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  • Journal article
    Warwick L, Murray J, Brindley H,

    The Far-INfrarEd Spectrometer for Surface Emissivity (FINESSE) Part II: First measurements of the emissivity of water in the far-infrared

    , Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, ISSN: 1867-1381
  • Journal article
    Acevski M, Masters A, ZomerdijkRussell S, 2024,

    Asymmetry in Uranus' high energy proton radiation belt

    , Geophysical Research Letters, Vol: 51, ISSN: 0094-8276

    Uranus is one of the least explored planets in our solar system, it exhibits a unique magnetic field structure which was observed by NASA's Voyager 2 mission nearly 50 years ago. Notably, Uranus displays extreme magnetic field asymmetry, a feature exclusive to the icy giants. We use the Boris algorithm to investigate how high energy protons behave within this unusual magnetic field, which is motivated by Voyager 2's observation of lower-than-expected high energy proton radiation belt intensities at Uranus. When considering full drift motions of high energy protons around Uranus, the azimuthal drift velocity can vary by as much as 15% around the planet. This results in areas around Uranus where particles will be more depleted (faster drift) and other regions where there is a surplus of particles (slower drift). This could provide a partial explanation for the “weak” proton radiation belts observed by Voyager 2.

  • Journal article
    Mülmenstädt J, Gryspeerdt E, Dipu S, Quaas J, Ackerman AS, Fridlind AM, Tornow F, Bauer SE, Gettelman A, Ming Y, Zheng Y, Ma P-L, Wang H, Zhang K, Christensen MW, Varble AC, Leung LR, Liu X, Neubauer D, Partridge DG, Stier P, Takemura Tet al., 2024,

    General circulation models simulate negative liquid water path–droplet number correlations, but anthropogenic aerosols still increase simulated liquid water path

    , Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol: 24, Pages: 7331-7345

    <jats:p>Abstract. General circulation models' (GCMs) estimates of the liquid water path adjustment to anthropogenic aerosol emissions differ in sign from other lines of evidence. This reduces confidence in estimates of the effective radiative forcing of the climate by aerosol–cloud interactions (ERFaci). The discrepancy is thought to stem in part from GCMs' inability to represent the turbulence–microphysics interactions in cloud-top entrainment, a mechanism that leads to a reduction in liquid water in response to an anthropogenic increase in aerosols. In the real atmosphere, enhanced cloud-top entrainment is thought to be the dominant adjustment mechanism for liquid water path, weakening the overall ERFaci. We show that the latest generation of GCMs includes models that produce a negative correlation between the present-day cloud droplet number and liquid water path, a key piece of observational evidence supporting liquid water path reduction by anthropogenic aerosols and one that earlier-generation GCMs could not reproduce. However, even in GCMs with this negative correlation, the increase in anthropogenic aerosols from preindustrial to present-day values still leads to an increase in the simulated liquid water path due to the parameterized precipitation suppression mechanism. This adds to the evidence that correlations in the present-day climate are not necessarily causal. We investigate sources of confounding to explain the noncausal correlation between liquid water path and droplet number. These results are a reminder that assessments of climate parameters based on multiple lines of evidence must carefully consider the complementary strengths of different lines when the lines disagree. </jats:p>

  • Journal article
    Gryspeerdt E, Stettler M, Teoh R, Burkhardt U, Delovski T, Driver O, Painemal Det al.,

    Operational differences lead to longer lifetimes of satellite detectable contrails from more fuel efficient aircraft

    , Environmental Research Letters, ISSN: 1748-9326
  • Journal article
    Brindley H, Yang P, Wang S,

    Improved temperature-dependent ice refractive index compilation in the far-infrared spectrum

    , Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN: 0094-8276

    A new ice refractive index compilation is reported for a broad spectrum ranging from 0.0443 to 106 𝜇m, focusing on the pronounced temperature-dependence of ice optical properties in the far-infrared (far-IR) segment (15-100 µm). A sensitivity study assuming spherical particles shows that selecting ice refractive indices at 12 temperatures and 215 wavelengths in the far-IR region gives sufficient accuracy in interpolated refractive indices for developing a new ice crystal optical property database. Furthermore, we demonstrate the differences between the bulk single-scattering properties computed for hexagonal ice particles with this new compilation compared to a previous iteration at three far-IR wavelengths where substantial differences are noticed between the two ice refractive index compilations. We suggest that our new ice refractive index dataset will improve downstream light-scattering applications for upcoming far-IR satellite missions and allow robust modeling of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) under ice cloud conditions.

  • Journal article
    Graven HD, Warren H, Gibbs HK, Khatiwala S, Koven C, Lester J, Levin I, Spawn-Lee SA, Wieder Wet al., 2024,

    Bomb radiocarbon evidence for strong global carbon uptake and turnover in terrestrial vegetation

    , Science, Vol: 384, Pages: 1335-1339, ISSN: 0036-8075

    Vegetation and soils are taking up approximately 30% of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions because of small imbalances in large gross carbon exchanges from productivity and turnover that are poorly constrained. We combined a new budget of radiocarbon produced by nuclear bomb testing in the 1960s with model simulations to evaluate carbon cycling in terrestrial vegetation. We found that most state-of-the-art vegetation models used in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project underestimated the radiocarbon accumulation in vegetation biomass. Our findings, combined with constraints on vegetation carbon stocks and productivity trends, imply that net primary productivity is likely at least 80 petagrams of carbon per year presently, compared with the 43 to 76 petagrams per year predicted by current models. Storage of anthropogenic carbon in terrestrial vegetation is likely more short-lived and vulnerable than previously predicted.

  • Journal article
    Amtmann C, Pollinger A, Ellmeier M, Dougherty M, Brown P, Lammegger R, Betzler A, Agú M, Hagen C, Jernej I, Wilfinger J, Baughen R, Strickland A, Magnes Wet al., 2024,

    Accuracy of the scalar magnetometer aboard ESA's JUICE mission

    , Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems, Vol: 13, Pages: 177-191, ISSN: 2193-0856

    This paper discusses the accuracy of the scalar Coupled Dark State Magnetometer on board the Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). The scalar magnetometer, referred to as MAGSCA, is part of the J-MAG instrument. MAGSCA is an optical omnidirectional scalar magnetometer based on coherent population trapping, a quantum interference effect, within the hyperfine manifold of the 87Rb D1 line. The measurement principle is only based on natural constants; therefore, it is in principle drift-free, and no calibration is required. However, the technical realisation can influence the measurement accuracy. The most dominating effects are heading characteristics, which are deviations of the magnetic field strength measurements from the ambient magnetic field strength. These deviations are a function of the angle between the sensor axis and the magnetic field vector and are an intrinsic physical property of the measurement principle of the magnetometer. The verification of the accuracy of the instrument is required to ensure its compliance with the performance requirement of 0.2 nT (1σ) with a data rate of 1 Hz. The verification is carried out with four dedicated sensor orientations in a Merritt coil system, which is located in the geomagnetic Conrad Observatory (COBS). The coil system is used to compensate the Earth's magnetic field and to apply appropriate test fields to the sensor. This paper presents a novel method to separate the heading characteristics of the instrument from residual (offset) fields within the coil system by fitting a mathematical model to the measured data and by the successful verification of the MAGSCA performance requirement.

  • Journal article
    Vasko IY, Mozer FS, Bowen T, Verniero J, An X, Artemyev AV, Bale SD, Bonnell JW, Halekas J, Kuzichev IVet al., 2024,

    Resonance of Low-frequency Electromagnetic and Ion-sound Modes in the Solar Wind

  • Journal article
    Hou C, Rouillard AP, He J, Gannouni B, Reville V, Louarn P, Fedorov A, Prech L, Owen CJ, Verscharen D, D'Amicis R, Sorriso-Valvo L, Fargette N, Coburn J, Genot V, Raines JM, Bruno R, Livi S, Lavraud B, Andre N, Fruit G, Kieokaew R, Plotnikov I, Penou E, Barthe A, Kataria D, Berthomier M, Allegrini F, Fortunato V, Mele G, Horbury Tet al., 2024,

    Connecting Solar Wind Velocity Spikes Measured by Solar Orbiter and Coronal Brightenings Observed by SDO

  • Journal article
    Hietala H, Trotta D, Fedeli A, Wilson LB, Vuorinen L, Coburn JTet al., 2024,

    Candidates for downstream jets at interplanetary shocks

    , Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol: 531, Pages: 2415-2421, ISSN: 0035-8711

    Localized dynamic pressure enhancements arising from kinetic processes are frequently observed downstream of the Earth’s bow shock. These structures, called jets, modify their plasma surroundings and participate in particle energization. Here, we report the first observations of jet-like structures in a non-planetary shock environment: downstream of interplanetary shocks. We introduce an analysis approach suitable for such conditions and apply it to Wind spacecraft data. We present one event with a Mach number similar to the Earth’s bow shock as a benchmark, as well as two low Mach number, low beta shocks: a parameter range that is difficult to access at planets. The jet-like structures we find are tens of ion inertial lengths in size, and some are observed further away from the shock than in a limited magnetosheath. We find that their properties are similar to those of magnetosheath jets: in the frame of the shock these structures are fast, cold, and most have no strong magnetic field variations. All three interplanetary shocks feature foreshock activity, but no strongly compressive waves. We discuss the implications, these findings have for the proposed jet formation mechanisms.

  • Journal article
    Jebaraj IC, Agapitov O, Krasnoselskikh V, Vuorinen L, Gedalin M, Choi K-E, Palmerio E, Wijsen N, Dresing N, Cohen C, Kouloumvakos A, Balikhin M, Vainio R, Kilpua E, Afanasiev A, Verniero J, Mitchell JG, Trotta D, Hill M, Raouafi N, Bale SDet al., 2024,

    Acceleration of Electrons and Ions by an "Almost" Astrophysical Shock in the Heliosphere

  • Journal article
    Pezzi O, Trotta D, Benella S, Sorriso-Valvo L, Malara F, Pucci F, Meringolo C, Matthaeus WH, Servidio Set al., 2024,

    Turbulence and particle energization in twisted flux ropes under solar-wind conditions

    , Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol: 686, ISSN: 0004-6361

    Context. The mechanisms regulating the transport and energization of charged particles in space and astrophysical plasmas are still debated. Plasma turbulence is known to be a powerful particle accelerator. Large-scale structures, including flux ropes and plasmoids, may contribute to confining particles and lead to fast particle energization. These structures may also modify the properties of the turbulent, nonlinear transfer across scales. Aims. We aim to investigate how large-scale flux ropes are perturbed and, simultaneously, how they influence the nonlinear transfer of turbulent energy toward smaller scales. We then intend to address how these structures affect particle transport and energization. Methods. We adopted magnetohydrodynamic simulations perturbing a large-scale flux rope in solar-wind conditions and possibly triggering turbulence. Then, we employed test-particle methods to investigate particle transport and energization in the perturbed flux rope. Results. The large-scale helical flux rope inhibits the turbulent cascade toward smaller scales, especially if the amplitude of the initial perturbations is not large (∼5%). In this case, particle transport is inhibited inside the structure. Fast particle acceleration occurs in association with phases of trapped motion within the large-scale flux rope.

  • Journal article
    Krupar V, Kruparova O, Szabo A, Wilson III LB, Nemec F, Santolik O, Pulupa M, Issautier K, Bale SD, Maksimovic Met al., 2024,

    Radial Variations in Solar Type III Radio Bursts

  • Journal article
    Agiwal O, Cao H, Hsu H-W, Moore L, Sulaiman AH, O'Donoghue J, Dougherty MKet al., 2024,

    Current Events at Saturn: Ring-Planet Electromagnetic Coupling

  • Journal article
    Fuselier SA, Petrinec SM, Reiff PH, Birn J, Baker DN, Cohen IJ, Nakamura R, Sitnov MI, Stephens GK, Hwang J, Lavraud B, Moore TE, Trattner KJ, Giles BL, Gershman DJ, Toledo-Redondo S, Eastwood JPet al., 2024,

    Global-scale processes and effects of magnetic reconnection on the geospace environment

    , Space Science Reviews, Vol: 220, ISSN: 0038-6308

    Recent multi-point measurements, in particular from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS)spacecraft, have advanced the understanding of micro-scale aspects of magnetic reconnection. In addition, the MMS mission, as part of the Heliospheric System Observatory, combined with recent advances in global magnetospheric modeling, have furthered the understanding of meso- and global-scale structure and consequences of reconnection. Magneticreconnection at the dayside magnetopause and in the magnetotail are the drivers of the globalDungey cycle, a classical picture of global magnetospheric circulation. Some recent advances in the global structure and consequences of reconnection that are addressed hereinclude a detailed understanding of the location and steadiness of reconnection at the dayside magnetopause, the importance of multiple plasma sources in the global circulation, andreconnection consequences in the magnetotail. These advances notwithstanding, there areimportant questions about global reconnection that remain. These questions focus on howmultiple reconnection and reconnection variability fit into and complicate the Dungey Cyclepicture of global magnetospheric circulation.

  • Journal article
    Eastwood JP, Brown P, Magnes W, Carr CM, Agu M, Baughen R, Berghofer G, Hodgkins J, Jernej I, Moestl C, Oddy T, Strickland A, Vitkova Aet al., 2024,

    The Vigil magnetometer for operational space weather services from the Sun-Earth L5 point

    , Space Weather, Vol: 22, ISSN: 1539-4956

    Severe space weather has the potential to cause significant socio-economic impact and it is widely accepted that mitigating this risk requires more comprehensive observations of the Sun and heliosphere, enabling more accurate forecasting of significant events with longer lead-times. In this context, it is now recognized that observations from the L5 Sun-Earth Lagrange point (both remote and in situ) would offer considerable improvements in our ability to monitor and forecast space weather. Remote sensing from L5 allows for the observation of solar features earlier than at L1, providing early monitoring of active region development, as well as tracking of interplanetary coronal mass ejections through the inner heliosphere. In situ measurements at L5 characterize the solar wind's geoeffectiveness (particularly stream interaction regions), and can also be ingested into heliospheric models, improving their performance. The Vigil space weather mission is part of the ESA Space Safety Program and will provide a real-time data stream for space weather services from L5 following its anticipated launch in the early 2030s. The interplanetary magnetic field is a key observational parameter, and here we describe the development of the Vigil magnetometer instrument for operational space weather monitoring at the L5 point. We summarize the baseline instrument capabilities, demonstrating how heritage from science missions has been leveraged to develop a low-risk, high-heritage instrument concept.

  • Journal article
    Archer M, Pilipenko V, Li B, Sorathia K, Nakariakov V, Elsden T, Nykyri Ket al., 2024,

    Magnetopause MHD surface wave theory: progress & challenges

    , Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2296-987X

    Sharp boundaries are a key feature of space plasma environments universally, with their wave-like motion (driven by pressure variations or flow shears) playing a key role in mass, momentum, and energy transfer. This review summarises magnetohydrodynamic surface wave theory with particular reference to Earth’s magnetopause, due to its mediation of the solar-terrestrial interaction. Basic analytic theory of propagating and standing surface waves within simple models are presented, highlighting many of the typically-used assumptions. We raise several conceptual challenges to understanding the nature of surface waves within a complex environment such as a magnetosphere, including the effects of magnetic topology and curvilinear geometry, plasma inhomogeneity, finite boundary width, the presence of multiple boundaries, turbulent driving, and wave nonlinearity. Approaches to gain physical insight into these challenges are suggested. We also discuss how global simulations have proven a fruitful tool in studying surface waves in more representative environments than analytic theory allows. Finally, we highlight strong interdisciplinary links with solar physics which might help the magnetospheric community. Ultimately several upcoming missions provide motivation for advancing magnetopause surface wave theory towards understanding their global role in filtering, accumulating, and guiding turbulent solar wind driving.

  • Journal article
    Kilpua EKJ, Good S, Ala-Lahti M, Osmane A, Koikkalainen Vet al., 2024,

    Permutation entropy and complexity analysis of large-scale solar wind structures and streams

    , ANNALES GEOPHYSICAE, Vol: 42, Pages: 163-177, ISSN: 0992-7689
  • Journal article
    Opgenoorth HJ, Robinson R, Ngwira CM, Garcia Sage K, Kuznetsova M, El Alaoui M, Boteler D, Gannon J, Weygand J, Merkin V, Nykyri K, Kosar B, Welling D, Eastwood J, Eggington J, Heyns M, Kaggwa Kwagala N, Sur D, Gjerloev Jet al., 2024,

    Earth’s geomagnetic environment—progress and gaps in understanding, prediction, and impacts

    , Advances in Space Research, ISSN: 0273-1177

    Understanding of Earth’s geomagnetic environment is critical to mitigating the space weather impacts caused by disruptive geoelectric fields in power lines and other conductors on Earth’s surface. These impacts are the result of a chain of processes driven by the solar wind and linking Earth’s magnetosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere and Earth’s surface. Tremendous progress has been made over the last two decades in understanding the solar wind driving mechanisms, the coupling mechanisms connecting the magnetically controlled regions of near-Earth space, and the impacts of these collective processes on human technologies on Earth’s surface. Studies of solar wind drivers have been focused on understanding the responses of the geomagnetic environment to spatial and temporal variations in the solar wind associated with Coronal Mass Ejections, Corotating Interaction Regions, Interplanetary Shocks, High-Speed Streams, and other interplanetary magnetic field structures. Increasingly sophisticated numerical models are able to simulate the magnetospheric response to the solar wind forcing associated with these structures. Magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling remains a great challenge, although new observations and sophisticated models that can assimilate disparate data sets have improved the ability to specify the electrodynamic properties of the high latitude ionosphere. The temporal and spatial resolution needed to predict the electric fields, conductivities, and currents in the ionosphere is driving the need for further advances. These parameters are intricately tied to auroral phenomena—energy deposition due to Joule heating and precipitating particles, motions of the auroral boundary, and ion outflow. A new view of these auroral processes is emerging that focuses on small-scale structures in the magnetosphere and their ionospheric effects, which may include the rapid variations in current associated with geomagnetically indu

  • Conference paper
    Rothkaehl H, Andre N, Auster U, Della Corte V, Edberg N, Galand M, Henri P, De Keyser J, Kolmasova I, Morawski M, Nilsson H, Prech L, Volwerk M, Goetz C, Gunell H, Lavraud B, Rotundi A, Soucek Jet al., 2024,

    Dust, Field and Plasma instrument onboard ESA&amp;#8217;s Comet Interceptor &amp;#160;mission

    <jats:p>The main goal of ESA&amp;#8217;s F-1 class Comet Interceptor mission is to characterise, for the first time, a long period comet; preferably a dynamically-new or an interstellar object. The main spacecraft, will have its trajectory outside of the inner coma, whereas two sub-spacecrafts will be targeted inside the inner coma, closer to the nucleus. The flyby of such a comet &amp;#160;will offer unique multipoint measurement opportunity to study the comet's dusty and ionised environment in ways exceeding that of the previous cometary missions, including Rosetta.&amp;#160;The Dust Field and Plasma (DFP) instruments located on both the main spacecraft A and on the sub-spacecraft B2, is a combined experiment dedicated to the in situ, multi-point study of the multi-phased ionized and dusty environment in the coma of the target and &amp;#160;its interaction with the surrounding space environment and the Sun.&amp;#160;The DFP instruments will be present in different configurations on the Comet Interceptor spacecraft A and B2. To enable the measurements on spacecraft A, the DFP is composed of 5 sensors; Fluxgate magnetometer DFP-FGM-A, Plasma instrument with nanodust and E-field measurements capabilities DFP-COMPLIMENT, Electron spectrometer DFP-LEES, Ion and energetic neutrals spectrometer DFP-SCIENA &amp;#160;and Dust detector DFP-DISC. On board of spacecraft B2 the DFP is composed of 2 sensors: Fluxgate magnetometer DFP-FGM-B2 and Cometary dust detector DFP-DISC.&amp;#160;The DFP instrument will measure magnetic field, the electric field, plasma parameters (density, temperature, speed), the distribution functions of electrons, ions and energetic neutrals, spacecraft potential, mass, number and spatial density of cometary dust particles and the dust impacts. &amp;#160;&amp;#160;The full set of DFP sensors will allow to model the comet plasma environment and its interaction with the solar wind. It will also allow to describe

  • Conference paper
    Stephenson P, Galand M, Deca J, Henri P, Carnielli Get al., 2024,

    Cooling of Electrons in a Weakly Outgassing Comet

    <jats:p>The plasma instruments, Mutual Impedance Probe (MIP) and Langmuir Probe (LAP), part of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC), onboard the Rosetta mission to comet 67P revealed a population of cold electrons (</jats:p>

  • Journal article
    Provan G, Bradley T, Bunce E, Hunt G, Cowley S, Cao H, Dougherty M, Roussos E, Tao Cet al., 2024,

    Saturn&amp;#8217;s nightside ring current during Cassini&amp;#8217;s Grand Finale

    <jats:p>During Cassini&amp;#8217;s Grand Finale proximal orbits, the spacecraft traversed the nightside magnetotail to ~21 Saturn radii. &amp;#160;Clear signatures of Saturn&amp;#8217;s equatorial current sheet are observed in the magnetic field data. &amp;#160;An axisymmetric model of the ring current is fitted to these data, amended to taken into account the tilt of the current layer by solar wind forcing, its teardrop-shaped nature and the magnetotail and magnetopause fringing fields. &amp;#160;Variations in ring current parameters are examined in relation to external driving of the magnetosphere by the solar wind, and internal driving by the two planetary period oscillations (PPOs) and compared with dawn and dayside regimes. &amp;#160;The relative phasing of the PPOs determines the ring current&amp;#8217;s response to solar wind conditions. During solar wind compressions when the PPOS are in antiphase, magnetospheric storms are triggered and a thick partial ring current is formed on the nightside, dominated by hot plasma injected by tail reconnection.&amp;#160; However, during solar wind compressions when the PPOs are in phase, the magnetosphere shows only a &amp;#8216;minor&amp;#8217; response and a partial ring current is not observed. During solar wind rarefactions an equatorial &amp;#8216;magnetodisc&amp;#8217; configuration is observed in the dayside/dawn/nightside regions, with similar total currents flowing at these local times. &amp;#160;This partial ring current should close partly via magnetopause currents and possibly via field-aligned currents into the ionosphere. &amp;#160;During very quiet intervals of prolonged solar wind rarefaction, a thin current sheet with an enhanced current density is formed, indicative of a ring current dominated by cool, dense, Enceladus water group ions.</jats:p>

  • Conference paper
    Stephenson P, Galand M, Deca J, Henri P, Carnielli Get al., 2024,

    Forming a cold electron population at a weakly outgassing comet

    <jats:p>The Rosetta Mission rendezvoused with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in August 2014 and escorted it for two years along its orbit. The Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC) was a suite of instruments, which observed the plasma environment at the spacecraft throughout the escort phase. The Mutual Impedance Probe (RPC/MIP; Wattieaux et al, 2020; Gilet et al., 2020) and Langmuir Probe (RPC/LAP; Engelhardt et al., 2018), both part of RPC, measured the presence of a cold electron population within the coma.Newly born electrons, generated by ionisation of the neutral gas, form a warm population within the coma at ~10eV. Ionisation is either through absorption of extreme ultraviolet photons or through collisions of energetic electrons with the neutral molecules. The cold electron population is formed by cooling the newly born, warm electrons via electron-neutral collisions. Assuming the radial outflow of electrons, the cold population was only expected at comet 67P close to perihelion, where outgassing rate from the nucleus was at its highest (Q &gt; 1028 s-1). However, cold electrons were observed until the end of the Rosetta mission at 3.8au when the outgassing was weak (Q</jats:p>

  • Journal article
    Guo X, Wang L, Li W, Ma Q, Yang L, Wimmer-Schweingruber RF, Bale SDet al., 2024,

    Evolution of Electron Acceleration by Corotating Interaction Region Shocks at 1 au

  • Journal article
    Cohen CMS, Leske RA, Christian ER, Cummings AC, de Nolfo GA, Desai MI, Giacalone J, Hill ME, Labrador AW, Mccomas DJ, Mcnutt RL, Mewaldt RA, Mitchell DG, Mitchell JG, Muro GD, Rankin JS, Schwadron NA, Sharma T, Shen MM, Szalay JR, Wiedenbeck ME, Xu ZG, Romeo O, Vourlidas A, Bale SD, Pulupa M, Kasper JC, Larson DE, Livi R, Whittlesey Pet al., 2024,

    Observations of the 2022 September 5 Solar Energetic Particle Event at 15 Solar Radii

    , ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 966, ISSN: 0004-637X
  • Journal article
    Zank GP, Zhao L-L, Adhikari L, Telloni D, Baruwal P, Baruwal P, Zhu X, Nakanotani M, Pitna A, Kasper JC, Bale SDet al., 2024,

    Characterization of Turbulent Fluctuations in the Sub-Alfvénic Solar Wind

    , ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 966, ISSN: 0004-637X
  • Journal article
    Perkins O, Kasoar M, Voulgarakis A, Smith C, Mistry J, Millington JDAet al., 2024,

    A global behavioural model of human fire use and management: WHAM! v1.0

    , Geoscientific Model Development, Vol: 17, Pages: 3993-4016, ISSN: 1991-959X

    Fire is an integral ecosystem process and a major natural source of vegetation disturbance globally. Yet at the same time, humans use and manage fire in diverse ways and for a huge range of purposes. Therefore, it is perhaps unsurprising that a central finding of the first Fire Model Intercomparison Project was simplistic representation of humans is a substantial shortcoming in the fire modules of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). In response to this challenge, we present a novel, global geospatial model that seeks to capture the diversity of human–fire interactions. Empirically grounded with a global database of anthropogenic fire impacts, WHAM! (the Wildfire Human Agency Model) represents the underlying behavioural and land system drivers of human approaches to fire management and their impact on fire regimes. WHAM! is designed to be coupled with DGVMs (JULES-INFERNO in the current instance), such that human and biophysical drivers of fire on Earth, and their interactions, can be captured in process-based models for the first time. Initial outputs from WHAM! presented here are in line with previous evidence suggesting managed anthropogenic fire use is decreasing globally and point to land use intensification as the underlying reason for this phenomenon.

  • Journal article
    De Keyser J, Edberg NJT, Henri P, Auster H-U, Galand M, Rubin M, Nilsson H, Soucek J, Andre N, Della Corte V, Rothkaehl H, Funase R, Kasahara S, Van Dammep CCet al., 2024,

    In situ plasma and neutral gas observation time windows during a comet flyby: Application to the Comet Interceptor mission

    , PLANETARY AND SPACE SCIENCE, Vol: 244, ISSN: 0032-0633
  • Journal article
    Toledo-Redondo S, Lee JH, Vines SK, Albert IF, Andre M, Castilla A, Dargent JP, Fu HS, Fuselier SA, Genot V, Graham DB, Kitamura N, Khotyaintsev YV, Lavraud B, Montagud-Camps V, Navarro EA, Norgren C, Perrone D, Phan TD, Porti J, Salinas A, Stawarz JE, Vaivads Aet al., 2024,

    Statistical Observations of Proton-Band Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the Outer Magnetosphere: Full Wavevector Determination

  • Journal article
    Zhou Y, He F, Archer MO, Zhang X, Hao YX, Yao Z, Rong Z, Wei Yet al., 2024,

    Spatial evolution characteristics of plasmapause surface wave during a geomagnetic storm on 16 July 2017

    , Geophysical Research Letters, Vol: 51, ISSN: 0094-8276

    Boundary dynamics are crucial for the transport of energy, mass, and momentum in geospace. The recently discovered plasmapause surface wave (PSW) plays a key role in the inner magnetosphere dynamics. However, a comprehensive investigation of spatial variations of the PSW remains absent. In this study, we elucidate the spatial characteristics of a PSW through observations from multiple spacecrafts in the magnetosphere. Following the initiation of the PSW, quasi-periodic injections of energetic ions, rather than electrons, are suggested to serve as energy source of the PSW. Based on the distinct wave and particle signatures, we categorize the PSW into four regions: seed region, growth region, stabilization region and decay region, spanning from nightside to afternoon plasmapause. These findings advance our understanding of universal boundary dynamics and contribute to a deeper comprehension of the pivotal roles of surface waves in the energy couplings within the magnetosphere-plasmasphere-ionosphere system.

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