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  • Journal article
    Liu Y, McBride R, Stoll M, Palma AS, Silva L, Agravat S, Aoki-Kinoshita KF, Campbell MP, Costello CE, Dell A, Haslam SM, Karlsson NG, Khoo K-H, Kolarich D, Novotny M, Packer NH, Ranzinger R, Rapp E, Rudd PM, Struwe WB, Tiemeyer M, Wells L, York WS, Zaia J, Kettner C, Paulson JC, Feizi T, Smith DFet al., 2016,

    The Minimum Information Required for a Glycomics Experiment (MIRAGE) project: improving the standards for reporting glycan microarray-based data

    , Glycobiology, Vol: 27, Pages: 280-284, ISSN: 1460-2423

    MIRAGE (Minimum Information Required for A Glycomics Experiment) is an initiative that was created by experts in the fields of glycobiology, glycoanalytics, and glycoinformatics to produce guidelines for reporting results from the diverse types of experiments and analyses used in structural and functional studies of glycans in the scientific literature. As a sequel to the guidelines for sample preparation (Struwe et al. 2016, Glycobiology, 26, 907-910) and mass spectrometry (MS) data (Kolarich et al. 2013, Mol. Cell Proteomics. 12, 991-995), here we present the first version of guidelines intended to improve the standards for reporting data from glycan microarray analyses. For each of eight areas in the workflow of a glycan microarray experiment, we provide guidelines for the minimal information that should be provided in reporting results. We hope that the MIRAGE glycan microarray guidelines proposed here will gain broad acceptance by the community, and will facilitate interpretation and reproducibility of the glycan microarray results with implications in comparison of data from different laboratories and eventual deposition of glycan microarray data in international databases.

  • Journal article
    Bartels MF, Winterhalter PR, Yu J, Liu Y, Lommel M, Möhrlen F, Hu H, Feizi T, Westerlind U, Ruppert T, Strahl Set al., 2016,

    Protein O-Mannosylation in the Murine Brain: Occurrence of Mono-O-Mannosyl Glycans and Identification of New Substrates

    , PLOS One, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1932-6203

    Protein O-mannosylation is a post-translational modification essential for correct development of mammals. In humans, deficient O-mannosylation results in severe congenital muscular dystrophies often associated with impaired brain and eye development. Although various O-mannosylated proteins have been identified in the recent years, the distribution of O-mannosyl glycans in the mammalian brain and target proteins are still not well defined. In the present study, rabbit monoclonal antibodies directed against the O-mannosylated peptide YAT(α1-Man)AV were generated. Detailed characterization of clone RKU-1-3-5 revealed that this monoclonal antibody recognizes O-linked mannose also in different peptide and protein contexts. Using this tool, we observed that mono-O-mannosyl glycans occur ubiquitously throughout the murine brain but are especially enriched at inhibitory GABAergic neurons and at the perineural nets. Using a mass spectrometry-based approach, we further identified glycoproteins from the murine brain that bear single O-mannose residues. Among the candidates identified are members of the cadherin and plexin superfamilies and the perineural net protein neurocan. In addition, we identified neurexin 3, a cell adhesion protein involved in synaptic plasticity, and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor 5, a protease inhibitor important in stabilizing the extracellular matrix, as new O-mannosylated glycoproteins.

  • Journal article
    Zhang H, Palma AS, Zhang Y, Childs RA, Liu Y, Mitchell DA, Guidolin LS, Weigel W, Mulloy B, Ciocchini AE, Feizi T, Chai Wet al., 2016,

    Generation and characterization of β1,2-gluco-oligosaccharide probes from Brucella abortus cyclic β-glucan and their recognition by C-type lectins of the immune system

    , Glycobiology, Vol: 26, Pages: 1086-1096, ISSN: 1460-2423

    The β1,2-glucans produced by bacteria are important in invasion, survival andimmunomodulation in infected hosts be they mammals or plants. However, there has been alack of information on proteins which recognize these molecules. This is partly due to theextremely limited availability of the sequence-defined oligosaccharides and derived probesfor use in the study of their interactions. Here we have used the cyclic β1,2-glucan (CβG) ofthe bacterial pathogen Brucella abortus, after removal of succinyl side chains, to preparelinearized oligosaccharides which were used to generate microarrays. We describe optimizedconditions for partial depolymerization of the cyclic glucan by acid hydrolysis and conversionof the β1,2-gluco-oligosaccharides, with degrees of polymerization 2-13, to neoglycolipids forthe purpose of generating microarrays. By microarray analyses we show that the C-type lectinreceptor DC-SIGNR, like the closely related DC-SIGN we investigated earlier, binds to theβ1,2-gluco-oligosaccharides, as does the soluble immune effector serum mannose-bindingprotein. Exploratory studies with DC-SIGN are suggestive of the recognition also of the intactCβG by this receptor. These findings open the way to unravelling mechanisms ofimmunomodulation mediated by β1,2-glucans in mammalian systems.

  • Journal article
    Liu Y, Ramelot TA, Huang P, Liu Y, Li Z, Feizi T, Zhong W, Wu FT, Tan M, Kennedy MA, Jiang Xet al., 2016,

    Glycan specificity of P[19] rotavirus and comparison with those of other related P genotypes

    , Journal of Virology, Vol: 90, Pages: 9983-9996, ISSN: 1098-5514

    The P[19] genotype belongs to the P[II] genogroup of group A rotaviruses (RVs). However, unlike the other P[II] RVs that mainly infects humans, P[19] RVs commonly infect animals (porcine), making P[19] unique to study RV diversity and host ranges. Through in vitro binding assays and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR, we found that P[19] could bind mucin cores 2, 4, and 6, as well as type 1 histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). The common sequences of these glycans serve as minimal binding units, while additional residues, such as the A, B, H, and Lewis epitopes of the type 1 HBGAs, can further define the binding outcomes and therefore, likely the host ranges for P[19] RVs. This complex binding property of P[19] is shared with those of the other three P[II] RVs (P[4], P[6] and P[8]) in that all of them recognized the type 1 HBGA precursor, although P[4] and P[8], but not P[6], also bind to mucin cores. Moreover, while essential for P[4] and P[8] binding, the addition of the Lewis epitope blocked P[6] and P[19] binding to type 1 HBGAs. Chemical shift NMR of P[19] VP8* identified a ligand binding interface that has shifted away from the known RV P-genotype binding sites but is conserved among all P[II] RVs and two P[I] RVs (P[10] and P[12]), suggesting an evolutionary connection among these human and animal RVs. Taken together, these data are important for hypotheses on potential mechanisms for RV diversity, host ranges, and cross-species transmission. IMPORTANCE: In this study, we found that this P[19] strain and other P[II] RVs recognize mucin cores and the type 1 HBGA precursors as the minimal functional units and that additional saccharides adjacent to these units can alter binding outcomes and thereby possibly host ranges. These data may help to explain why some P[II] RVs, such as P[6] and P[19], commonly infect animals but rarely humans, while others, such as the P[4] and P[8] RVs, mainly infect humans and are predominant over other P genotypes. Elucidation

  • Journal article
    Parker L, Wharton SA, Martin SR, Cross K, Lin Y, Liu Y, Feizi T, Daniels RS, McCauley JWet al., 2016,

    Effects of egg-adaptation on receptor-binding and antigenic properties of recent influenza A (H3N2) vaccine viruses

    , Journal of General Virology, Vol: 97, Pages: 1333-1344, ISSN: 1465-2099

    Influenza A virus (subtype H3N2) causes seasonal human influenza and is included as a component of influenza vaccines. The majority of vaccine viruses are isolated and propagated in eggs, which commonly results in amino acid substitutions in the haemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein. These substitutions can affect virus receptor-binding and alter virus antigenicity, thereby, obfuscating the choice of egg-propagated viruses for development into candidate vaccine viruses. To evaluate the effects of egg-adaptive substitutions seen in H3N2 vaccine viruses on sialic acid receptor-binding, we carried out quantitative measurement of virus receptor-binding using surface biolayer interferometry with haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays to correlate changes in receptor avidity with antigenic properties. Included in these studies was a panel of H3N2 viruses generated by reverse genetics containing substitutions seen in recent egg-propagated vaccine viruses and corresponding cell culture-propagated wild-type viruses. These assays provide a quantitative approach to investigating the importance of individual amino acid substitutions in influenza receptor-binding. Results show that viruses with egg-adaptive HA substitutions R156Q, S219Y, and I226N, have increased binding avidity to α2,3-linked receptor-analogues and decreased binding avidity to α2,6-linked receptor-analogues. No measurable binding was detected for the viruses with amino acid substitution combination 156Q+219Y and receptor-binding increased in viruses where egg-adaptation mutations were introduced into cell culture-propagated virus. Substitutions at positions 156 and 190 appeared to be primarily responsible for low reactivity in HI assays with post-infection ferret antisera raised against 2012–2013 season H3N2 viruses. Egg-adaptive substitutions at position 186 caused substantial differences in binding avidity with an insignificant effect on antigenicity.

  • Journal article
    Liu Y, Cecilio NT, Carvalho FC, Roque Barreira MC, Feizi Tet al., 2015,

    Glycan microarray analysis of the carbohydrate-recognition specificity of native and recombinant forms of the lectin ArtinM

    , Data in Brief, Vol: 5, Pages: 1035-1047, ISSN: 2352-3409

    This article contains data related to the researc.h article entitled “Yeast-derived ArtinM shares structure, carbohydrate recognition, and biological effects with native ArtinM” by Cecílio et al. (2015) [1]. ArtinM, a D-mannose-binding lectin isolated from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus, exerts immunomodulatory and regenerative activities through its Carbohydrate Recognition Domain (CRD) (Souza et al., 2013; Mariano et al., 2014 [2] and [3]). The limited availability of the native lectin (n-ArtinM) led us to characterize a recombinant form of the protein, obtained by expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (y-ArtinM). We compared the carbohydrate-binding specificities of y-ArtinM and n-ArtinM by analyzing the binding of biotinylated preparations of the two lectin forms using a neoglycolipid (NGL)-based glycan microarray. Data showed that y-ArtinM mirrored the specificity exhibited by n-ArtinM.

  • Journal article
    Gao C, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Ten F, Chai Wet al., 2015,

    Negative-Jon Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Microarray Analyses of Developmentally Regulated Antigens Based on Type 1 and Type 2 Backbone Sequences

    , Analytical Chemistry, Vol: 87, Pages: 11871-11878, ISSN: 1520-6882

    Type 1 (Galβ1-3GlcNAc) and type 2 (Galβ1-4GlcNAc) sequences are constituents of the backbones of alarge family of glycans of glycoproteins and glycolipids whosebranching and peripheral substitutions are developmentallyregulated. It is highly desirable to have microsequencingmethods that can be used to precisely identify and monitorthese oligosaccharide sequences with high sensitivity. Negative-ionelectrospray tandem mass spectrometry withcollision-induced dissociation has been used for characterizationof branching points, peripheral substitutions, andpartial assignment of linkages in reducing oligosaccharides. Wenow extend this method to characterizing entire sequences oflinear type 1 and type 2 chain-based glycans, focusing on thetype 1 and type 2 units in the internal regions including the linkages connecting type 1 and type 2 disaccharide units. We applythe principles to sequence analysis of closely related isomeric oligosaccharides and demonstrate by microarray analyses distinctbinding activities of antibodies and a lectin toward various combinations of type 1 and 2 units joined by 1,3- and 1,6-linkages.These sequence-specific carbohydrate-binding proteins are in turn valuable tools for detecting and distinguishing the type 1 andtype 2-based developmentally regulated glycan sequences.

  • Conference paper
    Silva L, Childs RA, Palma AS, Chai W, Feizi T, Liu Yet al., 2015,

    Influence of carrier lipid composition on glycan recognition in NGL-based microarrays

    , Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Glycobiology on Glycobiology - Accelerating Impact across the Biomedical Sciences, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, Pages: 1260-1260, ISSN: 0959-6658
  • Journal article
    Cecilio NT, Carvalho FC, Liu Y, Moncrieffe M, de Almeida Buranello PA, Zorzetto-Fernandes AL, Dalle Luche D, Hanna ES, Soares SG, Feizi T, Gay NJ, Goldman MHS, Roque-Barreira MCet al., 2015,

    Yeast expressed ArtinM shares structure, carbohydrate recognition, and biological effects with native ArtinM

    , International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Vol: 82, Pages: 22-30, ISSN: 0141-8130

    Recent advances in glycobiology have revealed the essential role of lectins in deciphering the glycocodes at the cell surface to generate important biological signaling responses. ArtinM, a d-mannose-binding lectin isolated from the seeds of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), is composed of 16 kDa subunits that are associated to form a homotetramer. Native ArtinM (n-ArtinM) exerts immunomodulatory and regenerative effects, but the potential pharmaceutical applicability of the lectin is highly limited by the fact that its production is expensive, laborious, and impossible to be scaled up. This led us to characterize a recombinant form of the lectin obtained by expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (y-ArtinM). In the present study, we demonstrated that y-ArtinM is similar to n-ArtinM in subunit arrangement, oligomerization and carbohydrate binding specificity. We showed that y-ArtinM can exert n-ArtinM biological activities such as erythrocyte agglutination, stimulation of neutrophil migration and degranulation, mast cell degranulation, and induction of interleukin-12 and interleukin-10 production by macrophages. In summary, the expression of ArtinM in yeast resulted in successful production of an active, recombinant form of ArtinM that is potentially useful for pharmaceutical application.

  • Journal article
    Feizi TEN, Haltiwanger RS, 2015,

    Editorial overview: Carbohydrate-protein interactions and glycosylation: Glycan synthesis and recognition: finding the perfect partner in a sugar-coated life.

    , Curr Opin Struct Biol, Vol: 34, Pages: vii-ix

    Oligosaccharides expressed on the surface of cells and in biological fluids as glycoproteins, glycolipids, proteoglycans and polysaccharides can be recognized by partner proteins, and these interactions have been shown to mediate fundamental biological events such as occur in the immune system, signal transduction, development and cancer metastasis. The specificities of these partner proteins (lectins) for their glycan ligands are determined by factors such as glycan composition, shape and density of expression and the involvement of the aglycone moiety as part of the recognition motif. There is increasing knowledge on the mechanisms of these interactions as new secondary binding sites continue to be elucidated adding to the functional awareness of sugar-binding proteins. This issue focuses on recent advances in understanding how C-type lectins in the immune system work, how novel motifs involving asymmetric glycan branch recognition and protein-protein interactions influence critical biological functions including signal transduction and bactericidal pore formation, recent studies on novel glycan-binding proteins produced by bacteriophage, analysis of the interactions between heparin/heparan sulphate and their binding proteins, and recent findings on the molecular interactions between chondroitin-dermatan sulphate and various bioactive protein components. We conclude with a review on a recent fascinating class of processive enzymes responsible for synthesis of high-molecular weight extracellular polysaccharides such as hyaluronic acid, chitin and alginate.

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