World map vaccines


John S. Tregoning, Katie E. Flight, Sophie L. Hingham, Ziyin Wang, Benjamin F. Pierce. "Progress of the COVID-19 vaccine effort: viruses, vaccines and variants versus efficacy, effectiveness and escape." Nature Reviews Immunology. 2021. DOI:

Nicole Inge Richardson, Neil Ravenscroft, Vanessa Arato, Davide Oldrini, Francesca Micoli, Michelle M. Kuttel. "Conformational and Immunogenicity Studies of the Shigella flexneri Serogroup 6 O-Antigen: The Effect of O-Acetylation." Vaccines. 2021. 9(5): 432.

Yu Huang, Boram Gu, Isabelle I. Salles-Crawley, Kirk A. Taylor, Li Yu, Jie Ren, Xuhan Liu, Michael Emerson, Colin Longstaff, Alun D. Hughes, Simon A. Thom, Xiao Yun Xu, Rongjun Chen. "Fibrinogen-mimicking, multiarm nanovesicles for human thrombus-specific delivery of tissue plasminogen activator and targeted thrombolytic therapy." Science Advances. 2021. 7(23): eabf9033.

Elena Palmieri, Vanessa Arato, Davide Oldrini, Beatrice Ricchetti, Maria Grazia Aruta, Werner Pansegrau, Sara Marchi, Fabiola Giusti, Ilaria Ferlenghi, Omar Rossi, Renzo Alfini, Carlo Giannelli, Gianmarco Gasperini, Francesca Necchi, Francesca Micoli. "Stability of Outer Membrane Vesicles-Based Vaccines, Indentifying the Most Appropriate Methods to Detect Changes in Vaccine Potency." Vaccines. 2021. 9(3): 229.

Zoltán Kis, Cleo Kontoravdi, Robin Shattock, Nilay Shah. "Resources, Production Scales and Time Required for Producing RNA Vacines for the Global Pandemic Demand." Vaccines. 2021. 9(1): 3.

Damien van de Berg, Zoltán Kis, Carl Fredrik Behmer, Karnyart Samnuan, Anna K. Blakney, Cleo Kontoravdi, Robin Shattock, Nilay Shah. "Quality by design modelling to support rapid RNA vaccine production against emerging infectious diseases." npg Vaccines. 2021. 6: 65.

Talia A. Shmool, Laura K. Martin, Coby J. Clarke, Liem Bui-Le, Karen M. Polizzi, Jason P. Hallett. "Exploring conformational preferences of proteins: ionic liquid effects on the energy landscape of avidin." Chemical Science. 2021. DOI:

Ignacio Moya-Ramírez, Clément R. Bouton, Cleo Kontoravdi, Karen Polizzi. "High resolution biosensor to test the capping level and integrity of mRNAs." Nucleic Acids Research. 2020. 48(22): e129.
Jonas B. Sandbrink, Robin J. Shattock. "RNA Vaccines: A Suitable Platform for Tackling Emerging Pandemics?Frontiers in Immunology. 2020. DOI:
Anna K. Blakney, Paul F. McKay, Clément R. Bouton, Kai Hu, Karnyart Samnuan, and Robin J. Shattock. "Innate Inhibiting Proteins Enhance Expression and Immunogenicity of Self-Amplifying RNA." Molecular Therapy. 2020. DOI:
John S. Tregoning, Emily S. Brown, Hannah M. Cheeseman, Kaite E. FlightSophie L. Higham, Nana-M. Lemm, Benjamin F. Pierce, David C. StirlingZiyin Wang and Katrina M. Pollock.  "Vaccines for COVID-19." Clinical & Experimental Immunology. 2020. 202, 2, 162-192.
Zoltán Kis, Cleo Kontoravdi, Antu K. Dey, Robin Shattock, Nilay Shah. "Rapid development and deployment of high-volume vaccines for pandemic responses.Journal of Advanced Manufacturing and Processing. 2020. 2(3): 310060.
Pratik Gurnani, Anna K. Blakney, Roberto Terracciano, Joshua Petch, Andrew Blok, Clément R. Bouton, Paul F. McKay, Robin J. Shattock and Cameron Alexander. "The in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo effect of polymer hydrophobicity on charge reversible vectors for self-amplifying RNA." Biomacromolecules. 2020. 21, 8, 3242–3253.
Christine Toelzer, Kapil Gupta, Sathish K.N. Yadav, Ufuk Borucu, Frederic Garzoni, Oskar Staufer, Julien Capin, Joachim Spatz, Daniel Fitzgerald, Imre Berger and Christiane Schaffitzel. "Free fatty acid binding pocket in the locked structure of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein." Science. 2020. 370, 6517, 725-730.
Read a highlight on the work above from the UKRI here.
." Polymer Chemistry. 2020. 11, 5861-5869
." Journal of Materials Chemistry B. 2020. 8, 4940-4949.

Anna K. Blakney, Yunqing Zhu, Paul F. McKay, Clément R. Bouton, Jonathan Yeow, Jiaqing Tang, Kai Hu, Karnyart Samnuan, Christopher L. Grigsby, Robin J. Shattock and Molly M. Stevens. "Big is Beautiful: Enhanced saRNA Delivery and Immunogenicity by a Higher Molecular Weight, Bioreducible, Cationic Polymer." ACS Nano. 2020. 14, 5, 5711–5727.

Charles Vragniau, Joshua C. Bufton, Frédéric Garzoni, Emilie Stermann, Fruzsina Rabi, Céline Terrat, Mélanie Guidetti, Véronique Josserand, Matt Williams, Christopher J. Woods, Gerardo Viedma, Phil Bates, Bernard Verrier, Laurence Chaperot, Christiane Schaffitzel, Imre Berger, and Pascal Fender. "Synthetic self-assembling ADDomer platform for highly efficient vaccination by genetically encoded multiepitope display." Science Advances. 2019. 5: eaaw2853.

Read the press release on the above work here

Ankur Matreja and Gordon Dougan. "Molecular epidemiology and intercontinental spread of cholera." Vaccine. 2019. 38: A46-A51.

Anna K. Blakney, Paul F. McKay, Bárbara Ibarzo Yus, Yoann Aldon, and Robin Shattock. "Inside out: optimization of lipid nanoparticle formulations for exterior complexation and in vivo delivery of saRNA." Gene Therapy. 2019. 26: 363-372.

Zoltán Kis, Maria M. Papthanasiou, Raul Calvo-Serrano, Cleo Kontoravdi, and Nilay Shah. "A model-based quantification of the impact of new manufacturing technologies on developing country vaccine supply chain performance: a Kenyan case study." Journal of Advanced Manufacturing and Processing. 2019. 1: e10025.

Anna K. Blakney, Paul F. McKay, Dennis Christensen, Bárbara Ibarzo Yus, Yoann Aldon, Frank Follman, and Robin J. Shattock. "Effects of cationic adjuvant formulation particle type, fluidity and immunomodulators on delivery and immunogenicity of saRNA.Journal of Controlled Release. 2019. 304: 65-74.

Alex P. S. Brogan, Nimrod Heldman, Jason P. Hallett, and Angela M. Belcher. "Thermally robust solvent-free biofluids of M13 bacteriophage engineered for high compatibility with anhydrous ionic liquids." Chemical Communications. 2019. 55: 10752-10755.

Maria M. Papthanasiou, Baris Burnak, Justin Katz, Nilay Shah, and Efstratios N. Pistikopoulos. “Assisting continuous biomanufacturing through advanced control in downstream purification.”Computers & Chemical Engineering. 2019. 125: 232-248.

Anna K. Blakney, Paul F. McKay, Bárbara Ibarzo Yus, Judith E. Hunter, Elizabeth A. Dex, and Robin J. Shattock. “The Skin You Are In: Design-of-Experiments Optimization of Lipid Nanoparticle Self-Amplifying RNA Formulations in Human Skin Explants.” ACS Nano. 2019. 13(5): 5920-5930.

Anna K. Blakney was awarded a Provost’s Award for excellence in animal research for the above work.

Anna K. Blakney, Gokhan Yilmaz, Paul F. McKay, C. Remzi Becer, and Robin J. Shattock. “One Size Does Not Fit All: The Effect of Chain Length and Charge Density of Poly(ethylene imine) Based Copolymers on Delivery of pDNA, mRNA, and RepRNA Polyplexes.” Biomacromolecules. 2018. 19(7): 2870-2879.

Anna K. Blakney, Paul F. McKay, and Robin J. Shattock. “Structural Components for Amplification of Positive and Negative Strand VEEV Splitzicons.” Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences. 2018. 5: 71.

Luke Muir, Paul F. McKay, Velislava N. Petrova, Oleksiy V. Klymenko, Sven Kratochvil, Christopher L. Pinder, Paul Kellam, and Robin J. Shattock. “Optimisation of ex vivo memory B cell expansion/differentiation for interrogation of rare peripheral memory B cell subset responses.” Wellcome Open Research. 2018. 2: 97.

Zoltán Kis, Robin Shattock, Nilay Shah, and Cleo Kontoravdi. “Emerging Technologies for Low-Cost, Rapid Vaccine Manufacture.” Biotechnology Journal. 2019. 14: 1800376.

General Information on Vaccines

History of vaccines
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Vaccine Knowledge Project
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Vaccines work to help keep us alive
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A history of the measles vaccination programme within the UK
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Riskiest vaccine is the one not given
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Volunteers supporting vaccine development
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"The Vaccine Race: Science, Politics, and the Human Costs of Defeating Disease", by Meredith Wadman

"Vaccine: The Controversial Story of Medicine's Greatest Lifesaver", by Arthur Allen

"Vaccines: A Biography", edited by Andrew Artenstein

Annual Report

FMVR Annual report 2019

Imperial College London FVMR Hub Annual Report 2019 (PDF)