BibTex format

author = {Lembrechts, JJ and van, den Hoogen J and Aalto, J and Ashcroft, MB and De, Frenne P and Kemppinen, J and Kopecky, M and Luoto, M and Maclean, IMD and Crowther, TW and Bailey, JJ and Haesen, S and Klinges, DH and Niittynen, P and Scheffers, BR and Van, Meerbeek K and Aartsma, P and Abdalaze, O and Abedi, M and Aerts, R and Ahmadian, N and Ahrends, A and Alatalo, JM and Alexander, JM and Allonsius, CN and Altman, J and Ammann, C and Andres, C and Andrews, C and Ardo, J and Arriga, N and Arzac, A and Aschero, V and Assis, RL and Assmann, JJ and Bader, MY and Bahalkeh, K and Barancok, P and Barrio, IC and Barros, A and Barthel, M and Basham, EW and Bauters, M and Bazzichetto, M and Marchesini, LB and Bell, MC and Benavides, JC and Benito, Alonso JL and Berauer, BJ and Bjerke, JW and Bjork, RG and Bjorkman, MP and Bjornsdottir, K and Blonder, B and Boeckx, P and Boike, J and Bokhorst, S and Brum, BNS and Bruna, J and Buchmann, N and Buysse, P and Camargo, JL and Campoe, OC and Candan, O and},
doi = {10.1111/gcb.16060},
journal = {Global Change Biology},
pages = {3110--3144},
title = {Global maps of soil temperature},
url = {},
volume = {28},
year = {2022}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Research in global change ecology relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature in open areas at around 2 m above the ground. These climatic grids do not reflect conditions below vegetation canopies and near the ground surface, where critical ecosystem functions occur and most terrestrial species reside. Here, we provide global maps of soil temperature and bioclimatic variables at a 1-km2 resolution for 0–5 and 5–15 cm soil depth. These maps were created by calculating the difference (i.e. offset) between in situ soil temperature measurements, based on time series from over 1200 1-km2 pixels (summarized from 8519 unique temperature sensors) across all the world's major terrestrial biomes, and coarse-grained air temperature estimates from ERA5-Land (an atmospheric reanalysis by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). We show that mean annual soil temperature differs markedly from the corresponding gridded air temperature, by up to 10°C (mean = 3.0 ± 2.1°C), with substantial variation across biomes and seasons. Over the year, soils in cold and/or dry biomes are substantially warmer (+3.6 ± 2.3°C) than gridded air temperature, whereas soils in warm and humid environments are on average slightly cooler (−0.7 ± 2.3°C). The observed substantial and biome-specific offsets emphasize that the projected impacts of climate and climate change on near-surface biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are inaccurately assessed when air rather than soil temperature is used, especially in cold environments. The global soil-related bioclimatic variables provided here are an important step forward for any application in ecology and related disciplines. Nevertheless, we highlight the need to fill remaining geographic gaps by collecting more in situ measurements of microclimate conditions to further enhance the spatiotemporal resolution of global soil temperature products for ecolog
AU - Lembrechts,JJ
AU - van,den Hoogen J
AU - Aalto,J
AU - Ashcroft,MB
AU - De,Frenne P
AU - Kemppinen,J
AU - Kopecky,M
AU - Luoto,M
AU - Maclean,IMD
AU - Crowther,TW
AU - Bailey,JJ
AU - Haesen,S
AU - Klinges,DH
AU - Niittynen,P
AU - Scheffers,BR
AU - Van,Meerbeek K
AU - Aartsma,P
AU - Abdalaze,O
AU - Abedi,M
AU - Aerts,R
AU - Ahmadian,N
AU - Ahrends,A
AU - Alatalo,JM
AU - Alexander,JM
AU - Allonsius,CN
AU - Altman,J
AU - Ammann,C
AU - Andres,C
AU - Andrews,C
AU - Ardo,J
AU - Arriga,N
AU - Arzac,A
AU - Aschero,V
AU - Assis,RL
AU - Assmann,JJ
AU - Bader,MY
AU - Bahalkeh,K
AU - Barancok,P
AU - Barrio,IC
AU - Barros,A
AU - Barthel,M
AU - Basham,EW
AU - Bauters,M
AU - Bazzichetto,M
AU - Marchesini,LB
AU - Bell,MC
AU - Benavides,JC
AU - Benito,Alonso JL
AU - Berauer,BJ
AU - Bjerke,JW
AU - Bjork,RG
AU - Bjorkman,MP
AU - Bjornsdottir,K
AU - Blonder,B
AU - Boeckx,P
AU - Boike,J
AU - Bokhorst,S
AU - Brum,BNS
AU - Bruna,J
AU - Buchmann,N
AU - Buysse,P
AU - Camargo,JL
AU - Campoe,OC
AU - Candan,O
AU - Canessa,R
AU - Cannone,N
AU - Carbognani,M
AU - Carnicer,J
AU - Casanova-Katny,A
AU - Cesarz,S
AU - Chojnicki,B
AU - Choler,P
AU - Chown,SL
AU - Cifuentes,EF
AU - Ciliak,M
AU - Contador,T
AU - Convey,P
AU - Cooper,EJ
AU - Cremonese,E
AU - Curasi,SR
AU - Curtis,R
AU - Cutini,M
AU - Dahlberg,CJ
AU - Daskalova,GN
AU - Angel,de Pablo M
AU - Della,Chiesa S
AU - Dengler,J
AU - Deronde,B
AU - Descombes,P
AU - Di,Cecco V
AU - Di,Musciano M
AU - Dick,J
AU - Dimarco,RD
AU - Dolezal,J
AU - Dorrepaal,E
AU - Dusek,J
AU - Eisenhauer,N
AU - Eklundh,L
AU - Erickson,TE
AU - Erschbamer,B
AU - Eugster,W
AU - Ewers,RM
AU - Exton,DA
AU - Fanin,N
AU - Fazlioglu,F
AU - Feigenwinter,I
AU - Fenu,G
AU - Ferlian,O
AU - Fernandez,Calzado MR
AU - Fernandez-Pascual,E
AU - Finckh,M
AU - Higgens,RF
AU - Forte,TGW
AU - Freeman,EC
AU - Frei,ER
AU - Fuentes-Lillo,E
AU - Garcia,RA
AU - Garcia,MB
AU - Geron,C
AU - Gharun,M
AU - Ghosn,D
AU - Gigauri,K
AU - Gobin,A
AU - Goded,I
AU - Goeckede,M
AU - Gottschall,F
AU - Goulding,K
AU - Govaert,S
AU - Graae,BJ
AU - Greenwood,S
AU - Greiser,C
AU - Grelle,A
AU - Guenard,B
AU - Guglielmin,M
AU - Guillemot,J
AU - Haase,P
AU - Haider,S
AU - Halbritter,AH
AU - Hamid,M
AU - Hammerle,A
AU - Hampe,A
AU - Haugum,S
AU - Hederova,L
AU - Heinesch,B
AU - Helfter,C
AU - Hepenstrick,D
AU - Herberich,M
AU - Herbst,M
AU - Hermanutz,L
AU - Hik,DS
AU - Hoffren,R
AU - Homeier,J
AU - Hortnagl,L
AU - Hoye,TT
AU - Hrbacek,F
AU - Hylander,K
AU - Iwata,H
AU - Jackowicz-Korczynski,MA
AU - Jactel,H
AU - Jarveoja,J
AU - Jastrzebowski,S
AU - Jentsch,A
AU - Jimenez,JJ
AU - Jonsdottir,IS
AU - Jucker,T
AU - Jump,AS
AU - Juszczak,R
AU - Kanka,R
AU - Kaspar,V
AU - Kazakis,G
DO - 10.1111/gcb.16060
EP - 3144
PY - 2022///
SN - 1354-1013
SP - 3110
TI - Global maps of soil temperature
T2 - Global Change Biology
UR -
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 28
ER -