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  • Journal article
    Jackson CA-L, Jackson MPA, Hudec MR, 2015,

    Understanding passive margin kinematics: a critical test of competing hypotheses for the origin of the Albian Gap, Santos Basin, offshore Brazil

    , Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol: 127, Pages: 1730-1751, ISSN: 1943-2674

    Thin-skinned gravitational gliding and spreading drive deformation on salt-bearing passive margins. Such margins typically have an updip extensional domain kinematically linked to a downdip contractional domain. However, calculating magnitudes of extension and shortening in salt-bearing margins is difficult because the initial widths of diapirs are uncertain. Extension and shortening may be cryptic, being hidden in widening or shortening of diapirs. -This uncertainty can lead to controversy in regional analysis. The Santos Basin, offshore Brazil, contains a prime example of this uncertainty in the form of an enigmatic structure known as the "Albian Gap", a zone up to 75 km wide within which the Albian section is missing. The Albian Gap has beenvariably interpreted as the product of post-Albian extensional faulting (the extension model) or as an Albian salt structure evacuated in response to loading by post-Albian sediments (the expulsion model). We evaluate these two models by: (i) structurally restoring a regional seismic reflection profile across the Albian Gap using both models;(ii) quantitatively analyzing the geometry of the Upper Cretaceous rollover overlying the Albian Gap; and (iii) synthesizing and critically evaluating arguments previously advanced in support of extension or expulsion. We propose a revised model for the evolution of the Albian Gap that invokes Albian thin-skinned extension and post-Albiansalt expulsion. Our approach shows that critical analysis of geological observations from borehole-constrained seismic reflection data can be used to assess the relative roles of the key processes in the deformation of salt-bearing passive margins.

  • Journal article
    Portenga EW, Bierman PR, Duncan C, Corbett LB, Kehrwald NM, Rood DHet al., 2015,

    Erosion rates of the Bhutanese Himalaya determined using in situ-produced Be-10

    , GEOMORPHOLOGY, Vol: 233, Pages: 112-126, ISSN: 0169-555X
  • Journal article
    Yang ZX, Jardine RJ, Zhu BT, Rimoy Set al., 2015,

    Closure to "Stresses Developed around Displacement Piles Penetration in Sand" by Z. X. Yang, R. J. Jardine, B. T. Zhu, and S. Rimoy

    , JOURNAL OF GEOTECHNICAL AND GEOENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING, Vol: 141, ISSN: 1090-0241
  • Journal article
    Maes J, Muggeridge AH, Jackson MD, Quintard M, Lapene Aet al., 2015,

    Scaling heat and mass flow through porous media during pyrolysis

    , HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER, Vol: 51, Pages: 313-334, ISSN: 0947-7411
  • Journal article
    Patruno S, Hampson GJ, Jackson CA-L, 2015,

    Quantitative characterisation of deltaic and subaqueous clinoforms

    , Earth-Science Reviews, Vol: 142, Pages: 79-119, ISSN: 1872-6828

    Clinoforms are ubiquitous deltaic, shallow-marine and continental-margin depositional morphologies, occurring over a range of spatial scales (1-104 m in height). Up to four types of progressively larger-scale clinoforms may prograde synchronously along shoreline-to-abyssal plain transects, albeit at very different rates. Paired subaerial and subaqueous delta clinoforms (or ‘delta-scale compound clinoforms’), in particular, constitute a hitherto overlooked depositional model for ancient shallow-marine sandbodies. The topset-to-foreset rollovers of subaqueous deltas are developed at up to 60 m water depths, such that ancient delta-scale clinoforms should not be assumed to record the position of ancient shorelines, even if they are sandstone-rich. This study analyses a large dataset of modern and ancient delta-scale, shelf-prism- and continental-margin-scale clinoforms, in order to characterise diagnostic features of different clinoform systems, and particularly of delta-scale subaqueous clinoforms. Such diagnostic criteria allow different clinoform types and their dominant grain-size characteristics to be interpreted in seismic reflection and/or sedimentological data, and prove that all clinoforms are subject to similar physical laws. The examined dataset demonstrates that progressively larger scale clinoforms are deposited in increasingly deeper waters, over progressively larger time spans. Consequently, depositional flux, sedimentation and progradation rates of continental-margin clinoforms are up to 4-6 orders of magnitude lower than those of deltas. For all clinoform types, due to strong statistical correlations between these parameters, it is now possible to calculate clinoform paleobathymetries once clinoform heights, age spans or progradation rates have been constrained. Muddy and sandy delta-scale subaqueous clinoforms show many different features, but all share four characteristics. (1) They are formed during relative sea-level stillstands (e.g.

  • Conference paper
    Singh A, Gupta S, Sinha R, Carter A, Kristina KJ, Mark DF, Buylaert J-P, Mason PJ, Murray AS, Jain M, Paul Det al., 2015,

    Large–scale avulsion of the late Quaternary Sutlej river in the NW Indo–Gangetic foreland basin

    , European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2015

    River avulsions are important processes in the spatial evolution of river systems in tectonically active sedimentary basins as they govern large–scale patterns of sediment routing. However, the pattern and timing of avulsions in large river systems are poorly documented and not well understood. Here we document late Quaternary paleo– river channel changes in the Indo–Gangetic basin of northwest India. Using a combination of satellite remote sensing and detailed sediment coring, we analyse the large–scale planform geometry, and detailed sedimentary andstratigraphic nature of a major fluvial sedimentary deposit in the shallow subsurface. This sediment body records aggradation of multiple fluvial channel fills. Satellite remote sensing analysis indicates the trace of the buried channel complex and demonstrates that it exists in region of the Himalayan foreland where no major rivers are currently present. Thus it records the former drainage pathway of a major river, which has since been diverted. We use optically stimulated luminescence dating techniques to develop an age model for the stratigraphic succession and hence constrain the timing of river channel existence and diversion. Provenance analysis based on U–Pb dating of detrital zircons and detrital mica Ar–Ar ages indicate sediment sources in the Higher Himalayan Crystalline andLesser Himalayan Crystalline Series indicating that this paleo–river channel system formed a major perennial river derived from the main body of the Himalaya. Specifically we are able to fingerprint bedrock sources in thecatchment of the present–day Sutlej river indicating that the paleo–fluvial system represents the former course of the Sutlej river prior to a major nodal avulsion to its present day course. Our results indicate that on geologically relatively short time–scales, we observe dramatic along strike shifts in the location of major Himalayan rivers. Our sediment records

  • Journal article
    Yang ZX, Guo WB, Zha FS, Jardine RJ, Xu CJ, Cai YQet al., 2015,

    Field Behavior of Driven Prestressed High-Strength Concrete Piles in Sandy Soils

    , Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol: 141, ISSN: 1943-5606

    Driven piles are used widely both offshore and onshore. However, accurate axial capacity and load-displacement prediction is difficult at sand-dominated sites, and offshore practice is moving towards cone penetration test (CPT) based design methods developed from instrumented pile research and database studies. However, onshore use of these methods remains limited; there is a paucity of high quality case histories to assess their potential benefits clearly, and application in layered profiles may be uncertain. This paper presents new tests on prestressed concrete (PHC) pipe piles driven in sands for a major new Yangtze River bridge project in China, assessing the performance of the ‘new CPT’ and conventional capacity approaches, considering the influence of weak sublayers on base resistance and noting the marked changes in shaft capacity that apply over time.

  • Journal article
    Su K, Latham J-P, Pavlidis D, Xiang J, Fang F, Mostaghimi P, Percival JR, Pain CC, Jackson MDet al., 2015,

    Multiphase flow simulation through porous media with explicitly resolved fractures

    , Geofluids, Vol: 15, Pages: 592-607, ISSN: 1468-8123

    Accurate simulation of multiphase flow in fractured porous media remains a challenge. An important problem is the representation of the discontinuous or near discontinuous behaviour of saturation in real geological formations. In the classical continuum approach, a refined mesh is required at the interface between fracture and porous media to capture the steep gradients in saturation and saturation-dependent transport properties. This dramatically increases the computational load when large numbers of fractures are present in the numerical model. A discontinuous finite element method is reported here to model flow in fractured porous media. The governing multiphase porous media flow equations are solved in the adaptive mesh computational fluid dynamics code IC-FERST on unstructured meshes. The method is based on a mixed control volume – discontinuous finite element formulation. This is combined with the PN+1DG-PNDG element pair, which has discontinuous (order N+1) representation for velocity and discontinuous (order N) representation for pressure. A number of test cases are used to evaluate the method's ability to model fracture flow. The first is used to verify the performance of the element pair on structured and unstructured meshes of different resolution. Multiphase flow is then modelled in a range of idealised and simple fracture patterns. Solutions with sharp saturation fronts and computational economy in terms of mesh size are illustrated.

  • Journal article
    Corbett LB, Bierman PR, Lasher GE, Rood DHet al., 2015,

    Landscape chronology and glacial history in Thule, northwest Greenland

    , QUATERNARY SCIENCE REVIEWS, Vol: 109, Pages: 57-67, ISSN: 0277-3791
  • Journal article
    Davies DR, Goes S, Sambridge M, 2015,

    On the relationship between volcanic hotspot locations, the reconstructed eruption sites of large igneous provinces and deep mantle seismic structure

    , EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS, Vol: 411, Pages: 121-130, ISSN: 0012-821X
  • Journal article
    Doherty P, Igoe D, Murphy G, Gavin K, Preston J, McAvoy C, Byrne BW, Mcadam R, Burd HJ, Houlsby GT, Martin CM, Zdravkovic L, Taborda DMG, Potts DM, Jardine RJ, Sideri M, Schroeder FC, Wood AM, Kallehave D, Gretlund JSet al., 2015,

    Field validation of fibre Bragg grating sensors for measuring strain on driven steel piles

    , GEOTECHNIQUE LETTERS, Vol: 5, Pages: 74-79, ISSN: 2049-825X
  • Journal article
    Dilib FA, Jackson MD, Zadeh AM, Aasheim R, Arland K, Gyllensten AJ, Erlandsen SMet al., 2015,

    Closed-Loop Feedback Control in Intelligent Wells: Application to a Heterogeneous, Thin Oil-Rim Reservoir in the North Sea

    , SPE RESERVOIR EVALUATION & ENGINEERING, Vol: 18, Pages: 69-83, ISSN: 1094-6470
  • Journal article
    Ouimet W, Dethier D, Bierman P, Wyshnytzky C, Shea N, Rood DHet al., 2015,

    Spatial and temporal variations in meteoric Be-10 inventories and long-term deposition rates, Colorado Front Range

    , QUATERNARY SCIENCE REVIEWS, Vol: 109, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 0277-3791
  • Journal article
    Stewart JP, Douglas J, Javanbarg M, Bozorgnia Y, Abrahamson NA, Boore DM, Campbell KW, Delavaud E, Erdik M, Stafford PJet al., 2015,

    Selection of Ground Motion Prediction Equations for the Global Earthquake Model

    , EARTHQUAKE SPECTRA, Vol: 31, Pages: 19-45, ISSN: 8755-2930
  • Journal article
    Reusser L, Bierman P, Rood D, 2015,

    Quantifying human impacts on rates of erosion and sediment transport at a landscape scale

    , GEOLOGY, Vol: 43, Pages: 171-174, ISSN: 0091-7613
  • Journal article
    van Reeuwijk M, Hadziabdic M, 2015,

    Modelling high Schmidt number turbulent mass transfer

    , INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEAT AND FLUID FLOW, Vol: 51, Pages: 42-49, ISSN: 0142-727X
  • Journal article
    Whittaker AC, Walker AS, 2015,

    Geomorphic constraints on fault throw rates and linkage times: Examples from the Northern Gulf of Evia, Greece.

    , Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, Vol: 120, Pages: 137-158, ISSN: 2169-9003
  • Journal article
    Yang ZX, Jardine RJ, Guo WB, Chow Fet al., 2015,

    A new and openly accessible database of tests on piles driven in sands

    , Géotechnique Letters, Vol: 5, Pages: 12-20, ISSN: 2045-2543
  • Journal article
    Magee C, Duffy OB, Purnell K, Bell RE, Jackson CA-L, Reeve Met al., 2015,

    Fault-controlled fluid flow inferred from hydrothermal vents imaged in 3D seismic reflection data, offshore NW Australia

    , Basin Research, Vol: 28, Pages: 299-318, ISSN: 1365-2117

    Fluid migration pathways in the subsurface are heavily influenced by pre-existing faults. Although studies of active fluid-escape structures can provide insights into the relationships between faults and fluid flow, they cannot fully constrain the geometry of and controls on the contemporaneous subsurface fluid flow pathways. We use 3D seismic reflection data from offshore NW Australia to map 121 ancient hydrothermal vents, likely related to magmatic activity, and a normal fault array considered to form fluid pathways. The buried vents consist of craters up to 264 m deep, which host a mound of disaggregated sedimentary material up to 518 m thick. There is a correlation between vent alignment and underlying fault traces. Seismic-stratigraphic observations and fault kinematic analyses reveal that the vents were emplaced on an intra-Tithonian seabed in response to the explosive release of fluids hosted within the fault array. We speculate that during the Late Jurassic the convex-upwards morphology of the upper tip-lines of individual faults acted to channelize ascending fluids and control where fluid expulsion and vent formation occurred. This contribution highlights the usefulness of 3D seismic reflection data to constraining normal fault-controlled subsurface fluid flow.

  • Software
    Piggott MD, 2015,

    OpenTidalFarm

    OpenTidalFarm is an open-source software for simulating and optimising tidal turbine farms.The positioning of the turbines in a tidal farm is a crucial decision. Simulations show that the optimal positioning can increase the power generation of the farm by up to 50% and can therefore determine the viability of a project. However, finding the optimal layout is a difficult process due to the complex flow interactions. OpenTidalFarm solves this problem by applying an efficient optimisation algorithm onto a accurate flow prediction model.

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