Imperial College London

ProfessorSalmanRawaf

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Director of WHO Collaborating Centre
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 8814s.rawaf

 
 
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Assistant

 

Ms Ela Augustyniak +44 (0)20 7594 8603

 
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Location

 

311Reynolds BuildingCharing Cross Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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303 results found

Awedew AF, Han H, Abbasi B, Abbasi-Kangevari M, Ahmed MB, Almidani O, Amini E, Arabloo J, Argaw AM, Athari SS, Atlaw D, Banach M, Barrow A, Bhagavathula AS, Bhojaraja VS, Bikbov B, Bodicha BBA, Butt NS, Caetano dos Santos FL, Dadras O, Dai X, Doan LP, Eftekharzadeh S, Fatehizadeh A, Garg T, Gebremeskel TG, Getachew ME, Ghamari SH, Gilani SA, Golechha M, Gupta VB, Gupta VK, Hay SI, Hosseini MS, Hosseinzadeh M, Humayun A, Ilic IM, Ilic MD, Ismail NE, Jakovljevic M, Jayaram S, Jazayeri SB, Jema AT, Kabir A, Karaye IM, Khader YS, Khan EA, Landires I, Lee SW, Lee SWH, Lim SS, Lobo SW, Majeed A, Malekpour MR, Malih N, Malik AA, Mehrabi Nasab E, Mestrovic T, Michalek IM, Mihrtie GN, Mirza-Aghazadeh-Attari M, Misganaw AT, Mokdad AH, Molokhia M, Murray CJL, Narasimha Swamy S, Nguyen SH, Nowroozi A, Nuñez-Samudio V, Owolabi MO, Pawar S, Perico N, Rawaf DL, Rawaf S, Rawassizadeh R, Remuzzi G, Sahebkar A, Sampath C, Shetty JK, Sibhat MM, Singh JA, Tan KK, Temesgen G, Tolani MA, Tovani-Palone MR, Valadan Tahbaz S, Valizadeh R, Vo B, Vu LG, Yang L, Yazdanpanah F, Yigit A, Yiğit V, Yunusa I, Zahir M, Vos T, Dirac MAet al., 2022, The global, regional, and national burden of benign prostatic hyperplasia in 204 countries and territories from 2000 to 2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet Healthy Longevity, Vol: 3, Pages: e754-e776

Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common urological disease affecting older men worldwide, but comprehensive data about the global, regional, and national burden of benign prostatic hyperplasia and its trends over time are scarce. As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019, we estimated global trends in, and prevalence of, benign prostatic hyperplasia and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia, in 21 regions and 204 countries and territories from 2000 to 2019. Methods: This study was conducted with GBD 2019 analytical and modelling strategies. Primary prevalence data came from claims from three countries and from hospital inpatient encounters from 45 locations. A Bayesian meta-regression modelling tool, DisMod-MR version 2.1, was used to estimate the age-specific, location-specific, and year-specific prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Age-standardised prevalence was calculated by the direct method using the GBD reference population. Years lived with disability (YLDs) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia were estimated by multiplying the disability weight by the symptomatic proportion of the prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Because we did not estimate years of life lost associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) equalled YLDs. The final estimates were compared across Socio-demographic Index (SDI) quintiles. The 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) were estimated as the 25th and 975th of 1000 ordered draws from a bootstrap distribution. Findings: Globally, there were 94·0 million (95% UI 73·2 to 118) prevalent cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia in 2019, compared with 51·1 million (43·1 to 69·3) cases in 2000. The age-standardised prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia was 2480 (1940 to 3090) per 100 000 people. Although the global number of prevalent cases increased by 70·5%

Journal article

European Antimicrobial Resistance Collaborators, 2022, The burden of bacterial antimicrobial resistance in the WHO European region in 2019: a cross-country systematic analysis., Lancet Public Health, Vol: 7, Pages: e897-e913

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents one of the most crucial threats to public health and modern health care. Previous studies have identified challenges with estimating the magnitude of the problem and its downstream effect on human health and mortality. To our knowledge, this study presents the most comprehensive set of regional and country-level estimates of AMR burden in the WHO European region to date. METHODS: We estimated deaths and disability-adjusted life-years attributable to and associated with AMR for 23 bacterial pathogens and 88 pathogen-drug combinations for the WHO European region and its countries in 2019. Our methodological approach consisted of five broad components: the number of deaths in which infection had a role, the proportion of infectious deaths attributable to a given infectious syndrome, the proportion of infectious syndrome deaths attributable to a given pathogen, the percentage of a given pathogen resistant to an antimicrobial drug of interest, and the excess risk of mortality (or duration of an infection) associated with this resistance. These components were then used to estimate the disease burden by using two counterfactual scenarios: deaths attributable to AMR (considering an alternative scenario where infections with resistant pathogens are replaced with susceptible ones) and deaths associated with AMR (considering an alternative scenario where drug-resistant infections would not occur at all). Data were solicited from a wide array of international stakeholders; these included research hospitals, surveillance networks, and infection databases maintained by private laboratories and medical technology companies. We generated 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) for final estimates as the 25th and 975th ordered values across 1000 posterior draws, and models were cross-validated for out-of-sample predictive validity. FINDINGS: We estimated 541 000 deaths (95% UI 370 000-763 000) associated with bacterial AMR and 133 000 d

Journal article

GBD 2019 LRI Collaborators, 2022, Age-sex differences in the global burden of lower respiratory infections and risk factors, 1990-2019: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019., Lancet Infect Dis, Vol: 22, Pages: 1626-1647

BACKGROUND: The global burden of lower respiratory infections (LRIs) and corresponding risk factors in children older than 5 years and adults has not been studied as comprehensively as it has been in children younger than 5 years. We assessed the burden and trends of LRIs and risk factors across all age groups by sex, for 204 countries and territories. METHODS: In this analysis of data for the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019, we used clinician-diagnosed pneumonia or bronchiolitis as our case definition for LRIs. We included International Classification of Diseases 9th edition codes 079.6, 466-469, 470.0, 480-482.8, 483.0-483.9, 484.1-484.2, 484.6-484.7, and 487-489 and International Classification of Diseases 10th edition codes A48.1, A70, B97.4-B97.6, J09-J15.8, J16-J16.9, J20-J21.9, J91.0, P23.0-P23.4, and U04-U04.9. We used the Cause of Death Ensemble modelling strategy to analyse 23 109 site-years of vital registration data, 825 site-years of sample vital registration data, 1766 site-years of verbal autopsy data, and 681 site-years of mortality surveillance data. We used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, to analyse age-sex-specific incidence and prevalence data identified via systematic reviews of the literature, population-based survey data, and claims and inpatient data. Additionally, we estimated age-sex-specific LRI mortality that is attributable to the independent effects of 14 risk factors. FINDINGS: Globally, in 2019, we estimated that there were 257 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 240-275) LRI incident episodes in males and 232 million (217-248) in females. In the same year, LRIs accounted for 1·30 million (95% UI 1·18-1·42) male deaths and 1·20 million (1·07-1·33) female deaths. Age-standardised incidence and mortality rates were 1·17 times (95% UI 1·16-1·18) and 1·31 times (95% UI 1·23-1·41) greater in males th

Journal article

Roberts NLS, Johnson EK, Zeng SM, Hamilton EB, Abdoli A, Alahdab F, Alipour V, Ancuceanu R, Andrei CL, Anvari D, Arabloo J, Ausloos M, Awedew AF, Badiye AD, Bakkannavar SM, Bhalla A, Bhardwaj N, Bhardwaj P, Bhaumik S, Bijani A, Boloor A, Cai T, Carvalho F, Chu D-T, Couto RAS, Dai X, Desta AA, Hoa TD, Earl L, Eftekhari A, Esmaeilzadeh F, Farzadfar F, Fernandes E, Filip I, Foroutan M, Franklin RC, Gaidhane AM, Gebregiorgis BG, Gebremichael B, Ghashghaee A, Golechha M, Hamidi S, Haque SE, Hayat K, Herteliu C, Ilesanmi OS, Islam MM, Jagnoor J, Kanchan T, Kapoor N, Khan EA, Khatib MN, Khundkar R, Krishan K, Kumar GA, Kumar N, Landires I, Lim SS, Madadin M, Maled V, Manafi N, Marczak LB, Menezes RG, Meretoja TJ, Miller TR, Mohammadian-Hafshejani A, Mokdad AH, Monteiro FNP, Moradi M, Nayak VC, Cuong TN, Huong LTN, Nunez-Samudio V, Ostroff SM, Padubidri JR, Hai QP, Pinheiro M, Pirestani M, Syed ZQ, Rabiee N, Radfar A, Rahimi-Movaghar V, Rao SJ, Rastogi P, Rawaf DL, Rawaf S, Reiner RC, Sahebkar A, Samy AM, Sawhney M, Schwebel DC, Senthilkumaran S, Shaikh MA, Skryabin VY, Skryabina AA, Soheili A, Stokes MA, Thapar R, Tovani-Palone MR, Bach XT, Travillian RS, Velazquez DZ, Zhang Z-J, Naghavi M, Dandona R, Dandona L, James SL, Pigott DM, Murray CJL, Hay S, Theo V, Ong KLet al., 2022, Global mortality of snakebite envenoming between 1990 and 2019, NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 13

Journal article

Mangieri CW, Valenzuela CD, Strode MA, Erali RA, Shen P, Howerton R, Clark CJet al., 2022, Effect of preoperative liver-directed therapy prior to hepatic resection., Am J Surg

INTRODUCTION: Hepatobiliary malignancies present with advanced disease precluding upfront resection. Liver-directed therapy (LDT), particularly Y-90 radioembolization and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), has become increasingly utilized to facilitate attempt at oncologic resection. However, the safety profile of preoperative LDT is limited. METHODS: Retrospective review of the ACS NSQIP main and targeted hepatectomy registries for 2014-2016. Primary objective was evaluation of outcomes between preoperative LDT cases and those that received upfront resection. RESULTS: A total of 8923 cases met selection criteria. 192 cases (2.15%) received either Y-90 or TACE prior to hepatectomy. Multivariate analysis for all study patients revealed preoperative LDT significantly increased the risk of perioperative transfusion (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.445-3.328, P < 0.0001), sepsis (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.104-4.411, P = 0.022), and liver failure (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.562-4.747, P < 0.0001). Subgroup analysis found for primary hepatobiliary malignancies LDT only increased the risk for liver failure. While for secondary hepatic tumors LDT significantly increased perioperative transfusion, sepsis, cardiac failure, renal failure, liver failure, and mortality. The complication profile also significantly increased with advanced T stage. Conversely, on propensity score matching preoperative LDT did not significantly increase perioperative complications. CONCLUSION: Preoperative LDT has the potential to convert inoperable hepatic tumors into resectable disease but there is a general increased risk for significant postoperative complications, most notable liver failure. However, on controlled analysis preoperative LDT does not increase perioperative complications and should not be considered a contraindication to resection.

Journal article

, 2022, Health Beliefs and Cardiovascular Risk among Saudi Women: A Cross Sectional Study, Family Medicine and Primary Care: Open Access, Vol: 6

Journal article

Frostad JJ, Nguyen QP, Baumann MM, Blacker BF, Marczak LB, Deshpande A, Wiens KE, LeGrand KE, Johnson KB, Abbasi-Kangevari M, Abdoli A, Abolhassani H, Abreu LG, Abrigo MRM, Abu-Rmeileh NME, Adekanmbi V, Agrawal A, Ahmed MB, Al-Aly Z, Alanezi FM, Alcalde-Rabanal JE, Alipour V, Altirkawi KA, Alvis-Guzman N, Alvis-Zakzuk NJ, Amegah AK, Amini S, Amiri F, Amugsi DA, Ancuceanu R, Andrei CL, Andrei T, Antriyandarti E, Anvari D, Arabloo J, Arab-Zozani M, Athari SS, Ausloos M, Ayano G, Aynalem YA, Azari S, Badiye AD, Baig AA, Balakrishnan K, Banach M, Basu S, Bedi N, Bell ML, Bennett DA, Bhattacharyya K, Bhutta ZA, Bibi S, Bohlouli S, Boufous S, Bragazzi NL, Braithwaite D, Burugina Nagaraja S, Butt ZA, Caetano dos Santos FL, Car J, Cárdenas R, Carvalho F, Castaldelli-Maia JM, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Cerin E, Chattu SK, Chattu VK, Chaturvedi P, Chaturvedi S, Chen S, Chu D-T, Chung S-C, Dahlawi SMA, Damiani G, Dandona L, Dandona R, Darwesh AM, Das JK, Dash AP, Dávila-Cervantes CA, De Leo D, De Neve J-W, Demissie GD, Denova-Gutiérrez E, Dey S, Dharmaratne SD, Dhimal M, Dhungana GP, Diaz D, Dipeolu IO, Dorostkar F, Doshmangir L, Duraes AR, Edinur HA, Efendi F, El Tantawi M, Eskandarieh S, Fadhil I, Fattahi N, Fauk NK, Fereshtehnejad S-M, Folayan MO, Foroutan M, Fukumoto T, Gaidhane AM, Ghafourifard M, Ghashghaee A, Gilani SA, Gill TK, Goulart AC, Goulart BNG, Grada A, Gubari MIM, Guido D, Guo Y, Gupta RD, Gupta R, Gutiérrez RA, Hafezi-Nejad N, Hamadeh RR, Hasaballah AI, Hassanipour S, Hayat K, Heibati B, Heidari-Soureshjani R, Henry NJ, Herteliu C, Hosseinzadeh M, Hsairi M, Hu G, Ibitoye SE, Ilesanmi OS, Ilic IM, Ilic MD, Irvani SSN, Islam SMS, Iwu CCD, Jaafari J, Jakovljevic M, Javaheri T, Jha RP, Ji JS, Jonas JB, Kabir A, Kabir Z, Kalhor R, Kamyari N, Kanchan T, Kapil U, Kapoor N, Kayode GA, Keiyoro PN, Khader YS, Khalid N, Khan EA, Khan M, Khan MN, Khatab K, Khater MM, Khatib MN, Khayamzadeh M, Khubchandani J, Kim GR, Kim YJ, Kimokoti RW, Kisa A, Kisa S, Knibbs LD, Koul PA, Koyet al., 2022, Mapping development and health effects of cooking with solid fuels in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000–18: a geospatial modelling study, The Lancet Global Health, Vol: 10, Pages: e1395-e1411, ISSN: 2214-109X

Journal article

GBD 2019 Hepatitis B Collaborators, 2022, Global, regional, and national burden of hepatitis B, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019., Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol, Vol: 7, Pages: 796-829

BACKGROUND: Combating viral hepatitis is part of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and WHO has put forth hepatitis B elimination targets in its Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis (WHO-GHSS) and Interim Guidance for Country Validation of Viral Hepatitis Elimination (WHO Interim Guidance). We estimated the global, regional, and national prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), as well as mortality and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to HBV, as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019. This included estimates for 194 WHO member states, for which we compared our estimates to WHO elimination targets. METHODS: The primary data sources were population-based serosurveys, claims and hospital discharges, cancer registries, vital registration systems, and published case series. We estimated chronic HBV infection and the burden of HBV-related diseases, defined as an aggregate of cirrhosis due to hepatitis B, liver cancer due to hepatitis B, and acute hepatitis B. We used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian mixed-effects meta-regression tool, to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection, cirrhosis, and aetiological proportions of cirrhosis. We used mortality-to-incidence ratios modelled with spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression to estimate the incidence of liver cancer. We used the Cause of Death Ensemble modelling (CODEm) model, a tool that selects models and covariates on the basis of out-of-sample performance, to estimate mortality due to cirrhosis, liver cancer, and acute hepatitis B. FINDINGS: In 2019, the estimated global, all-age prevalence of chronic HBV infection was 4·1% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 3·7 to 4·5), corresponding to 316 million (284 to 351) infected people. There was a 31·3% (29·0 to 33·9) decline in all-age prevalence between 1990 and 2019, with a more marked decline of 76·8% (76·2 to 77·5) in prevalence in childr

Journal article

Khanh BT, Lang JJ, Compton K, Xu R, Acheson AR, Henrikson HJ, Kocarnik JM, Penberthy L, Aali A, Abbas Q, Abbasi B, Abbasi-Kangevari M, Abbasi-Kangevari Z, Abbastabar H, Abdelmasseh M, Abd-Elsalam S, Abdelwahab AA, Abdoli G, Abdulkadir HA, Abedi A, Abegaz KH, Abidi H, Aboagye RG, Abolhassani H, Absalan A, Abtew YD, Ali HA, Abu-Gharbieh E, Achappa B, Acuna JM, Addison D, Addo IY, Adegboye OA, Adesina MA, Adnan M, Adnani QES, Advani SM, Afrin S, Afzal MS, Aggarwal M, Ahinkorah BO, Ahmad AR, Ahmad R, Ahmad S, Ahmadi S, Ahmed H, Ahmed LA, Ahmed MB, Rashid TA, Aiman W, Ajami M, Akalu GT, Akbarzadeh-Khiavi M, Aklilu A, Akonde M, Akunna CJ, Al Hamad H, Alahdab F, Alanezi FM, Alanzi TM, Alessy SA, Algammal AM, Al-Hanawi MK, Alhassan RK, Ali BA, Ali L, Ali SS, Alimohamadi Y, Alipour V, Aljunid SM, Alkhayyat M, Al-Maweri SAA, Almustanyir S, Alonso N, Alqalyoobi S, Al-Raddadi RM, Al-Rifai RHH, Al-Sabah SK, Al-Tammemi AB, Altawalah H, Alvis-Guzman N, Amare F, Ameyaw EK, Dehkordi JJA, Amirzade-Iranaq MH, Amu H, Amusa GA, Ancuceanu R, Anderson JA, Animut YA, Anoushiravani A, Anoushirvani AA, Ansari-Moghaddam A, Ansha MG, Antony B, Antwi MH, Anwar SL, Anwer R, Anyasodor AE, Arabloo J, Arab-Zozani M, Aremu O, Argaw AM, Ariffin H, Aripov T, Arshad M, Al A, Arulappan J, Aruleba RT, Aryannejad A, Asaad M, Asemahagn MA, Asemi Z, Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Ashraf T, Assadi R, Athar M, Athari SS, Null MMWA, Attia S, Aujayeb A, Ausloos M, Avila-Burgos L, Awedew AF, Awoke MA, Awoke T, Quintanilla BPA, Ayana TM, Ayen SS, Azadi D, Null SA, Azami-Aghdash S, Azanaw MM, Azangou-Khyavy M, Jafari AA, Azizi H, Azzam AYY, Babajani A, Badar M, Badiye AD, Baghcheghi N, Bagheri N, Bagherieh S, Bahadory S, Baig AA, Baker JL, Bakhtiari A, Bakshi RK, Banach M, Banerjee I, Bardhan M, Barone-Adesi F, Barra F, Barrow A, Bashir NZ, Bashiri A, Basu S, Batiha A-MM, Begum A, Bekele AB, Belay AS, Belete MA, Belgaumi UI, Bell AW, Belo L, Benzian H, Berhie AY, Bermudez ANC, Bernabe E, Bhagavathula AS, Bhala N, Bhandariet al., 2022, The global burden of cancer attributable to risk factors, 2010-19: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, LANCET, Vol: 400, Pages: 563-591, ISSN: 0140-6736

Journal article

Hertelendy AJ, Chekijian S, McNulty E, Mitchell CL, Grimes JO, Durneva P, Ranse J, Voskanyan A, Nazarian V, Rawaf S, Tabche C, Ciottone GRet al., 2022, Crisis leadership: a case for inclusion in accredited Master of Public Health program curricula, Public Health, Vol: 209, Pages: 14-18, ISSN: 0033-3506

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the exposure to crisis leadership theory already present in Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH) accredited Master of Public Health (MPH) programs in the United States and provide a compelling case for its future inclusion. STUDY DESIGN: This was a narrative review. METHODS: We compiled a comprehensive list of 179 CEPH schools that offered an MPH program. During January through March 2021, we examined 179 websites for the core courses and elective courses offered in the MPH degree program to determine if any courses covered the topics of leadership, crisis leadership, or crisis management in either the course title or description. RESULTS: Leadership courses were available in only 55.31% of CEPH-accredited schools. Only a single program (0.56%) offers a crisis leadership course. CONCLUSIONS: The current global COVID-19 pandemic and reality of climate-induced disasters have brought crises to the forefront for health systems. Successful leadership for the future requires public health leaders to have training in crisis leadership. The evaluation and revision of public health curricula must focus on leadership competency development to prepare graduates to lead complex multiple crisis events and system shocks simultaneously.

Journal article

GBD 2019 Adolescent Transport and Unintentional Injuries Collaborators, 2022, Adolescent transport and unintentional injuries: a systematic analysis using the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019., The Lancet Public Health, Vol: 7, Pages: e657-e669, ISSN: 2468-2667

BACKGROUND: Globally, transport and unintentional injuries persist as leading preventable causes of mortality and morbidity for adolescents. We sought to report comprehensive trends in injury-related mortality and morbidity for adolescents aged 10-24 years during the past three decades. METHODS: Using the Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2019 Study, we analysed mortality and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) attributed to transport and unintentional injuries for adolescents in 204 countries. Burden is reported in absolute numbers and age-standardised rates per 100 000 population by sex, age group (10-14, 15-19, and 20-24 years), and sociodemographic index (SDI) with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We report percentage changes in deaths and DALYs between 1990 and 2019. FINDINGS: In 2019, 369 061 deaths (of which 214 337 [58%] were transport related) and 31·1 million DALYs (of which 16·2 million [52%] were transport related) among adolescents aged 10-24 years were caused by transport and unintentional injuries combined. If compared with other causes, transport and unintentional injuries combined accounted for 25% of deaths and 14% of DALYs in 2019, and showed little improvement from 1990 when such injuries accounted for 26% of adolescent deaths and 17% of adolescent DALYs. Throughout adolescence, transport and unintentional injury fatality rates increased by age group. The unintentional injury burden was higher among males than females for all injury types, except for injuries related to fire, heat, and hot substances, or to adverse effects of medical treatment. From 1990 to 2019, global mortality rates declined by 34·4% (from 17·5 to 11·5 per 100 000) for transport injuries, and by 47·7% (from 15·9 to 8·3 per 100 000) for unintentional injuries. However, in low-SDI nations the absolute number of deaths increased (by 80·5% to 42 774 for transport

Journal article

Saad RK, Abu Khudair S, El Rabbat M, Omar M, Al Nsour M, Khader Y, Rawaf Set al., 2022, Published Research on COVID-19 in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Bibliometric Analysis., Interact J Med Res, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1929-073X

BACKGROUND: The challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic have led to unprecedented global research activity. The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) continues to contribute to COVID-19 research driven by the unique challenges of the region, including the protracted conflicts, already stressed health systems, and serious health and social inequalities. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide an overview of the publication activities and trends in COVID-19 research in the EMR from the onset of the disease to early 2022 using bibliometric methods. METHODS: A literature search using Scopus was conducted from December 1, 2019, to January 31, 2022, using keywords relevant to COVID-19 and the World Health Organization (WHO) EMR country list. Data were exported and analyzed using Microsoft Excel and the Citation Overview function on Scopus. The quality of journals was determined using SCImago Journal Rank and CiteScore. VOSviewer software was used to visualize the relationships between authors, countries, and key terms used in the retrieved documents. RESULTS: A total of 6880 documents were retrieved, of which 1805 (26.24%) were from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and 1782 (25.90%) from Iran, followed by Pakistan, Egypt, and Jordan. Most published documents were affiliated with EMR universities, primarily the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Iran and King Saud University in KSA (396/6880, 5.76%, and 370/6880, 5.4%, respectively), while only 407 (5.92%) of 6880 documents were associated with universities outside the EMR. For most of the identified publications (5020/6880, 72.97%), no funding source was reported, while King Saud University contributed the largest share (282/1860, 15.16%) of funded publications. Retrieved documents were cited 53,516 times, with an average of 7.78 (SD 34.30). Iran was the EMR country with the most links to other countries (77 links and total link strength of 1279). The 5 authors with the most publications were from KSA, Qatar, and

Journal article

Bryazka D, Reitsma MB, Griswold MG, Abate KH, Abbafati C, Abbasi-Kangevari M, Abbasi-Kangevari Z, Abdoli A, Abdollahi M, Abdullah AYM, Abhilash ES, Abu-Gharbieh E, Acuna JM, Addolorato G, Adebayo OM, Adekanmbi V, Adhikari K, Adhikari S, Adnani QES, Afzal S, Agegnehu WY, Aggarwal M, Ahinkorah BO, Ahmad AR, Ahmad S, Ahmad T, Ahmadi A, Ahmadi S, Ahmed H, Rashid TA, Akunna CJ, Al Hamad H, Alam MZ, Alem DT, Alene KA, Alimohamadi Y, Alizadeh A, Allel K, Alonso J, Alvand S, Alvis-Guzman N, Amare F, Ameyaw EK, Amiri S, Ancuceanu R, Anderson JA, Andrei CL, Andrei T, Arabloo J, Arshad M, Artamonov AA, Aryan Z, Asaad M, Asemahagn MA, Astell-Burt T, Athari SS, Atnafu DD, Atorkey P, Atreya A, Ausloos F, Ausloos M, Ayano G, Ayanore MA, Ayinde OO, Ayuso-Mateos JL, Azadnajafabad S, Azanaw MM, Azangou-Khyavy M, Jafari AA, Azzam AY, Badiye AD, Bagheri N, Bagherieh S, Bairwa M, Bakkannavar SM, Bakshi RK, Balchut-Bilchut AH, Barra F, Barrow A, Baskaran P, Belo L, Bennett DA, Bensenor IM, Bhagavathula AS, Bhala N, Bhalla A, Bhardwaj N, Bhardwaj P, Bhaskar S, Bhattacharyya K, Bhojaraja VS, Bintoro BS, Blokhina EAE, Bodicha BBA, Boloor A, Bosetti C, Braithwaite D, Brenner H, Briko NI, Brunoni AR, Butt ZA, Cao C, Cao Y, Cardenas R, Carvalho AF, Carvalho M, Castaldelli-Maia JM, Castelpietra G, Castro-de-Araujo LFS, Cattaruzza MS, Chakraborty PA, Charan J, Chattu VK, Chaurasia A, Cherbuin N, Chu D-T, Chudal N, Chung S-C, Churko C, Ciobanu LG, Cirillo M, Claro RM, Costanzo S, Cowden RG, Criqui MH, Cruz-Martins N, Culbreth GT, Dachew BA, Dadras O, Dai X, Damiani G, Dandona L, Dandona R, Daniel BD, Danielewicz A, Gela JD, Davletov K, Paiva de Araujo JA, De Sa-Junior AR, Debela SA, Dehghan A, Demetriades AK, Molla MD, Desai R, Desta AA, da Silva DD, Diaz D, Digesa LE, Diress M, Dodangeh M, Dongarwar D, Dorostkar F, Dsouza HL, Duko B, Duncan BB, Edvardsson K, Ekholuenetale M, Elgar FJ, Elhadi M, Elmonem MA, Endries AY, Eskandarieh S, Etemadimanesh A, Fagbamigbe AF, Fakhradiyev IR, Farahmand F, Faet al., 2022, Population-level risks of alcohol consumption by amount, geography, age, sex, and year: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2020, The Lancet, Vol: 400, Pages: 185-235, ISSN: 0140-6736

BackgroundThe health risks associated with moderate alcohol consumption continue to be debated. Small amounts of alcohol might lower the risk of some health outcomes but increase the risk of others, suggesting that the overall risk depends, in part, on background disease rates, which vary by region, age, sex, and year.MethodsFor this analysis, we constructed burden-weighted dose–response relative risk curves across 22 health outcomes to estimate the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL) and non-drinker equivalence (NDE), the consumption level at which the health risk is equivalent to that of a non-drinker, using disease rates from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2020 for 21 regions, including 204 countries and territories, by 5-year age group, sex, and year for individuals aged 15–95 years and older from 1990 to 2020. Based on the NDE, we quantified the population consuming harmful amounts of alcohol.FindingsThe burden-weighted relative risk curves for alcohol use varied by region and age. Among individuals aged 15–39 years in 2020, the TMREL varied between 0 (95% uncertainty interval 0–0) and 0·603 (0·400–1·00) standard drinks per day, and the NDE varied between 0·002 (0–0) and 1·75 (0·698–4·30) standard drinks per day. Among individuals aged 40 years and older, the burden-weighted relative risk curve was J-shaped for all regions, with a 2020 TMREL that ranged from 0·114 (0–0·403) to 1·87 (0·500–3·30) standard drinks per day and an NDE that ranged between 0·193 (0–0·900) and 6·94 (3·40–8·30) standard drinks per day. Among individuals consuming harmful amounts of alcohol in 2020, 59·1% (54·3–65·4) were aged 15–39 years and 76·9% (73·0–81·3) were male.InterpretationThere is stron

Journal article

GBD 2019 Colorectal Cancer Collaborators, 2022, Global, regional, and national burden of colorectal cancer and its risk factors, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Vol: 7, Pages: 627-647, ISSN: 2468-1253

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Given the recent increasing trends in colorectal cancer incidence globally, up-to-date information on the colorectal cancer burden could guide screening, early detection, and treatment strategies, and help effectively allocate resources. We examined the temporal patterns of the global, regional, and national burden of colorectal cancer and its risk factors in 204 countries and territories across the past three decades. METHODS: Estimates of incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for colorectal cancer were generated as a part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 by age, sex, and geographical location for the period 1990-2019. Mortality estimates were produced using the cause of death ensemble model. We also calculated DALYs attributable to risk factors that had evidence of causation with colorectal cancer. FINDINGS: Globally, between 1990 and 2019, colorectal cancer incident cases more than doubled, from 842 098 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 810 408-868 574) to 2·17 million (2·00-2·34), and deaths increased from 518 126 (493 682-537 877) to 1·09 million (1·02-1·15). The global age-standardised incidence rate increased from 22·2 (95% UI 21·3-23·0) per 100 000 to 26·7 (24·6-28·9) per 100 000, whereas the age-standardised mortality rate decreased from 14·3 (13·5-14·9) per 100 000 to 13·7 (12·6-14·5) per 100 000 and the age-standardised DALY rate decreased from 308·5 (294·7-320·7) per 100 000 to 295·5 (275·2-313·0) per 100 000 from 1990 through 2019. Taiwan (province of China; 62·0 [48·9-80·0] per 100 000), Monaco (60·7 [48·5-73&midd

Journal article

Haakenstad A, Irvine CMS, Knight M, Bintz C, Aravkin AY, Zheng P, Gupta V, Abrigo MRM, Abushouk A, Adebayo OM, Agarwal G, Alahdab F, Al-Aly Z, Alam K, Alanzi TM, Alcalde-Rabanal JE, Alipour V, Alvis-Guzman N, Amit AML, Liliana Andrei C, Andrei T, Antonio CAT, Arabloo J, Aremu O, Ayanore MA, Banach M, Barnighausen TW, Barthelemy CM, Bayati M, Benzian H, Berman AE, Bienhoff K, Bijani A, Bikbov B, Biondi A, Boloor A, Busse R, Butt ZA, Camera LA, Campos-Nonato IR, Cardenas R, Carvalho F, Chansa C, Chattu SK, Chattu VK, Chu D-T, Dai X, Dandona L, Dandona R, Dangel WJ, Daryani A, De Neve J-W, Dhimal M, Dipeolu IO, Djalalinia S, Hoa TD, Doshi CP, Doshmangir L, Ehsani-Chimeh E, El Tantawi M, Fernandes E, Fischer F, Foigt NA, Fomenkov AA, Foroutan M, Fukumoto T, Fullman N, Gad MM, Ghadiri K, Ghafourifard M, Ghashghaee A, Glucksman T, Goudarzi H, Das Gupta R, Hamadeh RR, Hamidi S, Haro JM, Hasanpoor E, Hay S, Hegazy M, Heibati B, Henry NJ, Hole MK, Hossain N, Househ M, Ilesanmi OS, Imani-Nasab M-H, Irvani SSN, Islam SMS, Jahani MA, Joshi A, Kalhor R, Kayode GA, Khalid N, Khatab K, Kisa A, Kochhar S, Krishan K, Defo BK, Lal DK, Lami FH, Larsson AO, Leasher JL, LeGrand KE, Lim L-L, Mahotra NB, Majeed A, Maleki A, Manjunatha N, Massenburg BB, Mestrovic T, Mini GK, Mirica A, Mirrakhimov EM, Mohammad Y, Mohammed S, Mokdad AH, Morrison SD, Naghavi M, Ndwandwe DE, Negoi I, Negoi RI, Ngunjiri JW, Cuong TN, Nigatu YT, Onwujekwe OE, Ortega-Altamirano D, Otstavnov N, Otstavnov SS, Owolabi MO, Pakhare AP, Filipino Pepito VC, Perico N, Pham HQ, Pigott DM, Pokhrel KN, Rabiee M, Rabiee N, Rahimi-Movaghar V, Rawaf DL, Rawaf S, Rawal L, Remuzzi G, Renzaho AMN, Resnikoff S, Rezaei N, Rezapour A, Rickard J, Roever L, Sahu M, Samy AM, Sanabria J, Santric-Milicevic MM, Saraswathy SYI, Seedat S, Senthilkumaran S, Servan-Mori E, Shaikh MA, Sheikh A, Silva DAS, Stein C, Stein DJ, Titova MV, Topp SM, Tovani-Palone MR, Ullah S, Unnikrishnan B, Vacante M, Valdez PR, Vasankari TJ, Venketasubramanian Net al., 2022, Measuring the availability of human resources for health and its relationship to universal health coverage for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, LANCET, Vol: 399, Pages: 2129-2154, ISSN: 0140-6736

Journal article

Armocida B, Monasta L, Sawyer S, Bustreo F, Segafredo G, Castelpietra G, Ronfani L, Pasovic M, Hay S, Perel P, Beran D, Armocida B, Monasta L, Sawyer SM, Bustreo F, Segafredo G, Castelpietra G, Ronfani L, Pasovic M, Hay SI, Abila DB, Abolhassani H, Accrombessi MMK, Adekanmbi V, Ahmadi K, Al Hamad H, Aldeyab MA, Al-Jumaily A, Ancuceanu R, Andrei CL, Andrei T, Arumugam A, Attia S, Aujayeb A, Ausloos M, Baker JL, Barone-Adesi F, Barra F, Barteit S, Basu S, Baune BT, Béjot Y, Belo L, Bennett DA, Bikbov B, Bikov A, Blyuss O, Breitner S, Brenner H, Carreras G, Carvalho M, Catapano AL, Chandan JS, Charalampous P, Chen S, Conde J, Cruz-Martins N, Damiani G, Dastiridou A, de la Torre-Luque A, Dianatinasab M, Dias da Silva D, Douiri A, Dragioti E, Engelbert Bain L, Fagbamigbe AF, Fereshtehnejad S-M, Ferrara P, Ferreira de Oliveira JMP, Ferrero S, Ferro Desideri L, Fischer F, Fonseca DA, Gaewkhiew P, Gaihre S, Gallus S, Gaspar Fonseca M, Gill PS, Glasbey JC, Gorini G, Gupta VK, Gurara MK, Haro JM, Hasan MT, Havmoeller RJ, Heibati B, Hellemons ME, Herteliu C, Hussain S, Isola G, Johnson O, Jonas JB, Jozwiak JJ, Jürisson M, Kabir Z, Karch A, Kauppila JH, Kayode GA, Khan MAB, Khatab K, Kivimäki M, Klugar M, Klugarová J, Koly KN, Koyanagi A, Kurmi OP, Kusuma D, La Vecchia C, Lacey B, Lallukka T, Lamnisos D, Langguth B, Larsson AO, Lauriola P, Lee PH, Leonardi M, Li A, Linehan C, López-Bueno R, Lorkowski S, Loureiro JA, Lunevicius R, Magee LA, Magnani FG, Majeed A, Makris KC, Mathioudakis AG, Mathur MR, McGrath JJ, Menezes RG, Mentis A-FA, Meretoja A, Mestrovic T, Miao Jonasson J, Miazgowski T, Mirica A, Moccia M, Mohammed S, Molokhia M, Mondello S, Mueller UO, Mulita F, Munblit D, Negoi I, Negoi RI, Nena E, Noor NM, Nowak C, Ntaios G, Nwatah VE, Oancea B, Oguntade AS, Ortiz A, Otoiu A, Padron-Monedero A, Palladino R, Pana A, Panagiotakos D, Panda-Jonas S, Pardhan S, Patel J, Pedersini P, Peñalvo JL, Pensato U, Pereira RB, Perico N, Petcu I-R, Polinder S, Postma MJ, Rabiee M, Rabieet al., 2022, Burden of non-communicable diseases among adolescents aged 10–24 years in the EU, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2019, The Lancet Child &amp; Adolescent Health, Vol: 6, Pages: 367-383, ISSN: 2352-4642

BackgroundDisability and mortality burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have risen worldwide; however, the NCD burden among adolescents remains poorly described in the EU.MethodsEstimates were retrieved from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019. Causes of NCDs were analysed at three different levels of the GBD 2019 hierarchy, for which mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were extracted. Estimates, with the 95% uncertainty intervals (UI), were retrieved for EU Member States from 1990 to 2019, three age subgroups (10–14 years, 15–19 years, and 20–24 years), and by sex. Spearman's correlation was conducted between DALY rates for NCDs and the Socio-demographic Index (SDI) of each EU Member State.FindingsIn 2019, NCDs accounted for 86·4% (95% uncertainty interval 83·5–88·8) of all YLDs and 38·8% (37·4–39·8) of total deaths in adolescents aged 10–24 years. For NCDs in this age group, neoplasms were the leading causes of both mortality (4·01 [95% uncertainty interval 3·62–4·25] per 100 000 population) and YLLs (281·78 [254·25–298·92] per 100 000 population), whereas mental disorders were the leading cause for YLDs (2039·36 [1432·56–2773·47] per 100 000 population) and DALYs (2040·59 [1433·96–2774·62] per 100 000 population) in all EU Member States, and in all studied age groups. In 2019, among adolescents aged 10–24 years, males had a higher mortality rate per 100 000 population due to NCDs than females (11·66 [11·04–12·28] vs 7·89 [7·53–8·23]), whereas females presented a higher DALY rate per 100 000 population due to NCDs (8003·25 [5812·78–10&thi

Journal article

Haagsma JA, Charalampous P, Ariani F, Gallay A, Moesgaard Iburg K, Nena E, Ngwa CH, Rommel A, Zelviene A, Abegaz KH, Al Hamad H, Albano L, Liliana Andrei C, Andrei T, Antonazzo IC, Aremu O, Arumugam A, Atreya A, Aujayeb A, Ayuso-Mateos JL, Engelbert Bain L, Banach M, Winfried Baernighausen T, Barone-Adesi F, Beghi M, Bennett DA, Bhagavathula AS, Carvalho F, Castelpietra G, Caterina L, Chandan JS, Couto RAS, Cruz-Martins N, Damiani G, Dastiridou A, Demetriades AK, Dias-da-Silva D, Francis Fagbamigbe A, Fereshtehnejad S-M, Fernandes E, Ferrara P, Fischer F, Fra Paleo U, Ghirini S, Glasbey JC, Glavan I-R, Gomes NGM, Grivna M, Harlianto NI, Haro JM, Hasan MT, Hostiuc S, Iavicoli I, Ilic MD, Ilic IM, Jakovljevic M, Jonas JB, Jerzy Jozwiak J, Jurisson M, Kauppila JH, Kayode GA, han MAB, Kisa A, Kisa S, Koyanagi A, Kumar M, Kurmi OP, La-Vecchia C, Lamnisos D, Lasrado S, Lauriola P, Linn S, Loureiro JA, Lunevicius R, Madureira-Carvalho A, Mechili EA, Majeed A, Menezes RG, Mentis A-FA, Meretoja A, Mestrovic T, Miazgowski T, Miazgowski B, Mirica A, Molokhia M, Mohammed S, Monasta L, Mulita F, David Naimzada M, Negoi I, Neupane S, Oancea B, Orru H, Otoiu A, Otstavnov N, Otstavnov SS, Padron-Monedero A, Panda-Jonas S, Pardhan S, Patel J, Pedersini P, Pinheiro M, Rakovac I, Rao CR, Rawaf S, Rawaf DL, Rodrigues V, Ronfani L, Sagoe D, Sanmarchi F, Santric-Milicevic MM, Sathian B, Sheikh A, Shiri R, Shivalli S, Dora Sigfusdottir I, Sigurvinsdottir R, Yurievich Skryabin V, Aleksandrovna Skryabina A, Smarandache C-G, Socea B, Sousa RARC, Steiropoulos P, Tabares-Seisdedos R, Roberto Tovani-Palone M, Tozija F, Van de Velde S, Juhani Vasankari T, Veroux M, Violante FS, Vlassov V, Wang Y, Yadollahpour A, Yaya S, Sergeevich Zastrozhin M, Zastrozhina A, Polinder S, Majdan Met al., 2022, The burden of injury in Central, Eastern, and Western European sub-region: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease 2019 Study, Archives of Public Health, Vol: 80, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 0778-7367

BackgroundInjury remains a major concern to public health in the European region. Previous iterations of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study showed wide variation in injury death and disability adjusted life year (DALY) rates across Europe, indicating injury inequality gaps between sub-regions and countries. The objectives of this study were to: 1) compare GBD 2019 estimates on injury mortality and DALYs across European sub-regions and countries by cause-of-injury category and sex; 2) examine changes in injury DALY rates over a 20 year-period by cause-of-injury category, sub-region and country; and 3) assess inequalities in injury mortality and DALY rates across the countries.MethodsWe performed a secondary database descriptive study using the GBD 2019 results on injuries in 44 European countries from 2000 to 2019. Inequality in DALY rates between these countries was assessed by calculating the DALY rate ratio between the highest-ranking country and lowest-ranking country in each year.ResultsIn 2019, in Eastern Europe 80 [95% uncertainty interval (UI): 71 to 89] people per 100,000 died from injuries; twice as high compared to Central Europe (38 injury deaths per 100,000; 95% UI 34 to 42) and three times as high compared to Western Europe (27 injury deaths per 100,000; 95%UI 25 to 28). The injury DALY rates showed less pronounced differences between Eastern (5129 DALYs per 100,000; 95% UI: 4547 to 5864), Central (2940 DALYs per 100,000; 95% UI: 2452 to 3546) and Western Europe (1782 DALYs per 100,000; 95% UI: 1523 to 2115). Injury DALY rate was lowest in Italy (1489 DALYs per 100,000) and highest in Ukraine (5553 DALYs per 100,000). The difference in injury DALY rates by country was larger for males compared to females. The DALY rate ratio was highest in 2005, with DALY rate in the lowest-ranking country (Russian Federation) 6.0 times higher compared to the highest-ranking country (Malta). After 2005, the DALY rate ratio between the lowest- and the highest-ranki

Journal article

Castelpietra G, Knudsen AKS, Agardh EE, Armocida B, Beghi M, Iburg KM, Logroscino G, Ma R, Starace F, Steel N, Addolorato G, Andrei CL, Andrei T, Ayuso-Mateos JL, Banach M, Barnighausen TW, Barone-Adesi F, Bhagavathula AS, Carvalho F, Carvalho M, Chandan JS, Chattu VK, Couto RAS, Cruz-Martins N, Dargan P, Deuba K, da Silva DD, Fagbamigbe AF, Fernandes E, Ferrara P, Fischer F, Gaal PA, Gialluisi A, Haagsma JA, Haro JM, Hasan MT, Hasan SS, Hostiuc S, Iacoviello L, Iavicoli I, Jamshidi E, Jonas JB, Joo T, Jozwiak JJ, Katikireddi SV, Kauppila JH, Khan MAB, Kisa A, Kisa S, Kivimaki M, Koly KN, Koyanagi A, Kumar M, Lallukka T, Langguth B, Ledda C, Lee PH, Lega I, Linehan C, Loureiro JA, Madureira-Carvalho AM, Martinez-Raga J, Mathur MR, McGrath JJ, Mechili EA, Mentis A-FA, Mestrovic T, Miazgowski B, Mirica A, Mirijello A, Moazen B, Mohammed S, Mulita F, Nagel G, Negoi I, Negoi RI, Nwatah VE, Padron-Monedero A, Panda-Jonas S, Pardhan S, Pasovic M, Patel J, Petcu I-R, Pinheiro M, Pollok RCG, Postma MJ, Rawaf DL, Rawaf S, Romero-Rodriguez E, Ronfani L, Sagoe D, Sanmarchi F, Schaub MP, Sharew NT, Shiri R, Shokraneh F, Sigfusdottir ID, Silva JP, Silva R, Socea B, Szocska M, Tabares-Seisdedos R, Torrado M, Tovani-Palone MR, Vasankari TJ, Veroux M, Viner RM, Werdecker A, Winkler AS, Hay S, Ferrari AJ, Naghavi M, Allebeck P, Monasta Let al., 2022, The burden of mental disorders, substance use disorders and self-harm among young people in Europe, 1990-2019: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet Regional Health Europe, Vol: 16, Pages: 1-18, ISSN: 2666-7762

BackgroundMental health is a public health issue for European young people, with great heterogeneity in resource allocation. Representative population-based studies are needed. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019 provides internationally comparable information on trends in the health status of populations and changes in the leading causes of disease burden over time.MethodsPrevalence, incidence, Years Lived with Disability (YLDs) and Years of Life Lost (YLLs) from mental disorders (MDs), substance use disorders (SUDs) and self-harm were estimated for young people aged 10-24 years in 31 European countries. Rates per 100,000 population, percentage changes in 1990-2019, 95% Uncertainty Intervals (UIs), and correlations with Sociodemographic Index (SDI), were estimated.FindingsIn 2019, rates per 100,000 population were 16,983 (95% UI 12,823 – 21,630) for MDs, 3,891 (3,020 - 4,905) for SUDs, and 89·1 (63·8 - 123·1) for self-harm. In terms of disability, anxiety contributed to 647·3 (432–912·3) YLDs, while in terms of premature death, self-harm contributed to 319·6 (248·9–412·8) YLLs, per 100,000 population. Over the 30 years studied, YLDs increased in eating disorders (14·9%;9·4-20·1) and drug use disorders (16·9%;8·9-26·3), and decreased in idiopathic developmental intellectual disability (–29·1%;23·8-38·5). YLLs decreased in self-harm (–27·9%;38·3-18·7). Variations were found by sex, age-group and country. The burden of SUDs and self-harm was higher in countries with lower SDI, MDs were associated with SUDs.InterpretationMental health conditions represent an important burden among young people living in Europe. National policies should strengthen mental health, with a specific focus on young people.FundingThe Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

Journal article

Rawaf S, Tabche C, 2022, Public health workforce development through virtually interactive training courses, Public Health Reviews, Vol: 43, ISSN: 2107-6952

Journal article

Cousin E, Duncan BB, Stein C, Ong KL, Vos T, Abbafati C, Abbasi-Kangevari M, Abdelmasseh M, Abdoli A, Abd-Rabu R, Abolhassani H, Abu-Gharbieh E, Accrombessi MMK, Adnani QES, Afzal MS, Agarwal G, Agrawaal KK, Agudelo-Botero M, Ahinkorah BO, Ahmad S, Ahmad T, Ahmadi K, Ahmadi S, Ahmadi A, Ahmed A, Ahmed Salih Y, Akande-Sholabi W, Akram T, Al Hamad H, Al-Aly Z, Alcalde-Rabanal JE, Alipour V, Aljunid SM, Al-Raddadi RM, Alvis-Guzman N, Amini S, Ancuceanu R, Andrei T, Andrei CL, Anjana RM, Ansar A, Antonazzo IC, Antony B, Anyasodor AE, Arabloo J, Arizmendi D, Armocida B, Artamonov AA, Arulappan J, Aryan Z, Asgari S, Ashraf T, Astell-Burt T, Atorkey P, Atout MMW, Ayanore MA, Badiye AD, Baig AA, Bairwa M, Baker JL, Baltatu OC, Banik PC, Barnett A, Barone MTU, Barone-Adesi F, Barrow A, Bedi N, Belete R, Belgaumi UI, Bell AW, Bennett DA, Bensenor IM, Beran D, Bhagavathula AS, Bhaskar S, Bhattacharyya K, Bhojaraja VS, Bijani A, Bikbov B, Birara S, Bodolica V, Bonny A, Brenner H, Briko NI, Butt ZA, Caetano dos Santos FL, Cámera LA, Campos-Nonato IR, Cao Y, Cao C, Cerin E, Chakraborty PA, Chandan JS, Chattu VK, Chen S, Choi J-YJ, Choudhari SG, Chowdhury EK, Chu D-T, Corso B, Dadras O, Dai X, Damasceno AAM, Dandona L, Dandona R, Dávila-Cervantes CA, De Neve J-W, Denova-Gutiérrez E, Dhamnetiya D, Diaz D, Ebtehaj S, Edinur HA, Eftekharzadeh S, El Sayed I, Elgendy IY, Elhadi M, Elmonem MA, Faisaluddin M, Farooque U, Feng X, Fernandes E, Fischer F, Flood D, Freitas M, Gaal PA, Gad MM, Gaewkhiew P, Getacher L, Ghafourifard M, Ghanei Gheshlagh R, Ghashghaee A, Ghith N, Ghozali G, Gill PS, Ginawi IA, Glushkova EV, Golechha M, Gopalani SV, Guimarães RA, Gupta RD, Gupta R, Gupta VK, Gupta VB, Gupta S, Habtewold TD, Hafezi-Nejad N, Halwani R, Hanif A, Hankey GJ, Haque S, Hasaballah AI, Hasan SS, Hashi A, Hassanipour S, Hay SI, Hayat K, Heidari M, Hossain MBH, Hossain S, Hosseini M, Hoveidamanesh S, Huang J, Humayun A, Hussain R, Hwang B-F, Ibitoye SE, Ikuta KS, Inbaraj LR, Iqbal U, Islam Met al., 2022, Diabetes mortality and trends before 25 years of age: an analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, Vol: 10, Pages: 177-192, ISSN: 2213-8587

BackgroundDiabetes, particularly type 1 diabetes, at younger ages can be a largely preventable cause of death with the correct health care and services. We aimed to evaluate diabetes mortality and trends at ages younger than 25 years globally using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019.MethodsWe used estimates of GBD 2019 to calculate international diabetes mortality at ages younger than 25 years in 1990 and 2019. Data sources for causes of death were obtained from vital registration systems, verbal autopsies, and other surveillance systems for 1990–2019. We estimated death rates for each location using the GBD Cause of Death Ensemble model. We analysed the association of age-standardised death rates per 100 000 population with the Socio-demographic Index (SDI) and a measure of universal health coverage (UHC) and described the variability within SDI quintiles. We present estimates with their 95% uncertainty intervals.FindingsIn 2019, 16 300 (95% uncertainty interval 14 200 to 18 900) global deaths due to diabetes (type 1 and 2 combined) occurred in people younger than 25 years and 73·7% (68·3 to 77·4) were classified as due to type 1 diabetes. The age-standardised death rate was 0·50 (0·44 to 0·58) per 100 000 population, and 15 900 (97·5%) of these deaths occurred in low to high-middle SDI countries. The rate was 0·13 (0·12 to 0·14) per 100 000 population in the high SDI quintile, 0·60 (0·51 to 0·70) per 100 000 population in the low-middle SDI quintile, and 0·71 (0·60 to 0·86) per 100 000 population in the low SDI quintile. Within SDI quintiles, we observed large variability in rates across countries, in part explained by the extent of UHC (r2=0·62). From 1990 to 2019, age-standardised death rates decreased globally by 17·0% (−

Journal article

GBD 2019 Tuberculosis Collaborators, 2022, Global, regional, and national sex differences in the global burden of tuberculosis by HIV status, 1990-2019: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol: 22, Pages: 222-241, ISSN: 1473-3099

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a major contributor to the global burden of disease, causing more than a million deaths annually. Given an emphasis on equity in access to diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in global health targets, evaluations of differences in tuberculosis burden by sex are crucial. We aimed to assess the levels and trends of the global burden of tuberculosis, with an emphasis on investigating differences in sex by HIV status for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. METHODS: We used a Bayesian hierarchical Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) platform to analyse 21 505 site-years of vital registration data, 705 site-years of verbal autopsy data, 825 site-years of sample-based vital registration data, and 680 site-years of mortality surveillance data to estimate mortality due to tuberculosis among HIV-negative individuals. We used a population attributable fraction approach to estimate mortality related to HIV and tuberculosis coinfection. A compartmental meta-regression tool (DisMod-MR 2.1) was then used to synthesise all available data sources, including prevalence surveys, annual case notifications, population-based tuberculin surveys, and tuberculosis cause-specific mortality, to produce estimates of incidence, prevalence, and mortality that were internally consistent. We further estimated the fraction of tuberculosis mortality that is attributable to independent effects of risk factors, including smoking, alcohol use, and diabetes, for HIV-negative individuals. For individuals with HIV and tuberculosis coinfection, we assessed mortality attributable to HIV risk factors including unsafe sex, intimate partner violence (only estimated among females), and injection drug use. We present 95% uncertainty intervals for all estimates. FINDINGS: Globally, in 2019, among HIV-negative individuals, there were 1·18 million (95% uncertainty interval 1·08-1·29) deaths due to tuberculosis and 8·50 million (7&midd

Journal article

Nichols E, Steinmetz JD, Vollset SE, Fukutaki K, Chalek J, Abd-Allah F, Abdoli A, Abualhasan A, Abu-Gharbieh E, Akram TT, Al Hamad H, Alahdab F, Alanezi FM, Alipour V, Almustanyir S, Amu H, Ansari I, Arabloo J, Ashraf T, Astell-Burt T, Ayano G, Ayuso-Mateos JL, Baig AA, Barnett A, Barrow A, Baune BT, Bejot Y, Bezabhe WMM, Bezabih YM, Bhagavathula AS, Bhaskar S, Bhattacharyya K, Bijani A, Biswas A, Bolla SR, Boloor A, Brayne C, Brenner H, Burkart K, Burns RA, Camera LA, Cao C, Carvalho F, Castro-de-Araujo LFS, Catala-Lopez F, Cerin E, Chavan PP, Cherbuin N, Chu D-T, Costa VM, Couto RAS, Dadras O, Dai X, Dandona L, Dandona R, De La Cruz-Gongora V, Dhamnetiya D, da Silva DD, Diaz D, Douiri A, Edvardsson D, Ekholuenetale M, El Sayed I, El-Jaafary S, Eskandari K, Eskandarieh S, Esmaeilnejad S, Fares J, Faro A, Farooque U, Feigin VL, Feng X, Fereshtehnejad S-M, Fernandes E, Ferrara P, Filip I, Fillit H, Fischer F, Gaidhane S, Galluzzo L, Ghashghaee A, Ghith N, Gialluisi A, Gilani SA, Glavan I-R, Gnedovskaya E, Golechha M, Gupta R, Gupta VB, Gupta VK, Haider MR, Hall BJ, Hamidi S, Hanif A, Hankey GJ, Haque S, Hartono RK, Hasaballah A, Hasan MT, Hassan A, Hay S, Hayat K, Hegazy M, Heidari G, Heidari-Soureshjani R, Herteliu C, Househ M, Hussain R, Hwang B-F, Iacoviello L, Iavicoli I, Ilesanmi OS, Ilic IM, Ilic MD, Irvani SSN, Iso H, Iwagami M, Jabbarinejad R, Jacob L, Jain V, Jayapal SK, Jayawardena R, Jha RP, Jonas JB, Joseph N, Kalani R, Kandel A, Kandel H, Karch A, Kasa AS, Kassie GM, Keshavarz P, Khan MAB, Khatib MN, Khoja TAM, Khubchandani J, Kim MS, Kim YJ, Kisa A, Kisa S, Kivimaki M, Koroshetz WJ, Koyanagi A, Kumar GA, Kumar M, Lak HM, Leonardi M, Li B, Lim SS, Liu X, Liu Y, Logroscino G, Lorkowski S, Lucchetti G, Saute RL, Magnani FG, Malik AA, Massano J, Mehndiratta MM, Menezes RG, Meretoja A, Mohajer B, Ibrahim NM, Mohammad Y, Mohammed A, Mokdad AH, Mondello S, Moni MA, Moniruzzaman M, Mossie TB, Nagel G, Naveed M, Nayak VC, Kandel SN, Nguyen TH, Oancea B, Otstavnoet al., 2022, Estimation of the global prevalence of dementia in 2019 and forecasted prevalence in 2050: an analysis for the Global Burden of Disease 2019, LANCET PUBLIC HEALTH, Vol: 7, Pages: E105-E125, ISSN: 2468-2667

Journal article

GBD 2019 Adolescent Young Adult Cancer Collaborators, 2022, The global burden of adolescent and young adult cancer in 2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet Oncology, Vol: 23, Pages: 27-52, ISSN: 1213-9432

BACKGROUND: In estimating the global burden of cancer, adolescents and young adults with cancer are often overlooked, despite being a distinct subgroup with unique epidemiology, clinical care needs, and societal impact. Comprehensive estimates of the global cancer burden in adolescents and young adults (aged 15-39 years) are lacking. To address this gap, we analysed results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019, with a focus on the outcome of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), to inform global cancer control measures in adolescents and young adults. METHODS: Using the GBD 2019 methodology, international mortality data were collected from vital registration systems, verbal autopsies, and population-based cancer registry inputs modelled with mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs). Incidence was computed with mortality estimates and corresponding MIRs. Prevalence estimates were calculated using modelled survival and multiplied by disability weights to obtain years lived with disability (YLDs). Years of life lost (YLLs) were calculated as age-specific cancer deaths multiplied by the standard life expectancy at the age of death. The main outcome was DALYs (the sum of YLLs and YLDs). Estimates were presented globally and by Socio-demographic Index (SDI) quintiles (countries ranked and divided into five equal SDI groups), and all estimates were presented with corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). For this analysis, we used the age range of 15-39 years to define adolescents and young adults. FINDINGS: There were 1·19 million (95% UI 1·11-1·28) incident cancer cases and 396 000 (370 000-425 000) deaths due to cancer among people aged 15-39 years worldwide in 2019. The highest age-standardised incidence rates occurred in high SDI (59·6 [54·5-65·7] per 100 000 person-years) and high-middle SDI countries (53·2 [48·8-57·9] per 100 000 person-years), while the high

Journal article

Graetz N, Woyczynski L, Wilson KF, Hall JB, Abate KH, Abd-Allah F, Adebayo OM, Adekanmbi V, Afshari M, Ajumobi O, Akinyemiju T, Alahdab F, Al-Aly Z, Alcalde Rabanal JE, Alijanzadeh M, Alipour V, Altirkawi K, Amiresmaili M, Anber NH, Andrei CL, Anjomshoa M, Antonio CAT, Arabloo J, Aremu O, Aryal KK, Asadi-Aliabadi M, Atique S, Ausloos M, Awasthi A, Ayala Quintanilla BP, Azari S, Badawi A, Banoub JAM, Barker-Collo SL, Barnett A, Bedi N, Bennett DA, Bhattacharjee NV, Bhattacharyya K, Bhattarai S, Bhutta ZA, Bijani A, Bikbov B, Britton G, Burstein R, Butt ZA, Cardenas R, Carvalho F, Castaneda-Orjuela CA, Castro F, Cerin E, Chang J-C, Collison ML, Cooper C, Cork MA, Daoud F, Das Gupta R, Weaver ND, De Neve J-W, Deribe K, Desalegn BB, Deshpande A, Desta M, Dhimal M, Diaz D, Dinberu MT, Djalalinia S, Dubey M, Dubljanin E, Duraes AR, Dwyer-Lindgren L, Earl L, Kalan ME, El-Khatib Z, Eshrati B, Faramarzi M, Fareed M, Faro A, Fereshtehnejad S-M, Fernandes E, Filip I, Fischer F, Fukumoto T, Garcia JA, Gill PS, Gill TK, Gona PN, Gopalani SV, Grada A, Guo Y, Gupta R, Gupta V, Haj-Mirzaian A, Haj-Mirzaian A, Hamadeh RR, Hamidi S, Hasan M, Hassen HY, Hendrie D, Henok A, Henry NJ, Hernandez Prado B, Herteliu C, Hole MK, Hossain N, Hosseinzadeh M, Hu G, Ilesanmi OS, Irvani SSN, Islam SMS, Izadi N, Jakovljevic M, Jha RP, Ji JS, Jonas JB, Shushtari ZJ, Jozwiak JJ, Kanchan T, Kasaeian A, Karyani AK, Keiyoro PN, Kesavachandran CN, Khader YS, Khafaie MA, Khan EA, Khater MM, Kiadaliri AA, Kiirithio DN, Kim YJ, Kimokoti RW, Kinyoki DK, Kisa A, Kosen S, Koyanagi A, Krishan K, Defo BK, Kumar M, Kumar P, Lami FH, Lee PH, Levine AJ, Li S, Liao Y, Lim L-L, Listl S, Lopez JCF, Majdan M, Majdzadeh R, Majeed A, Malekzadeh R, Mansournia MA, Martins-Melo FR, Masaka A, Massenburg BB, Mayala BK, Mehta KM, Mendoza W, Mensah GA, Meretoja TJ, Mestrovic T, Miller TR, Mini GK, Mirrakhimov EM, Moazen B, Mohammad DK, Darwesh AM, Mohammed S, Mohebi F, Mokdad AH, Monasta L, Moodley Y, Moosazadeh M, Moradi G, Moet al., 2021, Mapping routine measles vaccination in low- and middle-income countries, NATURE, ISSN: 0028-0836

Journal article

Safiri S, Kolahi A-A, Naghavi M, 2021, Global, regional and national burden of bladder cancer and its attributable risk factors in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease study 2019, BMJ Global Health, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2059-7908

Introduction: The current study determined the level and trends associated with the incidence, death and disability rates for bladder cancer and its attributable risk factors in 204 countries and territories, from 1990 to 2019, by age, sex and sociodemographic index (SDI; a composite measure of sociodemographic factors).Methods: Various data sources from different countries, including vital registration and cancer registries were used to generate estimates. Mortality data and incidence data transformed to mortality estimates using the mortality to incidence ratio (MIR) were used in a cause of death ensemble model to estimate mortality. Mortality estimates were divided by the MIR to produce incidence estimates. Prevalence was calculated using incidence and MIR-based survival estimates. Age-specific mortality and standardised life expectancy were used to estimate years of life lost (YLLs). Prevalence was multiplied by disability weights to estimate years lived with disability (YLDs), while disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) are the sum of the YLLs and YLDs. All estimates were presented as counts and age-standardised rates per 100 000 population.Results: Globally, there were 524 000 bladder cancer incident cases (95% uncertainty interval 476 000 to 569 000) and 229 000 bladder cancer deaths (211 000 to 243 000) in 2019. Age-standardised death rate decreased by 15.7% (8.6 to 21.0), during the period 1990–2019. Bladder cancer accounted for 4.39 million (4.09 to 4.70) DALYs in 2019, and the age-standardised DALY rate decreased significantly by 18.6% (11.2 to 24.3) during the period 1990–2019. In 2019, Monaco had the highest age-standardised incidence rate (31.9 cases (23.3 to 56.9) per 100 000), while Lebanon had the highest age-standardised death rate (10.4 (8.1 to 13.7)). Cabo Verde had the highest increase in age-standardised incidence (284.2% (214.1 to 362.8)) and death rates (190.3% (139.3 to 251.1)) between 1990 and 2019. In 2019, the g

Journal article

Ward JL, Azzopardi PS, Francis KL, Santelli JS, Skirbekk V, Sawyer SM, Kassebaum NJ, Mokdad AH, Hay SI, Abd-Allah F, Abdoli A, Abdollahi M, Abedi A, Abolhassani H, Abreu LG, Abrigo MRM, Abu-Gharbieh E, Abushouk AI, Adebayo OM, Adekanmbi V, Adham D, Advani SM, Afshari K, Agrawal A, Ahmad T, Ahmadi K, Ahmed AE, Aji B, Akombi-Inyang B, Alahdab F, Al-Aly Z, Alam K, Alanezi FM, Alanzi TM, Alcalde-Rabanal JE, Alemu BW, Al-Hajj S, Alhassan RK, Ali S, Alicandro G, Alijanzadeh M, Aljunid SM, Almasi-Hashiani A, Almasri NA, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Alonso J, Al-Raddadi RM, Altirkawi KA, Alvis-Guzman N, Amare AT, Amini S, Aminorroaya A, Amit AML, Amugsi DA, Ancuceanu R, Anderlini D, Andrei CL, Androudi S, Ansari F, Ansari I, Antonio CAT, Anvari D, Anwer R, Appiah SCY, Arabloo J, Arab-Zozani M, Ärnlöv J, Asaad M, Asadi-Aliabadi M, Asadi-Pooya AA, Atout MMW, Ausloos M, Avenyo EK, Avila-Burgos L, Ayala Quintanilla BP, Ayano G, Aynalem YA, Azari S, Azene ZN, Bakhshaei MH, Bakkannavar SM, Banach M, Banik PC, Barboza MA, Barker-Collo SL, Bärnighausen TW, Basu S, Baune BT, Bayati M, Bedi N, Beghi E, Bekuma TT, Bell AW, Bell ML, Benjet C, Bensenor IM, Berhe AK, Berhe K, Berman AE, Bhagavathula AS, Bhardwaj N, Bhardwaj P, Bhattacharyya K, Bhattarai S, Bhutta ZA, Bijani A, Bikbov B, Biondi A, Birhanu TTM, Biswas RK, Bohlouli S, Bolla SR, Boloor A, Borschmann R, Boufous S, Bragazzi NL, Braithwaite D, Breitborde NJK, Brenner H, Britton GB, Burns RA, Burugina Nagaraja S, Butt ZA, Caetano dos Santos FL, Cámera LA, Campos-Nonato IR, Campuzano Rincon JC, Cárdenas R, Carreras G, Carrero JJ, Carvalho F, Castaldelli-Maia JM, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Castelpietra G, Catalá-López F, Cerin E, Chandan JS, Chang H-Y, Chang J-C, Charan J, Chattu VK, Chaturvedi S, Choi J-YJ, Chowdhury MAK, Christopher DJ, Chu D-T, Chung MT, Chung S-C, Cicuttini FM, Constantin TV, Costa VM, Dahlawi SMA, Dai H, Dai X, Damiani G, Dandona L, Dandona R, Daneshpajouhnejad P, Darwesh AM, Dávila-Cervantes CA, Davletov K, De la Hoz FP, De Let al., 2021, Global, regional, and national mortality among young people aged 10–24 years, 1950–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet, Vol: 398, Pages: 1593-1618, ISSN: 0140-6736

BackgroundDocumentation of patterns and long-term trends in mortality in young people, which reflect huge changes in demographic and social determinants of adolescent health, enables identification of global investment priorities for this age group. We aimed to analyse data on the number of deaths, years of life lost, and mortality rates by sex and age group in people aged 10–24 years in 204 countries and territories from 1950 to 2019 by use of estimates from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019.MethodsWe report trends in estimated total numbers of deaths and mortality rate per 100 000 population in young people aged 10–24 years by age group (10–14 years, 15–19 years, and 20–24 years) and sex in 204 countries and territories between 1950 and 2019 for all causes, and between 1980 and 2019 by cause of death. We analyse variation in outcomes by region, age group, and sex, and compare annual rate of change in mortality in young people aged 10–24 years with that in children aged 0–9 years from 1990 to 2019. We then analyse the association between mortality in people aged 10–24 years and socioeconomic development using the GBD Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite measure based on average national educational attainment in people older than 15 years, total fertility rate in people younger than 25 years, and income per capita. We assess the association between SDI and all-cause mortality in 2019, and analyse the ratio of observed to expected mortality by SDI using the most recent available data release (2017).FindingsIn 2019 there were 1·49 million deaths (95% uncertainty interval 1·39–1·59) worldwide in people aged 10–24 years, of which 61% occurred in males. 32·7% of all adolescent deaths were due to transport injuries, unintentional injuries, or interpersonal violence and conflict; 32·1% were due to communicable, nutritional, or mater

Journal article

Micah AE, Cogswell IE, Cunningham B, Ezoe S, Harle AC, Maddison ER, McCracken D, Nomura S, Simpson KE, Stutzman HN, Tsakalos G, Wallace LE, Zhao Y, Zende RR, Abbafati C, Abdelmasseh M, Abedi A, Abegaz KH, Abhilash ES, Abolhassani H, Abrigo MRM, Adhikari TB, Afzal S, Ahinkorah BO, Ahmadi S, Ahmed H, Ahmed MB, Ahmed Rashid T, Ajami M, Aji B, Akalu Y, Akunna CJ, Al Hamad H, Alam K, Alanezi FM, Alanzi TM, Alemayehu Y, Alhassan RK, Alinia C, Aljunid SM, Almustanyir SA, Alvis-Guzman N, Alvis-Zakzuk NJ, Amini S, Amini-Rarani M, Amu H, Ancuceanu R, Andrei CL, Andrei T, Angell B, Anjomshoa M, Antonio CAT, Antony CM, Aqeel M, Arabloo J, Arab-Zozani M, Aripov T, Arrigo A, Ashraf T, Atnafu DD, Ausloos M, Avila-Burgos L, Awan AT, Ayano G, Ayanore MA, Azari S, Azhar GS, Babalola TK, Bahrami MA, Baig AA, Banach M, Barati N, Bärnighausen TW, Barrow A, Basu S, Baune BT, Bayati M, Benzian H, Berman AE, Bhagavathula AS, Bhardwaj N, Bhardwaj P, Bhaskar S, Bibi S, Bijani A, Bodolica V, Bragazzi NL, Braithwaite D, Breitborde NJK, Breusov AV, Briko NI, Busse R, Cahuana-Hurtado L, Callander EJ, Cámera LA, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Catalá-López F, Charan J, Chatterjee S, Chattu SK, Chattu VK, Chen S, Cicero AFG, Dadras O, Dahlawi SMA, Dai X, Dalal K, Dandona L, Dandona R, Davitoiu DV, De Neve J-W, de Sá-Junior AR, Denova-Gutiérrez E, Dhamnetiya D, Dharmaratne SD, Doshmangir L, Dube J, Ehsani-Chimeh E, El Sayed Zaki M, El Tantawi M, Eskandarieh S, Farzadfar F, Ferede TY, Fischer F, Foigt NA, Freitas A, Friedman SD, Fukumoto T, Fullman N, Gaal PA, Gad MM, Garcia-Gordillo MA, Garg T, Ghafourifard M, Ghashghaee A, Gholamian A, Gholamrezanezhad A, Ghozali G, Gilani SA, Glăvan I-R, Glushkova EV, Goharinezhad S, Golechha M, Goli S, Guha A, Gupta VB, Gupta VK, Haakenstad A, Haider MR, Hailu A, Hamidi S, Hanif A, Harapan H, Hartono RK, Hasaballah AI, Hassan S, Hassanein MH, Hayat K, Hegazy MI, Heidari G, Hendrie D, Heredia-Pi I, Herteliu C, Hezam K, Holla R, Hossain SJ, Hosseinzadeh M, Hostiuc S, Huda Tet al., 2021, Tracking development assistance for health and for COVID-19: a review of development assistance, government, out-of-pocket, and other private spending on health for 204 countries and territories, 1990–2050, The Lancet, Vol: 398, Pages: 1317-1343, ISSN: 0140-6736

BackgroundThe rapid spread of COVID-19 renewed the focus on how health systems across the globe are financed, especially during public health emergencies. Development assistance is an important source of health financing in many low-income countries, yet little is known about how much of this funding was disbursed for COVID-19. We aimed to put development assistance for health for COVID-19 in the context of broader trends in global health financing, and to estimate total health spending from 1995 to 2050 and development assistance for COVID-19 in 2020.MethodsWe estimated domestic health spending and development assistance for health to generate total health-sector spending estimates for 204 countries and territories. We leveraged data from the WHO Global Health Expenditure Database to produce estimates of domestic health spending. To generate estimates for development assistance for health, we relied on project-level disbursement data from the major international development agencies' online databases and annual financial statements and reports for information on income sources. To adjust our estimates for 2020 to include disbursements related to COVID-19, we extracted project data on commitments and disbursements from a broader set of databases (because not all of the data sources used to estimate the historical series extend to 2020), including the UN Office of Humanitarian Assistance Financial Tracking Service and the International Aid Transparency Initiative. We reported all the historic and future spending estimates in inflation-adjusted 2020 US$, 2020 US$ per capita, purchasing-power parity-adjusted US$ per capita, and as a proportion of gross domestic product. We used various models to generate future health spending to 2050.FindingsIn 2019, health spending globally reached $8·8 trillion (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 8·7–8·8) or $1132 (1119–1143) per person. Spending on health varied within and across income groups and geogra

Journal article

Jahagirdar D, Walters MK, Novotney A, Brewer ED, Frank TD, Carter A, Biehl MH, Abbastabar H, Abhilash ES, Abu-Gharbieh E, Abu-Raddad LJ, Adekanmbi V, Adeyinka DA, Adnani QES, Afzal S, Aghababaei S, Ahinkorah BO, Ahmad S, Ahmadi K, Ahmadi S, Ahmadpour E, Ahmed MB, Ahmed Rashid T, Ahmed Salih Y, Aklilu A, Akram T, Akunna CJ, Al Hamad H, Alahdab F, Alanezi FM, Aleksandrova EA, Alene KA, Ali L, Alipour V, Almustanyir S, Alvis-Guzman N, Ameyaw EK, Amu H, Andrei CL, Andrei T, Anvari D, Arabloo J, Aremu O, Arulappan J, Atnafu DD, Ayala Quintanilla BP, Ayza MA, Azari S, B DB, Banach M, Bärnighausen TW, Barra F, Barrow A, Basu S, Bazargan-Hejazi S, Belay HG, Berheto TM, Bezabhe WM, Bezabih YM, Bhagavathula AS, Bhardwaj N, Bhardwaj P, Bhattacharyya K, Bibi S, Bijani A, Bisignano C, Bolarinwa OA, Boloor A, Boltaev AA, Briko NI, Buonsenso D, Burkart K, Butt ZA, Cao C, Charan J, Chatterjee S, Chattu SK, Chattu VK, Choudhari SG, Chu D-T, Couto RAS, Cowden RG, Dachew BA, Dadras O, Dagnew AB, Dahlawi SMA, Dai X, Dandona L, Dandona R, das Neves J, Degenhardt L, Demeke FM, Desta AA, Deuba K, Dhamnetiya D, Dhungana GP, Dianatinasab M, Diaz D, Djalalinia S, Doan LP, Dorostkar F, Edinur HA, Effiong A, Eftekharzadeh S, El Sayed Zaki M, Elayedath R, Elhadi M, El-Jaafary SI, El-Khatib Z, Elsharkawy A, Endalamaw A, Endries AY, Eskandarieh S, Ezeonwumelu IJ, Ezzikouri S, Farahmand M, Faraon EJA, Fasanmi AO, Ferrero S, Ferro Desideri L, Filip I, Fischer F, Folayan MO, Foroutan M, Fukumoto T, Gad MM, Gadanya MA, Gaidhane AM, Garg T, Gayesa RT, Gebreyohannes EA, Gesesew HA, Getachew Obsa A, Ghadiri K, Ghashghaee A, Gilani SA, Ginindza TG, Glavan I-R, Glushkova EV, Golechha M, Gugnani HC, Gupta B, Gupta S, Gupta VB, Gupta VK, Hamidi S, Handanagic S, Haque S, Harapan H, Hargono A, Hasaballah AI, Hashi A, Hassan S, Hassanipour S, Hayat K, Heredia-Pi I, Hezam K, Holla R, Hoogar P, Hoque ME, Hosseini M, Hosseinzadeh M, Hsairi M, Hussain R, Ibitoye SE, Idrisov B, Ikuta KS, Ilesanmi OS, Ilic IM, Ilicet al., 2021, Global, regional, and national sex-specific burden and control of the HIV epidemic, 1990–2019, for 204 countries and territories: the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2019, The Lancet HIV, Vol: 8, Pages: e633-e651, ISSN: 2352-3018

BackgroundThe sustainable development goals (SDGs) aim to end HIV/AIDS as a public health threat by 2030. Understanding the current state of the HIV epidemic and its change over time is essential to this effort. This study assesses the current sex-specific HIV burden in 204 countries and territories and measures progress in the control of the epidemic.MethodsTo estimate age-specific and sex-specific trends in 48 of 204 countries, we extended the Estimation and Projection Package Age-Sex Model to also implement the spectrum paediatric model. We used this model in cases where age and sex specific HIV-seroprevalence surveys and antenatal care-clinic sentinel surveillance data were available. For the remaining 156 of 204 locations, we developed a cohort-incidence bias adjustment to derive incidence as a function of cause-of-death data from vital registration systems. The incidence was input to a custom Spectrum model. To assess progress, we measured the percentage change in incident cases and deaths between 2010 and 2019 (threshold >75% decline), the ratio of incident cases to number of people living with HIV (incidence-to-prevalence ratio threshold <0·03), and the ratio of incident cases to deaths (incidence-to-mortality ratio threshold <1·0).FindingsIn 2019, there were 36·8 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 35·1–38·9) people living with HIV worldwide. There were 0·84 males (95% UI 0·78–0·91) per female living with HIV in 2019, 0·99 male infections (0·91–1·10) for every female infection, and 1·02 male deaths (0·95–1·10) per female death. Global progress in incident cases and deaths between 2010 and 2019 was driven by sub-Saharan Africa (with a 28·52% decrease in incident cases, 95% UI 19·58–35·43, and a 39·66% decrease in deaths, 36·49–42·36). Elsewhere, the incidence remained stabl

Journal article

Feigin VL, Stark BA, Johnson CO, Roth GA, Bisignano C, Abady GG, Abbasifard M, Abbasi-Kangevari M, Abd-Allah F, Abedi V, Abualhasan A, Abu-Rmeileh NME, Abushouk AI, Adebayo OM, Agarwal G, Agasthi P, Ahinkorah BO, Ahmad S, Ahmadi S, Ahmed Salih Y, Aji B, Akbarpour S, Akinyemi RO, Al Hamad H, Alahdab F, Alif SM, Alipour V, Aljunid SM, Almustanyir S, Al-Raddadi RM, Al-Shahi Salman R, Alvis-Guzman N, Ancuceanu R, Anderlini D, Anderson JA, Ansar A, Antonazzo IC, Arabloo J, Ärnlöv J, Artanti KD, Aryan Z, Asgari S, Ashraf T, Athar M, Atreya A, Ausloos M, Baig AA, Baltatu OC, Banach M, Barboza MA, Barker-Collo SL, Bärnighausen TW, Barone MTU, Basu S, Bazmandegan G, Beghi E, Beheshti M, Béjot Y, Bell AW, Bennett DA, Bensenor IM, Bezabhe WM, Bezabih YM, Bhagavathula AS, Bhardwaj P, Bhattacharyya K, Bijani A, Bikbov B, Birhanu MM, Boloor A, Bonny A, Brauer M, Brenner H, Bryazka D, Butt ZA, Caetano dos Santos FL, Campos-Nonato IR, Cantu-Brito C, Carrero JJ, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Catapano AL, Chakraborty PA, Charan J, Choudhari SG, Chowdhury EK, Chu D-T, Chung S-C, Colozza D, Costa VM, Costanzo S, Criqui MH, Dadras O, Dagnew B, Dai X, Dalal K, Damasceno AAM, D'Amico E, Dandona L, Dandona R, Darega Gela J, Davletov K, De la Cruz-Góngora V, Desai R, Dhamnetiya D, Dharmaratne SD, Dhimal ML, Dhimal M, Diaz D, Dichgans M, Dokova K, Doshi R, Douiri A, Duncan BB, Eftekharzadeh S, Ekholuenetale M, El Nahas N, Elgendy IY, Elhadi M, El-Jaafary SI, Endres M, Endries AY, Erku DA, Faraon EJA, Farooque U, Farzadfar F, Feroze AH, Filip I, Fischer F, Flood D, Gad MM, Gaidhane S, Ghanei Gheshlagh R, Ghashghaee A, Ghith N, Ghozali G, Ghozy S, Gialluisi A, Giampaoli S, Gilani SA, Gill PS, Gnedovskaya EV, Golechha M, Goulart AC, Guo Y, Gupta R, Gupta VB, Gupta VK, Gyanwali P, Hafezi-Nejad N, Hamidi S, Hanif A, Hankey GJ, Hargono A, Hashi A, Hassan TS, Hassen HY, Havmoeller RJ, Hay SI, Hayat K, Hegazy MI, Herteliu C, Holla R, Hostiuc S, Househ M, Huang J, Humayun A, Hwang B-F, Iacoviello L, Iavicoliet al., 2021, Global, regional, and national burden of stroke and its risk factors, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet Neurology, Vol: 20, Pages: 795-820, ISSN: 1474-4422

BackgroundRegularly updated data on stroke and its pathological types, including data on their incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability, risk factors, and epidemiological trends, are important for evidence-based stroke care planning and resource allocation. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) aims to provide a standardised and comprehensive measurement of these metrics at global, regional, and national levels.MethodsWe applied GBD 2019 analytical tools to calculate stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and the population attributable fraction (PAF) of DALYs (with corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals [UIs]) associated with 19 risk factors, for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. These estimates were provided for ischaemic stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage, and all strokes combined, and stratified by sex, age group, and World Bank country income level.FindingsIn 2019, there were 12·2 million (95% UI 11·0–13·6) incident cases of stroke, 101 million (93·2–111) prevalent cases of stroke, 143 million (133–153) DALYs due to stroke, and 6·55 million (6·00–7·02) deaths from stroke. Globally, stroke remained the second-leading cause of death (11·6% [10·8–12·2] of total deaths) and the third-leading cause of death and disability combined (5·7% [5·1–6·2] of total DALYs) in 2019. From 1990 to 2019, the absolute number of incident strokes increased by 70·0% (67·0–73·0), prevalent strokes increased by 85·0% (83·0–88·0), deaths from stroke increased by 43·0% (31·0–55·0), and DALYs due to stroke increased by 32·0% (22·0–42·0). During the same period, age-standardised rates of stroke incidence decreased by 17·0% (15·0&

Journal article

Greenfield G, Shmueli L, Harvey A, Quezada-Yamamoto H, Davidovitch N, Pliskin J, Rawaf S, Majeed FAA, Hayhoe Bet al., 2021, Patient-initiated second medical consultations: patient characteristics and motivating factors, impact on care and satisfaction: A systematic review, BMJ Open, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 2044-6055

Objectives: To review the characteristics and motivations of patients seeking second opinions, and the impact of such opinions on patient management, satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness. Data sources: Embase, Medline, PsycINFO and HMIC databases.Study design: A systematic literature search was performed for terms related to second opinion and patient characteristics. Study quality was assessed using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Data collection / Extraction methods: We included articles focused on patient-initiated second opinions, which provided quantitative data on their impact on diagnosis, treatment, prognosis or patient satisfaction, described the characteristics or motivating factors of patients who initiated a second opinion, or the cost-effectiveness of patient-initiated second opinions. Principal findings: Thirty-one articles were included in the review. 27 studies considered patient characteristics, 18 patient motivating factors, 10 patient satisfaction, and 17 clinical agreement between the first and second opinion. Seeking a second opinion was more common in women, middle age patients, more educated patients; and in people having a chronic condition, with higher income or socioeconomic status or living in central urban areas. Patients seeking a second opinion sought to gain more information or reassurance about their diagnosis or treatment. While many second opinions confirm the original diagnosis or treatment, discrepancies in opinions had a potential major impact on patient outcomes in up to 58% of cases. No studies reporting on the cost-effectiveness of patient initiated second opinions.Conclusions: Seeking a second opinion was more common in women, middle-age patients, and more educated patients, and in people having a chronic condition, with higher income or socioeconomic status or living in central urban areas. Patients seeking a second opinion sought to gain m

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