BibTex format

author = {Cleather, DJ and Bull, AM},
doi = {10.1098/rsos.140449},
journal = {Royal Society Open Science},
title = {The development of a segment-based musculoskeletal model of the lower limb: introducing FreeBody.},
url = {},
volume = {2},
year = {2015}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Traditional approaches to the biomechanical analysis of movement are joint-based; that is the mechanics of the body are described in terms of the forces and moments acting at the joints, and that muscular forces are considered to create moments about the joints. We have recently shown that segment-based approaches, where the mechanics of the body are described by considering the effect of the muscle, ligament and joint contact forces on the segments themselves, can also prove insightful. We have also previously described a simultaneous, optimization-based, musculoskeletal model of the lower limb. However, this prior model incorporates both joint- and segment-based assumptions. The purpose of this study was therefore to develop an entirely segment-based model of the lower limb and to compare its performance to our previous work. The segment-based model was used to estimate the muscle forces found during vertical jumping, which were in turn compared with the muscular activations that have been found in vertical jumping, by using a Geers' metric to quantify the magnitude and phase errors. The segment-based model was shown to have a similar ability to estimate muscle forces as a model based upon our previous work. In the future, we will evaluate the ability of the segment-based model to be used to provide results with clinical relevance, and compare its performance to joint-based approaches. The segment-based model described in this article is publicly available as a GUI-based Matlab® application and in the original source code (at
AU - Cleather,DJ
AU - Bull,AM
DO - 10.1098/rsos.140449
PY - 2015///
SN - 2054-5703
TI - The development of a segment-based musculoskeletal model of the lower limb: introducing FreeBody.
T2 - Royal Society Open Science
UR -
UR -
VL - 2
ER -