Your reference list and bibliography
How to write your reference list and bibliography in the Vancouver style
Your lecturers consider accurate and consistent referencing to be an important part of your academic work. Check your course guidelines so you know which referencing style to use.
The following examples are in two parts:
- the information you should collect about each piece of work you use
- how this information is presented when you write a full reference
If you cannot find the type of work you need to provide a reference for, please contact your librarian for more help.
Click on the type of work you need to provide a reference for. If you cannot find the type of work you need, please contact your librarian for more help.
Petrie KJ, Mueller JT, Schirmbeck F, Donkin L, Broadbent E, Ellis CJ et al. Effect of providing information about normal test results on patients' reassurance: randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal 2007;334(7589): 352-354. Available from: doi: 10.1136/bmj.39093.464190.55
Acts of Parliament
Annual report: online
Annual report: print
Book: accessed on an e-book reader
Book: chapter in an edited book
Book: in a foreign language
Book: online / electronic
Brochure / pamphlet / booklet
Command papers and other official publications [excluding Acts of Parliament]
Computer program, software or code
Conference proceeding: individual paper
Conference proceeding: whole
Discussion list / forum post
Email: personal communication
Email: public communication
Use the discussion list / forum post layout for emails which are publicly available, that is posted to a discussion list, group or forum.
You should provide a reference to the work in which you found the equation. Use the examples in this list to identify the appropriate layout depending on the type of work you need to reference. Your in-text citation should include the page number on which the equation appears (unless in an online publication without page numbers).
Equipment operating manual
Financial data from an online database (for share price or financial instrument figures)
Financial report from an online database (for company financial accounts, e.g. profit and loss account)
Image / illustration / figure / diagram / table / photograph published in a journal
Image / illustration / figure / diagram / table / photograph published in a book
Journal article: online / electronic
Journal article: postprint / in press
Journal article: preprint
Journal article: print
Lecture / presentation
Online maps may originate from an online map service, such as Google Maps, or from Digimap, the online Ordnance survey mapping tool.
Map author or originator (online maps may not have an author, but you can use the map publisher’s name as a corporate author)
Title of map
Sheet number, or tile (if available)
Scale (if available)
Title of online source (in italics)
Available from: URL
[Date of access]
Streetmap.Imperial College London and surrounding area. Streetmap. Available from: http://www.streetmap.co.uk/newmap.srf?x=526500&y=179400&z=0&sv=526500,179400&st=OSGrid&lu=N&tl=~&ar=y&bi=~&mapp=newmap.srf&searchp=newsearch.srf [Accessed: 23rd July 2010].
Tele Atlas. Imperial College London and surrounding area. Google Maps. Available from: http://maps.google.co.uk/maps?f=q&source=s_q&hl=en&geocode=&q=south+kensington&sll=53.800651,-4.064941&sspn=18.304449,39.506836&ie=UTF8&hq=&hnear=South+Kensington,+Greater+London,+United+Kingdom&ll=51.494423,-0.177155&spn=0.009392,0.01929&z=16 [Accessed: 23rd July 2010].
Note: Google Maps use data produced by Tele Atlas. If you reproduce any map in your work, you must label and cite it as you would with any other type of image [link to image].
If you have used Digimap, or another mapping tool, to generate a map, and then add/subtract data layers, you must still provide information about where the original map data is from.
Market survey report: online / electronic
Market survey report: print
Author (use the corporate author, individual or developer)
Title of the App (this should be in italics)
Year of publication
Available from: name of app store or URL (if required)
Citymapper Ltd. Citymapper (version 6.11) [Mobile App] 2016 [Accessed 25th August 2016]
It may be useful to give the full url from the app store e.g. available from: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.citymapper.app.release&hl=en_GB or https://itunes.apple.com/gb/app/citymapper-transport-app-live/id469463298?mt=8