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  • Journal article
    Eberhardt C, Thillai M, Parker R, Siddiqui N, Potiphar L, Goldin R, Timms JF, Wells AU, Kon OM, Wickremasinghe M, Mitchell D, Weeks ME, Lalvani Aet al., 2017,

    Proteomic analysis of Kveim reagent identifies targets of cellular immunity in sarcoidosis

    , PLOS ONE, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1932-6203

    Background:Kveim-reagent (Kv) skin testing was a historical method of diagnosing sarcoidosis. Intradermal injection of treated sarcoidosis spleen tissue resulted in a granuloma response at injection site by 4–6 weeks. Previous work indicates proteins as the possible trigger of this reaction. We aimed to identify Kv-specific proteins and characterise the ex vivo response of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) from sarcoidosis, tuberculosis and healthy control patients when stimulated with both Kv and selected Kv-specific proteins.Methods:Kv extracts were separated by 1D-SDS-PAGE and 2D-DIGE and then underwent mass spectrometric analysis for protein identification. Sarcoidosis and control PBMCs were first stimulated with Kv and then with three selected recombinant protein candidates which were identified from the proteomic analysis. PBMC secreted cytokines were subsequently measured by Multiplex Cytokine Assay.Results:We observed significantly increased IFN-γ and TNF-α secretion from Kv-stimulated PBMCs of sarcoidosis patients vs. PBMCs from healthy volunteers (IFN-γ: 207.2 pg/mL vs. 3.86 pg/mL, p = 0.0018; TNF-α: 2375 pg/mL vs. 42.82 pg/mL, p = 0.0003). Through proteomic approaches we then identified 74 sarcoidosis tissue-specific proteins. Of these, 3 proteins (vimentin, tubulin and alpha-actinin-4) were identified using both 1D-SDS-PAGE and 2D-DIGE. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD005150. Increased cytokine secretion was subsequently observed with vimentin stimulation of sarcoidosis PBMCs vs. tuberculosis PBMCs (IFN-γ: 396.6 pg/mL vs 0.1 pg/mL, p = 0.0009; TNF-α: 1139 pg/mL vs 0.1 pg/mL, p<0.0001). This finding was also observed in vimentin stimulation of sarcoidosis PBMCs compared to PBMCs from healthy controls (IFN-γ: 396.6 pg/mL vs. 0.1 pg/mL, p = 0.014; TNF-α: 1139 pg/mL vs 42.29 pg/mL, p = 0.027). No difference was found in cytokine secretion between sarcoidosis and contr

  • Journal article
    Singanayagam A, Manalan K, Connell DW, Chalmers JD, Sridhar S, Ritchie AI, Lalvani A, Wickremasinghe M, Kon OMet al., 2016,

    Evaluation of serum inflammatory biomarkers as predictors of treatment outcome in pulmonary tuberculosis

    , International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Vol: 20, Pages: 1653-1660, ISSN: 1815-7920

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP), globulin and white blood cell (WBC) count as predictors of treatment outcome in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB).METHODS: An observational study of patients with active PTB was conducted at a tertiary centre. All patients had serum CRP, globulin and WBC measured at baseline and at 2 months following commencement of treatment. The outcome of interest was requirement for extension of treatment beyond 6 months.RESULTS: There were 226 patients included in the study. Serum globulin >45 g/l was the only baseline biomarker evaluated that independently predicted requirement for treatment extension (OR 3.42, 95%CI 1.59–7.32, P < 0.001). An elevated globulin level that failed to normalise at 2 months was also associated with increased requirement for treatment extension (63.9% vs. 5.1%, P < 0.001), and had a low negative likelihood ratio (0.07) for exclusion of requirement for treatment extension. On multivariable analysis, an elevated globulin that failed to normalise at 2 months was independently associated with requirement for treatment extension (OR 6.13, 95%CI 2.23–16.80, P < 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Serum globulin independently predicts requirement for treatment extension in PTB and outperforms CRP and WBC as a predictive biomarker. Normalisation of globulin at 2 months following treatment commencement is associated with low risk of requirement for treatment extension.

  • Journal article
    O'Donoghue M, Jarvis H, Drey N, Almond MH, Seneviratne S, Lalvani A, Kon OMet al., 2016,


    , THORAX, Vol: 71, Pages: A142-A142, ISSN: 0040-6376
  • Journal article
    Ritchie A, Singanayagam A, Manalan K, Connell D, Chalmers J, Sridhar S, Lalvani A, Wickremasinghe M, Kon OMet al., 2016,


    , THORAX, Vol: 71, Pages: A143-A144, ISSN: 0040-6376
  • Journal article
    Marriott AC, Dennis M, Kane JA, Gooch KE, Hatch G, Sharpe S, Prevosto C, Leeming G, Zekeng E-G, Staples KJ, Hall G, Ryan KA, Bate S, Moyo N, Whittaker CJ, Hallis B, Silman NJ, Lalvani A, Wilkinson TM, Hiscox JA, Stewart JP, Carroll MWet al., 2016,

    Influenza A Virus Challenge Models in Cynomolgus Macaques Using the Authentic Inhaled Aerosol and Intra-Nasal Routes of Infection

    , PLOS One, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1932-6203

    Non-human primates are the animals closest to humans for use in influenza A virus challenge studies, in terms of their phylogenetic relatedness, physiology and immune systems. Previous studies have shown that cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are permissive for infection with H1N1pdm influenza virus. These studies have typically used combined challenge routes, with the majority being intra-tracheal delivery, and high doses of virus (> 107 infectious units). This paper describes the outcome of novel challenge routes (inhaled aerosol, intra-nasal instillation) and low to moderate doses (103 to 106 plaque forming units) of H1N1pdm virus in cynomolgus macaques. Evidence of virus replication and sero-conversion were detected in all four challenge groups, although the disease was sub-clinical. Intra-nasal challenge led to an infection confined to the nasal cavity. A low dose (103 plaque forming units) did not lead to detectable infectious virus shedding, but a 1000-fold higher dose led to virus shedding in all intra-nasal challenged animals. In contrast, aerosol and intra-tracheal challenge routes led to infections throughout the respiratory tract, although shedding from the nasal cavity was less reproducible between animals compared to the high-dose intra-nasal challenge group. Intra-tracheal and aerosol challenges induced a transient lymphopaenia, similar to that observed in influenza-infected humans, and greater virus-specific cellular immune responses in the blood were observed in these groups in comparison to the intra-nasal challenge groups. Activation of lung macrophages and innate immune response genes was detected at days 5 to 7 post-challenge. The kinetics of infection, both virological and immunological, were broadly in line with human influenza A virus infections. These more authentic infection models will be valuable in the determination of anti-influenza efficacy of novel entities against less severe (and thus more common) influenza infections.

  • Journal article
    Pollock KM, Montamat-Sicotte D, Grass L, Cooke G, Kapembwa M, Kon O, Sampson R, Taylor G, Lalvani Aet al., 2016,

    PD-1 expression and cytokine secretion profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T-cell subsets; potential correlates of containment in HIV-TB co-infection

    , PLOS One, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1932-6203

    HIV co-infection is an important risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) providing a powerful model in which to dissect out defective, protective and dysfunctional Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-specific immune responses. To identify the changes induced by HIV co-infection we compared MTB-specific CD4+ responses in subjects with active TB and latent TB infection (LTBI), with and without HIV co-infection. CD4+ T-cell subsets producing interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and expressing CD279 (PD-1) were measured using polychromatic flow-cytometry. HIV-TB co-infection was consistently and independently associated with a reduced frequency of CD4+ IFN-γ and IL-2-dual secreting T-cells and the proportion correlated inversely with HIV viral load (VL). The impact of HIV co-infection on this key MTB-specific T-cell subset identifies them as a potential correlate of mycobacterial immune containment. The percentage of MTB-specific IFN-γ-secreting T-cell subsets that expressed PD-1 was increased in active TB with HIV co-infection and correlated with VL. This identifies a novel correlate of dysregulated immunity to MTB, which may in part explain the paucity of inflammatory response in the face of mycobacterial dissemination that characterizes active TB with HIV co-infection.

  • Journal article
    Sridhar S, Lalvani A, 2015,

    Smoking and the Transmission of Tuberculosis Reply

    , PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL, Vol: 34, Pages: 1138-1138, ISSN: 0891-3668
  • Journal article
    Lalvani A, Pareek M, Sridhar S, Grass L, Connell D, Kon OMet al., 2015,

    Vitamin d deficiency and tuberculosis disease phenotype

    , Thorax, Vol: 70, Pages: 1171-1180, ISSN: 1468-3296

    Background Extrapulmonary TB is increasinglycommon, yet the determinants of the wide clinicalspectrum of TB are poorly understood.Methods We examined surveillance data (Birmingham,UK: 1980–2009 and USA Centers for Disease Control:1993–2008) to identify demographic factorsassociated with extrapulmonary TB. We then directlytested association of these factors and serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) concentration withextrapulmonary TB by multivariable analysis in aseparate UK cohort.Results Data were available for 10 152 and 277 013TB cases for Birmingham and US, respectively.Local-born individuals of white ethnicity had a lowerproportion of extrapulmonary disease when comparedwith local-born non-whites (p<0.0001); both groupshad a lower proportion of extrapulmonary disease whencompared with foreign-born non-whites (p<0.0001). Ina separate UK cohort (n=462), individuals withextrapulmonary TB had lower mean serum 25(OH)Dconcentration than those with pulmonary TB (11.4 vs15.2 nmol/L, respectively, p=0.0001). On multivariableanalysis, vitamin D deficiency was strongly associated withextrapulmonary TB independently of ethnicity, gender andother factors. Doubling in serum 25(OH)D concentrationconferred substantially reduced risk of extrapulmonarydisease (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.73).Conclusions We identify vitamin D deficiency as aprobable risk factor for extrapulmonary dissemination inTB, which may account for the associations of darkskinnedethnicity and female gender with extrapulmonarydisease. Our findings implicate vitamin D status inMycobacterium tuberculosis containment in vivo and, given the high prevalence of deficiency, may informdevelopment of novel TB prevention strategies.

  • Journal article
    Nooredinvand HA, Connell DW, Asgheddi M, Abdullah M, O'Donoghue M, Campbell L, Wickremasinghe MI, Lalvani A, Kon OM, Khan SAet al., 2015,

    Viral hepatitis prevalence in patients with active and latent tuberculosis

    , World Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol: 21, Pages: 8920-8926, ISSN: 1007-9327

    AIM: To assess the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and association with drug induced liver injury (DILI) in patients undergoing anti-tuberculosis (TB) therapy.METHODS: Four hundred and twenty nine patients with newly diagnosed TB - either active disease or latent infection - who were due to commence anti-TB therapy between September 2008 and May 2011 were included. These patients were prospectively tested for serological markers of HBV, HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections - hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen, IgG and IgM antibody to HBcAg (anti-HBc), HCV IgG antibody and HIV antibody using a combination of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot assay and polymerase chain reaction techniques. Patients were reviewed at least monthly during the TB treatment initiation phase. Liver function tests were measured prior to commencement of anti-TB therapy and 2-4 wk later. Liver function tests were also performed at any time the patient had significant nausea, vomiting, rash, or felt non-specifically unwell. Fisher’s exact test was used to measure significance in comparisons of proportions between groups. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.RESULTS: Of the 429 patients, 270 (62.9%) had active TB disease and 159 (37.1%) had latent TB infection. 61 (14.2%) patients had isolated anti-HBc positivity, 11 (2.6%) were also HBsAg positive and 7 (1.6%) were HCV-antibody positive. 16/270 patients with active TB disease compared to 2/159 patients with latent TB infection had markers of chronic viral hepatitis (HBsAg or HCV antibody positive; P = 0.023). Similarly the proportion of HBsAg positive patients were significantly greater in the active vs latent TB infection group (10/43 vs 1/29, P = 0.04). The prevalence of chronic HBV or HCV was significantly higher than the estimated United Kingdom prevalence of 0.3% for each

  • Journal article
    Williams OM, Abeel T, Casali N, Cohen K, Pym AS, Mungall SB, Desjardins CA, Banerjee A, Drobniewski F, Earl AM, Cooke GSet al., 2015,

    Fatal nosocomial transmission of MDR-TB identified through routine genetic analysis and whole genome sequencing

    , Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol: 21, ISSN: 1080-6059

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