BibTex format

author = {Lewis-Brown, E and Jennings, N and Mills, M and Ewers, R},
doi = {10.1080/14693062.2023.2268070},
journal = {Climate Policy},
pages = {706--722},
title = {Comparison of carbon management and emissions of universities that did and did not adopt voluntary carbon offsets},
url = {},
volume = {24},
year = {2024}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - The urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, remove carbon from the atmosphere and stabilize natural carbon sinks has led to the development of many carbon management measures, increasingly including voluntary carbon offsets (VCOs). We studied carbon management in universities, institutions with large carbon footprints and considerable influence in climate science and policy fora. However, concerns that VCOs may deter adopters (including universities) from adopting other carbon reduction measures and limit emissions reductions, for example, through moral hazard, have been raised but understudied. We compared the carbon management characteristics (priorities, policies, practices and emissions) of universities that did and did not adopt VCOs. We found adopters measured carbon emissions for longer, and had set targets to reach net zero earlier than had non-adopters. Adopters of VCOs also undertook more carbon management practices in both 2010 and 2020 than non-adopters. We also found that both adopters and non-adopters significantly increased their carbon management practices over the decade studied, but with no difference between groups. Gross CO2 emissions were reduced significantly over time by adopters of VCOs but not by non-adopters, whereas carbon intensity and percentage annual emissions reductions did not relate to adoption status. Consequently, our study showed no indication of mitigation deterrence due to adoption of VCOs at the universities studied. Rather, greater emissions reductions correlated with earlier net zero target dates, and a higher number of policies and carbon management practices. However, our study was constrained to universities that were affiliated with a national environmental network, so research beyond these organizations, and with individuals, would be useful. The survey was voluntary, exposing the study to potential self-selection bias so the findings may not be generalized beyond the study group. Finally, we found the carbon ac
AU - Lewis-Brown,E
AU - Jennings,N
AU - Mills,M
AU - Ewers,R
DO - 10.1080/14693062.2023.2268070
EP - 722
PY - 2024///
SN - 1469-3062
SP - 706
TI - Comparison of carbon management and emissions of universities that did and did not adopt voluntary carbon offsets
T2 - Climate Policy
UR -
UR -
VL - 24
ER -