Figure 1: ‘Charge transport mechanisms in inkjet-printed thin-film transistors based on two-dimensional materials’ by E. Piatti, A. Arbab et al. Nature Electronics, 4 (12) 893 – 905 (2021).

Flexible and textile electronics are a rapidly growing research field with several applications in diverse fields, including organic light emitting diodes (OLED), photovoltaic devices, wearable sensors and transistors.1

Fully printed wearable electronics based on two-dimensional (2D) material heterojunction structures also known as heterostructures, such as field-effect transistors, require robust and reproducible printed multi-layer stacks consisting of active channel, dielectric and conductive contact layers.2

Solution processing of graphite and other layered materials provides low-cost inks enabling printed electronic devices, for example by inkjet printing.3

Our group utilises a range of techniques for the production of printed electronics, including ink-jet printing, screen printing, spray coating, spin coating, and blade and rod coating.4-6 Moveover, characterisation techniques used in printed electronics based on 2D crystals can be divided in the ink characterisation and the dry film characterisation on the substrate.

Our inks are characterised using optical absorption spectroscopy, goniometry and rheometry whilst the dry films are further characterised using Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy and diffraction techniques, atomic force microscopy and a range of electrical characterisation techniques. More information can be found in the range of papers references below.

1 Torrisi, F., & Carey, T. (2018). Printing 2D materials. Flexible carbon-based electronics, 131-205.

2 Carey, T., Cacovich, S., Divitini, G., Ren, J., Mansouri, A., Kim, J. M., ... & Torrisi, F. (2017). Fully inkjet-printed two-dimensional material field-effect heterojunctions for wearable and textile electronics. Nature communications, 8(1), 1-11.

3 Torrisi, F., Hasan, T., Wu, W., Sun, Z., Lombardo, A., Kulmala, T. S., ... & Ferrari, A. C. (2012). Inkjet-printed graphene electronics. ACS nano, 6(4), 2992-3006.

4 Carey, T., Jones, C., Le Moal, F., Deganello, D., & Torrisi, F. (2018). Spray-coating thin films on three-dimensional surfaces for a semitransparent capacitive-touch device. ACS applied materials & interfaces, 10(23), 19948-19956.

5 Carey, T., Arbab, A., Anzi, L., Bristow, H., Hui, F., Bohm, S., ... & Torrisi, F. (2021). Inkjet Printed Circuits with 2D Semiconductor Inks for High‐Performance Electronics. Advanced Electronic Materials, 7(7), 2100112.

6 Piatti, E., Arbab, A., Galanti, F., Carey, T., Anzi, L., Spurling, D., ... & Torrisi, F. (2021). Charge transport mechanisms in inkjet-printed thin-film transistors based on two-dimensional materials. Nature Electronics, 4(12), 893-905.