The ICEPT working and discussion papers series aim to provide timely contributions to the policy debate and an early 'window' on emerging research findings.

Working papers are typically early versions of conference and journal submissions published here before being published elsewhere.

Discussion papers and policy briefs are generally shorter, and offer a combination of response to recent events, analysis and commentary.

This page also provides links to papers, briefings and blogs written by ICEPT staff and hosted on websites elsewhere.

Working Papers, Discussion Papers and Policy Briefs


Behaviour change, public engagement and net zero. A report for the Committee on Climate Change. This report by Richard Carmichael informed the Committee on Climate Change advice to the UK government on a net zero target for climate change forming emissions. It tackles travel, households and diet and is making a high profile contribution to the public debate.


Managing Heat System Decarbonisation: Comparing the impacts and costs of transitions in heat infrastructure. A Discussion Paper produced by ICEPT with support from the European Climate Foundation. This paper considers the options for decarbonising heat in the UK over the period to 2050.  Keith Maclean, Robert Sansom, Tom Watson, Rob Gross. April 2016.

Managing Heat System Decarbonisation technical annex.‌ The technical annex to the Managing Heat System Decarbonisation discussion paper.  Keith Maclean, Robert Sansom, Tom Watson, Rob Gross. April 2016.


Energy system crossroads - time for decisions: UK 2030 low carbon scenarios and . A Discussion Paper produced by ICEPT with support from the European Climate Foundation. The paper links policy choices to decarbonisation scenarios and argues that there is an urgent need to add longer term clarity to UK energy policy. Keith Maclean, Robert Gross, Aidan Rhodes, Matt Hannon, Bryonny Parrish. October 2015.

Energy system crossroads technical annex (PDF). The technical annex to the energy system crossroads discussion paper provides an in-depth review of leading UK energy system scenarios. Matt Hannon, Aidan Rhodes, Robert Gross, Keith Maclean. October 2015.

Driving innovation through continuity in UK energy policy (PDF): Four simple steps to maintain investor confidence, boost innovation and reduce costs in the UK power sector. A policy brief that tackles the claim that UK energy policy needs a 'reset' and provides an evidence based route to rebuilding investor confidence and improving long term costs. Robert Gross. October 2015.

Becky Mawhood and Dr Rob Gross contributed the blog Are Private Markets Effective for Rural Electrification? to The Energy Collective. January 2015.


Establishing a European renewable jet fuel supply chain (PDF): the technoeconomic potential of biomass conversion technologies. A working paper produced for EIT Climate-KIC.  Rebecca Mawhood, Adriana Rodriguez Cobas and Raphael Slade.  November 2014.

Could retaining old coal lead to a policy own goal? (PDF)Modelling the potential for coal fired power stations to undermine carbon targets in 2030. A report by ICEPT for WWF. Written by Robert Gross, Jamie Speirs, Adam Hawkes, Simon Skillings and Phil Heptonstall. November 2014

Institutional barriers to a ‘perfect’ policy (PDF)a case study of the Senegalese Rural Electrification Action Plan. A working paper by Rebecca Mawhood and Dr Robert Gross (submitted to Energy Policy, March 2014). 

Evaluating Renewable Energy Policy: A Review of Criteria and Indicators for Asse Working paper produced by ICEPT for the UK Energy Research Centre – International Renewable Agency (UKERC-IRENA) collaboration, funded by DECC. Jack Nicholls, Rebecca Mawhood, Robert Gross and Arturo Castillo-Castillo.  January 2014.


How useful are renewable energy toolkits for developing countries? (PDF): A framework for evaluation. A working paper by Livia Paggi, Tracy Lane, Robert Gross, Philip Greenacre, Jack Nicholls, Rebecca Mawhood. July 2013

Dr Raphael Slade, Research Fellow, contributed a blog on Carbon Debt and Biomass Electricity  to the Green Alliance Blog, June 2013

Supporting renewable energy in Latin America and the Caribbean: lessons to learn. A working paper produced for the UKERC-IRENA collaboration.  Rebecca Mawhood, Robert Gross, Jack Nicholls. May 2013.


On picking winners: the need for targeted support for renewable energy (PDF). A Working Paper produced to contribute to UK energy policy debate, based on research supported by WWF.  Robert Gross, Jonathan Stern, Chris Charles, Jack Nicholls, Chiara Candelise, Phil Heptonstall and Philip Greenacre. October 2012.

Unconventional Gas - A review of estimates (PDF)A working paper by Christophe McGlade, Jamie Speirs and Steve Sorrell, Sept 2012.

Cost estimates for nuclear power in the UK (PDF)A working paper by Grant Harris, Phil Heptonstall, Dr Robert Gross and David Handley, August 2012 (A revised version of this paper has been accepted for publication in Energy Policy)

Not locked-in? (PDF)The overlooked impact of new gas-fired generation investment on long-term decarbonisation. Simon Chignell and Dr Robert Gross, submitted to Energy Policy, May 2012

Innovation theory: A review of the literature . A working paper by Philip Greenacre, Dr Robert Gross and Jamie Speirs.  May 2012

Dr Robert Gross, ICEPT Director, contributed a blog on renewable energy policy to the London School of Economics Politics Blog, April 2012.”

Nonsense on stilts? (PDF): Investigating the discourse around policies and consumer bills: A case study on the Policy Exchange research note on the full cost of renewable energy policy. With controversy surrounding the impact of energy policy on bills ICEPT Director Robert Gross dissects a recent think tank report and asks whether contributions such as this help or hinder understanding of energy policy issues (February 2012).


Battery electric vehicles, hydrogen fuel cells and bio fuels (PDF): which will be the winner? A working paper by Marcello Contestabile, Gregory Offer, Raphael Slade and Florian Jaegar. June 2011

The methodological basis for low carbon scenarios-lessons (PDF) from the wider post war scenario tradition. A working paper by Nick Hughes, May 2011

Can FiTs and RHIs help the fuel poor, and if so, how? A working paper by Robert S aunders, Dr Robert Gross, Dr Joanne Wade (submitted to Energy Policy, Feb 2011 and revised September 2011)

Materials availability for thin film (TF) PV technologies development (PDF): a real concern? A working paper by Dr Chiara Candelise, Jamie Speirs, Dr Robert Gross

Techno-economic and behavioural analysis (PDF) of battery electric, hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid vehicles in a future sustainable road transport system in the UK. A working paper by Dr Gregory Offer, Mr Marcello Contestabile, Dr Dave Howey, Dr Ralph Clague, and Prof Nigel Brandon


Is there a route to a UK Feed in Tariff? (PDF)A discussion paper prepared to provide input to the UK Energy Market Reform process by Dr Robert Gross, November 2010

An open letter to Ministers: don't let Treasury rules damage clean energy policies (PDF)‌. This joint letter was sent to the Secretaries of State for Energy and Business, the Chancellor, Chief Secretary of the Treasury and Energy Minister. Signatories from 10 leading universities.

Renewables policies must be improved, not undermined with cuts. Writing in the Guardian, ICEPT Director Dr Robert Gross and Sussex Energy Group Director, Prof Jim Watson argue that investors are keen on clean technologies but policy is needed to bring them to mass market. October 2010.

Time to stop experimenting with UK renewable energy policy (PDF)Robert Gross, Phil Heptonstall, Oct 2010 ICEPT Working Paper (conference paper submitted to BIEE conference 2010)

Heat delivery in a low carbon economy (PDF)Jamie Speirs; Robert Gross; Sandip Desh mukh; Phil Heptonstall; Luis Munuera; Matt Leach; Jacopo Torriti Sept 201 0 (conference paper submitted to BIEE conference 2010) (Leach, Torriti and Deshmukh are at the University of Surrey)

The role of storage in a low carbon economy (PDF)Philipp Gr¨unewald, Tim Cockerill, Marcello Contestabile, Peter Pearson, 2010 (submitted to Energy Policy, Sept 2010)

Winds of change (PDF): how high wind penetrations will affect investment incentives in the GB electricity sector. Will Steggals (Scottish and Southern Energy), Robert Gross, and Philip Heptonstall, Aug 2010 (submitted to Energy Policy, July 2010)

2009 and pre-2009

Cellulosic Ethanol - the path to market (PDF)Raphael Slade, Ausilio Bauen, 2009, (presented at the 17th European Biomass Conference, Hamburg)

Comparison of Fuel Cell and Combustion Micro-CHP (PDF) under Future Residential Energy Demand Scenarios. Adam Hawkes and Matthew Leach, 14th June 2007

Reducing emissions from transport (PDF). Philip Greenacre, Robert Gross and Phil Heptonstall, Sept 2010

'The Capacity Credit of Micro Combined Heat and Power' Adam Hawkes and Matthew Leach, 14th June 2007

In 2006 Professor Dennis Anderson was invited to contribute several background analytical review papers for the Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, building on earlier work with the Tyndall Centre: download the PDF here.

Synthesis of energy technology medium-term projections: a technical note (PDF). Ausilio Bauen and Robert Gross, 2005

Technological and institutional 'lock in' as a barrier to sustainable innovation (PDF)Tim Foxon

The Potential for Renewable Energy Sources in Aviation (PDF). Bob Saynor, Ausilio Bauen and Matthew Leach, 2003, a report commissioned by the DTI

'Strategic Assessment of the Kyoto-Marrakech System', Michael Grubb et al, 2003
Synthesis Report (PDF)
Module 1 (PDF): The 'Real economics ' of the Kyoto-Marrakech System
Module 2 (PDF): Corporate engagement in Canada, the EU, Japan and the US and influence on domestic and international policy
Module 3 (PDF): US Engagement on Climate Change Issues: Determinants and Prospects
Module 4: 'Framing Future Commitments', by Benito Mueller et al (available from

Assessment of technology options to address climate change (PDF) - a report for the Prime Minister's Strategy Unit, 2003

An Introduction to Fuel Cell Technology and Economics' (PDF). David Hart and Nigel Brandon, 1999

Scoping R,D and D priorities for a low-carbon future (PDF) - a report for the Carbon Trust, September 2001

Innovation and the Environment (PDF): Challenges and Policy Options for the UK - a report from workshops sponsored by the ESRC's Global Environmental Change Programme, by ICEPT and the Fabian Society

External Cost and Environmental Policy in the UK and the European Union (PDF) - a report from research funded by British Energy

Nuclear Power: A Price Worth Paying For A Stable Climate? (PDF). Will Cavendish & Robert Gross. This is a slightly expanded version of an article that appeared in The Guardian 22 February 2000