physics program and the technical designs of the single- and dual-phase DUNE liquid argon TPC far detector modules. Volume III of this TDR describes how the activities required to design, construct, fabricate, install, and commission the DUNE far detector modules are organized and managed. This volume details the organizational structures that will carry out and/or oversee the planned far detector activities safely, successfully, on time, and on budget. It presents overviews of the facilities, supporting infrastructure, and detectors for context, and it outlines the project-related functions and methodologies used by the DUNE technical coordination organization, focusing on the areas of integration engineering, technical reviews, quality assurance and control, and safety oversight. Because of its more advanced stage of development, functional examples presented in this volume focus primarily on the single-phase (SP) detector module.

Journal article

Abi B, Acciarri R, Acero MA, Adamov G, Adams D, Adinolfi M, Ahmad Z, Ahmed J, Alion T, Monsalve SA, Alt C, Anderson J, Andreopoulos C, Andrews M, Andrianala F, Andringa S, Ankowski A, Antonova M, Antusch S, Aranda-Fernandez A, Ariga A, Arnold LO, Arroyave MA, Asaadi J, Aurisano A, Aushev V, Autiero D, Azfar F, Back H, Back JJ, Backhouse C, Baesso P, Bagby L, Bajou R, Balasubramanian S, Baldi P, Bambah B, Barao F, Barenboim G, Barker G, Barkhouse W, Barnes C, Barr G, Barranco Monarca J, Barros N, Barrow JL, Bashyal A, Basque V, Bay F, Bazo Alba J, Beacom JF, Bechetoille E, Behera B, Bellantoni L, Bellettini G, Bellini V, Beltramello O, Belver D, Benekos N, Neves FB, Berger J, Berkman S, Bernardini P, Berner RM, Berns H, Bertolucci S, Betancourt M, Bezawada Y, Bhattacharjee M, Bhuyan B, Biagi S, Bian J, Biassoni M, Biery K, Bilki B, Bishai M, Bitadze A, Blake A, Siffert BB, Blaszczyk F, Blazey G, Blucher E, Boissevain J, Bolognesi S, Bolton T, Bonesini M, Bongrand M, Bonini F, Booth A, Booth C, Bordoni S, Borkum A, Boschi T, Bostan N, Bour P, Boyd S, Boyden D, Bracinik J, Braga D, Brailsford D, Brandt A, Bremer J, Brew C, Brianne E, Brice SJ, Brizzolari C, Bromberg C, Brooijmans G, Brooke J, Bross A, Brunetti G, Buchanan N, Budd H, Caiulo D, Calafiura P, Calcutt J, Calin M, Calvez S, Calvo E, Camilleri L, Caminata A, Campanelli M, Caratelli D, Carini G, Carlus B, Carniti P, Terrazas IC, Carranza H, Castillo A, Castromonte C, Cattadori C, Cavalier F, Cavanna F, Centro S, Cerati G, Cervelli A, Cervera Villanueva A, Chalifour M, Chang C, Chardonnet E, Chatterjee A, Chattopadhyay S, Chaves J, Chen H, Chen M, Chen Y, Cherdack D, Chi C, Childress S, Chiriacescu A, Cho K, Choubey S, Christensen A, Christian D, Christodoulou G, Church E, Clarke P, Coan TE, Cocco AG, Coelho J, Conley E, Conrad J, Convery M, Corwin L, Cotte P, Cremaldi L, Cremonesi L, Crespo-Anadon J, Cristaldo E, Cross R, Cuesta C, Cui Y, Cussans D, Dabrowski M, Da Motta H, Peres LDS, David Q, Davies GS, Davinet al., 2020, Executive summary, JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION, Vol: 15, Pages: 2-+, ISSN: 1748-0221

The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, the dynamics of the supernovae that produced the heavy elements necessary for life, and whether protons eventually decay—these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our universe, its current state, and its eventual fate. The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is an international world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions as it searches for leptonic charge-parity symmetry violation, stands ready to capture supernova neutrino bursts, and seeks to observe nucleon decay as a signature of a grand unified theory underlying the standard model. The DUNE far detector technical design report (TDR) describes the DUNE physics program and the technical designs of the single- and dual-phase DUNE liquid argon TPC far detector modules. This TDR is intended to justify the technical choices for the far detector that flow down from the high-level physics goals through requirements at all levels of the Project. Volume I contains an executive summary that introduces the DUNE science program, the far detector and the strategy for its modular designs, and the organization and management of the Project. The remainder of Volume I provides more detail on the science program that drives the choice of detector technologies and on the technologies themselves. It also introduces the designs for the DUNE near detector and the DUNE computing model, for which DUNE is planning design reports. Volume II of this TDR describes DUNE's physics program in detail. Volume III describes the technical coordination required for the far detector design, construction, installation, and integration, and its organizational structure. Volume IV describes the single-phase far detector technology. A planned Volume V will describe the dual-phase technology.

Journal article

Abi B, Acciarri R, Acero MA, Adamov G, Adams D, Adinolfi M, Ahmad Z, Ahmed J, Alion T, Monsalve SA, Alt C, Anderson J, Andreopoulos C, Andrews M, Andrianala F, Andringa S, Ankowski A, Antonova M, Antusch S, Aranda-Fernandez A, Ariga A, Arnold LO, Arroyave MA, Asaadi J, Aurisano A, Aushev V, Autiero D, Azfar F, Back H, Back JJ, Backhouse C, Baesso P, Bagby L, Bajou R, Balasubramanian S, Baldi P, Bambah B, Barao F, Barenboim G, Barker G, Barkhouse W, Barnes C, Barr G, Barranco Monarca J, Barros N, Barrow JL, Bashyal A, Basque V, Bay F, Bazo Alba J, Beacom JF, Bechetoille E, Behera B, Bellantoni L, Bellettini G, Bellini V, Beltramello O, Belver D, Benekos N, Neves FB, Berger J, Berkman S, Bernardini P, Berner RM, Berns H, Bertolucci S, Betancourt M, Bezawada Y, Bhattacharjee M, Bhuyan B, Biagi S, Bian J, Biassoni M, Biery K, Bilki B, Bishai M, Bitadze A, Blake A, Siffert BB, Blaszczyk F, Blazey G, Blucher E, Boissevain J, Bolognesi S, Bolton T, Bonesini M, Bongrand M, Bonini F, Booth A, Booth C, Bordoni S, Borkum A, Boschi T, Bostan N, Bour P, Boyd S, Boyden D, Bracinik J, Braga D, Brailsford D, Brandt A, Bremer J, Brew C, Brianne E, Brice SJ, Brizzolari C, Bromberg C, Brooijmans G, Brooke J, Bross A, Brunetti G, Buchanan N, Budd H, Caiulo D, Calafiura P, Calcutt J, Calin M, Calvez S, Calvo E, Camilleri L, Caminata A, Campanelli M, Caratelli D, Carini G, Carlus B, Carniti P, Terrazas IC, Carranza H, Castillo A, Castromonte C, Cattadori C, Cavalier F, Cavanna F, Centro S, Cerati G, Cervelli A, Cervera Villanueva A, Chalifour M, Chang C, Chardonnet E, Chatterjee A, Chattopadhyay S, Chaves J, Chen H, Chen M, Chen Y, Cherdack D, Chi C, Childress S, Chiriacescu A, Cho K, Choubey S, Christensen A, Christian D, Christodoulou G, Church E, Clarke P, Coan TE, Cocco AG, Coelho J, Conley E, Conrad J, Convery M, Corwin L, Cotte P, Cremaldi L, Cremonesi L, Crespo-Anadon J, Cristaldo E, Cross R, Cuesta C, Cui Y, Cussans D, Dabrowski M, Da Motta H, Peres LDS, David Q, Davies GS, Davinet al., 2020, Volume IV The DUNE far detector single-phase technology, Journal of Instrumentation, Vol: 15, Pages: 1-619, ISSN: 1748-0221

The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, the dynamics of the supernovae that produced the heavy elements necessary for life, and whether protons eventually decay—these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our universe, its current state, and its eventual fate. DUNE is an international world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions as it searches for leptonic charge-parity symmetry violation, stands ready to capture supernova neutrino bursts, and seeks to observe nucleon decay as a signature of a grand unified theory underlying the standard model. Central to achieving DUNE's physics program is a far detector that combines the many tens-of-kiloton fiducial mass necessary for rare event searches with sub-centimeter spatial resolution in its ability to image those events, allowing identification of the physics signatures among the numerous backgrounds. In the single-phase liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) technology, ionization charges drift horizontally in the liquid argon under the influence of an electric field towards a vertical anode, where they are read out with fine granularity. A photon detection system supplements the TPC, directly enhancing physics capabilities for all three DUNE physics drivers and opening up prospects for further physics explorations. The DUNE far detector technical design report (TDR) describes the DUNE physics program and the technical designs of the single- and dual-phase DUNE liquid argon TPC far detector modules. Volume IV presents an overview of the basic operating principles of a single-phase LArTPC, followed by a description of the DUNE implementation. Each of the subsystems is described in detail, connecting the high-level design requirements and decisions to the overriding physics goals of DUNE.

Journal article

Aymar G, Becker T, Boogert S, Borghesi M, Bingham R, Brenner C, Burrows PN, Dascalu T, Ettlinger OC, Gibson S, Greenshaw T, Gruber S, Gujral D, Hardiman C, Hughes J, Jones WG, Kirkby K, Kurup A, Lagrange J-B, Long K, Luk W, Matheson J, McKenna P, Mclauchlan R, Najmudin Z, Lau HT, Parsons JL, Pasternak J, Pozimski J, Prise K, Puchalska M, Ratoff P, Schettino G, Shields W, Smith S, Thomason J, Towe S, Weightman P, Whyte C, Xiao Ret al., 2020, The laser-hybrid accelerator for radiobiological applications, Publisher: arXiv

The `Laser-hybrid Accelerator for Radiobiological Applications', LhARA, isconceived as a novel, uniquely-flexible facility dedicated to the study ofradiobiology. The technologies demonstrated in LhARA, which have wideapplication, will be developed to allow particle-beam therapy to be deliveredin a completely new regime, combining a variety of ion species in a singletreatment fraction and exploiting ultra-high dose rates. LhARA will be a hybridaccelerator system in which laser interactions drive the creation of a largeflux of protons or light ions that are captured using a plasma (Gabor) lens andformed into a beam. The laser-driven source allows protons and ions to becaptured at energies significantly above those that pertain in conventionalfacilities, thus evading the current space-charge limit on the instantaneousdose rate that can be delivered. The laser-hybrid approach, therefore, willallow the vast ``terra incognita'' of the radiobiology that determines theresponse of tissue to ionising radiation to be studied with protons and lightions using a wide variety of time structures, spectral distributions, andspatial configurations at instantaneous dose rates up to and significantlybeyond the ultra-high dose-rate `FLASH' regime. It is proposed that LhARA be developed in two stages. In the first stage, aprogramme of in vitro radiobiology will be served with proton beams withenergies between 10MeV and 15MeV. In stage two, the beam will be acceleratedusing a fixed-field accelerator (FFA). This will allow experiments to becarried out in vitro and in vivo with proton beam energies of up to 127MeV. Inaddition, ion beams with energies up to 33.4MeV per nucleon will be availablefor in vitro and in vivo experiments. This paper presents the conceptual designfor LhARA and the R&D programme by which the LhARA consortium seeks toestablish the facility.

Working paper

MICE collaboration, Long KR, 2020, Demonstration of cooling by the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment, Nature, Vol: 578, Pages: 53-59, ISSN: 0028-0836

The use of accelerated beams of electrons, protons or ions has furthered the development of nearly every scientific discipline. However, high-energy muon beams of equivalent quality have not yet been delivered. Muon beams can be created through the decay of pions produced by the interaction of a proton beam with a target. Such 'tertiary' beams have much lower brightness than those created by accelerating electrons, protons or ions. High-brightness muon beams comparable to those produced by state-of-the-art electron, proton and ion accelerators could facilitate the study of lepton-antilepton collisions at extremely high energies and provide well characterized neutrino beams1-6. Such muon beams could be realized using ionization cooling, which has been proposed to increase muon-beam brightness7,8. Here we report the realization of ionization cooling, which was confirmed by the observation of an increased number of low-amplitude muons after passage of the muon beam through an absorber, as well as an increase in the corresponding phase-space density. The simulated performance of the ionization cooling system is consistent with the measured data, validating designs of the ionization cooling channel in which the cooling process is repeated to produce a substantial cooling effect9-11. The results presented here are an important step towards achieving the muon-beam quality required to search for phenomena at energy scales beyond the reach of the Large Hadron Collider at a facility of equivalent or reduced footprint6.

Journal article

Kurup A, Pasternak J, Taylor R, Murgatroyd L, Ettlinger O, Shields W, Nevay L, Gruber S, Pozimski J, Lau HT, Long K, Blackmore V, Barber G, Najmudin Z, Yarnold Jet al., 2019, Simulation of a radiobiology facility for the Centre for the Clinical Application of Particles, Physica Medica, Vol: 65, Pages: 21-28, ISSN: 1120-1797

The Centre for the Clinical Application of Particles’ Laser-hybrid Accelerator for Radiobiological Applications (LhARA) facility is being studied and requires simulation of novel accelerator components (such as the Gabor lens capture system), detector simulation and simulation of the ion beam interaction with cells. The first stage of LhARA will provide protons up to 15 MeV for in vitro studies. The second stage of LhARA will use a fixed-field accelerator to increase the energy of the particles to allow in vivo studies with protons and in vitro studies with heavier ions.BDSIM, a Geant4 based accelerator simulation tool, has been used to perform particle tracking simulations to verify the beam optics design done by BeamOptics and these show good agreement. Design parameters were defined based on an EPOCH simulation of the laser source and a series of mono-energetic input beams were generated from this by BDSIM. The tracking results show the large angular spread of the input beam (0.2 rad) can be transported with a transmission of almost 100% whilst keeping divergence at the end station very low (<0.1 mrad). The legacy of LhARA will be the demonstration of technologies that could drive a step-change in the provision of proton and light ion therapy (i.e. a laser source coupled to a Gabor lens capture and a fixed-field accelerator), and a system capable of delivering a comprehensive set of experimental data that can be used to enhance the clinical application of proton and light ion therapy.

Journal article

Asfandiyarov R, Bayes R, Blackmore V, Bogomilov M, Coiling D, Dobbs AJ, Drielsma F, Drews M, Ellis M, Fedorov M, Franchini P, Gardener R, Greis JR, Hanlet PM, Heidt C, Hunt C, Kafka G, Karadzhov Y, Kurup A, Kyberd P, Littlefield M, Liu A, Long K, Maletic D, Martyniak J, Middleton S, Mohayai T, Nebrensky JJ, Nugent JC, Overton E, Pec V, Pidcott CE, Rajaram D, Rayner M, Reid ID, Rogers CT, Santos E, Savic M, Taylor I, Torun Y, Tunnell CD, Uchida MA, Verguilov V, Walaron K, Winter M, Wilbur Set al., 2019, MAUS: the MICE analysis user software, Journal of Instrumentation, Vol: 14, Pages: 1-21, ISSN: 1748-0221

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) collaboration has developed theMICE Analysis User Software (MAUS) to simulate and analyze experimental data. It serves asthe primary codebase for the experiment, providing for offline batch simulation and reconstructionas well as online data quality checks. The software provides both traditional particle-physicsfunctionalities such as track reconstruction and particle identification, and accelerator physicsfunctions, such as calculating transfer matrices and emittances. The code design is object orientated,but has a top-level structure based on the Map-Reduce model. This allows for parallelization tosupport live data reconstruction during data-taking operations. MAUS allows users to develop in either Python or C++ and provides APIs for both. Various software engineering practices fromindustry are also used to ensure correct and maintainable code, including style, unit and integrationtests, continuous integration and load testing, code reviews, and distributed version control. Thesoftware framework and the simulation and reconstruction capabilities are described

Journal article

Collaboration TMICE, Adams D, Adey D, Asfandiyarov R, Barber G, Bari AD, Bayes R, Bayliss V, Bertoni R, Blackmore V, Blondel A, Boehm J, Bogomilov M, Bonesini M, Booth CN, Bowring D, Boyd S, Bradshaw TW, Bross AD, Brown C, Charnley G, Chatzitheodoridis GT, Chignoli F, Chung M, Cline D, Cobb JH, Colling D, Collomb N, Cooke P, Courthold M, Cremaldi LM, DeMello A, Dick AJ, Dobbs A, Dornan P, Drielsma F, Dumbell K, Ellis M, Filthaut F, Franchini P, Freemire B, Gallagher A, Gamet R, Gardener RBS, Gourlay S, Grant A, Greis JR, Griffiths S, Hanlet P, Hanson GG, Hartnett T, Heidt C, Hodgson P, Hunt C, Ishimoto S, Jokovic D, Jurj PB, Kaplan DM, Karadzhov Y, Klier A, Kuno Y, Kurup A, Kyberd P, Lagrange J-B, Langlands J, Lau W, Li D, Li Z, Liu A, Long K, Lord T, Macwaters C, Maletic D, Martlew B, Martyniak J, Mazza R, Middleton S, Mohayai TA, Moss A, Muir A, Mullacrane I, Nebrensky JJ, Neuffer D, Nichols A, Nugent JC, Oates A, Orestano D, Overton E, Owens P, Palladino V, Palmer M, Pasternak J, Pec V, Pidcott C, Popovic M, Preece R, Prestemon S, Rajaram D, Ricciardi S, Robinson M, Rogers C, Ronald K, Rubinov P, Sakamoto H, Sanders DA, Sato A, Savic M, Snopok P, Smith PJ, Soler FJP, Song Y, Stanley T, Stokes G, Suezaki V, Summers DJ, Sung CK, Tang J, Tarrant J, Taylor I, Tortora L, Torun Y, Tsenov R, Tucker M, Uchida MA, Virostek S, Vankova-Kirilova G, Warburton P, Wilbur S, Wilson A, Witte H, White C, Whyte CG, Yang X, Young AR, Zisman Met al., 2019, First particle-by-particle measurement of emittance in the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment, The European Physical Journal C - Particles and Fields, Vol: 79, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 1124-1861

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) collaboration seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of ionization cooling, the technique by which it is proposed to cool the muon beam at a future neutrino factory or muon collider. The emittance is measured from an ensemble of muons assembled from those that pass through the experiment. A pure muon ensemble is selected using a particle-identification system that can reject efficiently both pions and electrons. The position and momentum of each muon are measured using a high-precision scintillating-fibre tracker in a 4 T solenoidal magnetic field. This paper presents the techniques used to reconstruct the phase-space distributions in the upstream tracking detector and reports the first particle-by-particle measurement of the emittance of the MICE Muon Beam as a function of muon-beam momentum.

Journal article

Bayliss V, Boehm J, Bradshaw T, Courthold M, Harrison S, Hills M, Hodgson P, Ishimoto S, Kurup A, Lau W, Long K, Macwaters C, Nichols A, Summers D, Tucker M, Warburton P, Watson S, Whyte Cet al., 2019, The liquid-hydrogen absorber for MICE, 27th International Cryogenic Engineering Conference (ICEC-ICMC), Publisher: IOP Publishing, ISSN: 1757-8981

This paper describes the liquid hydrogen system constructed for The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE); MICE was built at the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory to demonstrate the principle of muon beam phase-space reduction via ionization cooling. Muon beam cooling will be required at a future proton-derived neutrino factory or muon collider. Ionization cooling is achieved by passing the beam through an energy-absorbing material, such as liquid hydrogen, and then re-accelerating the beam using RF cavities. This paper describes the system creating the 22l of liquid hydrogen within the MICE beamline; the necessary safety engineering, the liquid hydrogen absorber and its associated cryogenic and gas systems are presented, along with its performance.

Conference paper

Bayliss V, Boehm J, Bradshaw T, Courthold M, Harrison S, Hills M, Hodgson P, Ishimoto S, Kurup A, Lau W, Long K, Nichols A, Summers D, Tucker M, Warburton P, Watson S, Whyte Cet al., 2018, The liquid-hydrogen absorber for MICE, Journal of Instrumentation, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1748-0221

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) has been built at the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory to demonstrate the principle of muon beam phase-space reduction via ionization cooling. Muon beam cooling will be required at a future proton-derived neutrino factory or muon collider. Ionization cooling is achieved by passing the beam through an energy-absorbing material, such as liquid hydrogen, and then re-accelerating the beam using RF cavities. This paper describes the hydrogen system constructed for MICE including: the liquid-hydrogen absorber, its associated cryogenic and gas systems, the control and monitoring system, and the necessary safety engineering. The performance of the system in cool-down, liquefaction, and stable operation is also presented.

Journal article

Long KR, 2018, Neutrinos from stored muons, XVII International Workshop on Neutrino Telescopes, Publisher: Proceedings of Science, ISSN: 1824-8039

The nuSTORM facility will provide νe (ν¯e) and νμ (ν¯μ) beams from the decay of low energy muons confined within a storage ring. The instrumentation of the ring, combined with the excellent knowledge of muon decay, will make it possible to determine the neutrino flux at the \%-level or better. The neutrino and anti-neutrino event rates are such that the nuSTORM facility, serving a suite of near detectors, will allow measurements of the νeA (ν¯eA) and νμA (ν¯μA) cross sections to be made with the precision required to enhance the sensitivity of the next generation of long-baseline neutrino-oscillation experiments thereby enhancing their discovery potential. By delivering precise cross section measurements with a pure weak probe nuSTORM has the potential to make measurements important to understanding the physics of nuclei. The precise knowledge of the initial neutrino flux also makes it possible to deliver uniquely sensitive light sterile-neutrino searches. The concept for the nuSTORM facility will be presented together with an evaluation of its performance. The status of the planned consideration of nuSTORM at CERN in the context of the Physics Beyond Colliders Study Group will be summarised.

Conference paper

Ronald K, Whyte CG, Dick AJ, Young AR, Li D, DeMello AJ, Lambert AR, Luo T, Anderson T, Bowring D, Bross A, Moretti A, Pasquinelli R, Peterson D, Popovic M, Schultz R, Volk J, Torun Y, Hanlet P, Freemire B, Moss A, Dumbell K, Grant A, White C, Griffiths S, Stanley T, Anderson R, Alsari S, Long K, Kurup A, Summers D, Smith PJet al., 2018, RF system for the MICE demonstration of ionisation cooling, IVEC 2017, Publisher: IEEE

Muon accelerators offer an attractive option for a range of future particle physics experiments. They can enable high energy (TeV+) high energy lepton colliders whilst mitigating the difficulty of synchrotron losses, and can provide intense beams of neutrinos for fundamental physics experiments investigating the physics of flavor. The method of production of muon beams results in high beam emittance which must be reduced for efficient acceleration. Conventional emittance control schemes take too long, given the very short (2.2 microsecond) rest lifetime of the muon. Ionisation cooling offers a much faster approach to reducing particle emittance, and the international MICE collaboration aims to demonstrate this technique for the first time. This paper will present the MICE RF system and its role in the context of the overall experiment.

Conference paper

Long K, 2018, The nuSTORM experiment, Conference on Neutrino and Nuclear Physics (CNNP), Publisher: IOP PUBLISHING LTD, Pages: 1-6, ISSN: 1742-6588

The nuSTORM facility will provide νe and νµ beams from the decay of low energy muons confined within a storage ring. The instrumentation of the ring, combined with the excellent knowledge of muon decay, will make it possible to determine the neutrino flux at the %-level or better. The neutrino and anti-neutrino event rates are such that the nuSTORM facility serving a suite of near detectors will be able to measure νeN and νµN cross sections with the %-level precision required to allow the next generation of long-baseline neutrino-oscillation experiments to fulfil their potential. By delivering precise cross section measurements with a pure weak probe nuSTORM may have the potential to make measurements important to understanding the physics of nuclei. The precise knowledge of the initial neutrino flux also makes it possible to deliver uniquely sensitive sterile-neutrino searches. The concept for the nuSTORM facility will be presented together with an evaluation of its performance. The status of the planned consideration of nuSTORM at CERN in the context of the Physics Beyond Colliders workshop will be summarised.

Conference paper

Long KR, 2017, XXVII International Conference on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (Neutrino2016), 27th International Conference on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (Neutrino 2016), Publisher: Institute of Physics (IoP), ISSN: 1742-6588

Conference paper

Long KR, 2017, Neutrino-nucleus scattering at nuSTORM, XXV International Workshop on Deep-Inelastic Scattering and Related Subjects (DIS2017), Publisher: Proceedings of Science

The Neutrinos from Stored Muons (nuSTORM) facility will provide νe/ν¯µ (ν¯e/νµ ) beams fromthe decay of low energy muons confined within a storage ring. The instrumentation of the ring,combined with the excellent knowledge of muon decay, will make it possible to determine theneutrino flux at the %-level or better. The neutrino and anti-neutrino event rates are such thatthe nuSTORM facility will allow measurements of the νe(ν¯e)N and νµ (ν¯µ )N cross sections tobe made with the precision required to enhance the sensitivity of the next generation of longbaselineneutrino-oscillation experiments thereby enhancing their discovery potential. By deliveringprecise cross-section measurements with a pure weak probe nuSTORM has the potential tomake measurements important to further the understanding of the physics of nuclei. The preciseknowledge of the initial neutrino flux also makes it possible to deliver uniquely sensitive lightsterile-neutrino searches. The concept for the nuSTORM facility will be presented together withan evaluation of its performance. The status of the planned consideration of nuSTORM at CERNin the context of the Physics Beyond Colliders Study Group will be summarised.

Conference paper

Zarrebini-Esfahani A, Aslaninejad M, Ristic M, Long Ket al., 2017, Experimental analysis of surface finish in normal conducting cavities, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol: 869, Pages: 76-83, ISSN: 0168-9002

A normal conducting 805 MHz test cavity with an in built button shaped sample is used to conduct a series of surface treatment experiments. The button enhances the local fields and influences the likelihood of an RF breakdown event. Because of their smaller sizes, compared to the whole cavity surface, they allow practical investigations of the effects of cavity surface preparation in relation to RF breakdown. Manufacturing techniques and steps for preparing the buttons to improve the surface quality are described in detail. It was observed that even after the final stage of the surface treatment, defects on the surface of the cavities still could be found.

Journal article

Bogomilov M, Long KR, The MICE collaboration, 2017, Lattice design and expected performance of the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment demonstration of ionization cooling, Physical Review Accelerators and Beams, Vol: 20, ISSN: 2469-9888

Muon beams of low emittance provide the basis for the intense, well-characterized neutrino beams necessary to elucidate the physics of flavor at a neutrino factory and to provide lepton-antilepton collisions at energies of up to several TeV at a muon collider. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) aims to demonstrate ionization cooling, the technique by which it is proposed to reduce the phase-space volume occupied by the muon beam at such facilities. In an ionization-cooling channel, the muon beam passes through a material in which it loses energy. The energy lost is then replaced using rf cavities. The combined effect of energy loss and reacceleration is to reduce the transverse emittance of the beam (transverse cooling). A major revision of the scope of the project was carried out over the summer of 2014. The revised experiment can deliver a demonstration of ionization cooling. The design of the cooling demonstration experiment will be described together with its predicted cooling performance.

Journal article

Dobbs A, Hunt C, Long K, Santos E, Uchida MA, Kyberd P, Heidt C, Blot S, Overton Eet al., 2016, The reconstruction software for the MICE scintillating fibre trackers, Journal of Instrumentation, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1748-0221

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will demonstrate the principle of muon beam phase-space reduction via ionization cooling. Muon beam cooling will be required for the proposed Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. The phase-space before and after the cooling cell must be measured precisely. This is achieved using two scintillating-fibre trackers, each placed in a solenoidal magnetic field. This paper describes the software reconstruction for the fibre trackers: the GEANT4 based simulation; the implementation of the geometry; digitisation; space-point reconstruction; pattern recognition; and the final track fit based on a Kalman filter. The performance of the software is evaluated by means of Monte Carlo studies and the precision of the final track reconstruction is evaluated.

Journal article

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