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  • Journal article
    Taylor L, Spikes H, Camenzind H, 2000,

    Film-forming properties of zinc-based and ashless antiwear additives

    , SAE Technical Papers, ISSN: 0148-7191

    A progressive reduction in the permitted level of phosphorus in lubricating oils, coupled with concern to maintain engine and transmission durability, means that it is becoming increasingly important to understand the detailed mechanism of antiwear additive behavior. This paper describes a new experimental technique, which is able to measure both the thickness and distribution of antiwear additive films in rolling/sliding contacts. This enables the kinetics of antiwear film build-up to be investigated and the influence of the reaction film on friction and wear to be monitored. In the current paper, this technique is used to compare the film-forming behavior of ash-containing and ashless antiwear additives. Copyright © 2000 CEC and SAE International.

  • Journal article
    Grieve RSA, Spikes HA, 2000,

    Temperature and shear stress in thin film EHD contacts

    , Tribology Series, Vol: 38, Pages: 511-522, ISSN: 0167-8922

    There is growing need to understand the origins and magnitude of friction in elastohydrodynamic (EHD) conditions, both to minimise it in some applications, and thus to save energy, but also to maximise and predict it in traction drive applications. Such an understanding requires an accurate model of the rheological properties of lubricant under EHD contact conditions. This paper first reviews the main methods for studying EHD rheology. It then focuses on a technique for obtaining maps of shear stress and thus friction across EHD contacts. An infrared microscope is used to measure surface temperatures in a lubricated rolling-sliding, steel ball on sapphire disc contact. From these measurements, maps of the variation of shear stress of the fluid film over the contact are derived using moving heat source analysis. These maps provide information on how both shear stress and temperature vary across a contact. © 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Conference paper
    Spikes H, 2000,

    Tribology research in the twenty-first century

    , 9th Nordic Symposium on Tribology (NORDTRIB 2000), Publisher: TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE FINLAND, Pages: 11-30, ISSN: 0357-9387
  • Journal article
    Spikes HA, Ratoi M, 2000,

    Molecular scale liquid lubricating films

    , Tribology Series, Vol: 38, Pages: 359-370, ISSN: 0167-8922

    A number of recently-developed experimental techniques, such as force balance, atomic force microscopy and ultrathin film interferometry have enabled the direct study of the properties of very thin liquid lubricating films between solid surfaces. These have been used to demonstrate the structure and rheology, and thus the lubricating ability, of monolayer additive films in rolling and sliding contacts. They have also been used to investigate the thin film properties of simple, additive-free fluids such as hydrocarbon base stocks. This paper reviews previous work on the thin film-forming properties of simple lubricant base fluids. New work is carried out using ultrathin film interferometry and a rolling-sliding friction test apparatus. It is found that the quasi-spherical molecules, cyclohexane and OMCTS form enhanced film thicknesses in high pressure, slow speed, rolling contacts. There is also an indication of a step-wise dependence of film thickness on rolling speed, in accord with finding using atomic force microscopy and surface forces apparatus. Friction measurements in mixed rolling-sliding show that these fluids also reduce friction in the boundary film regime. © 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Journal article
    Chiñas-Castillo F, Spikes HA, 2000,

    Behaviour of colloidally-dispersed solid particles in very thin film lubricated contacts

    , Tribology Series, Vol: 38, Pages: 719-731, ISSN: 0167-8922

    The behaviour of colloidal solid particles dispersed in lubricants is of interest for a number of reasons. Firstly, many of the additives used in lubricants are actually in the colloidal rather than the true, solution state. Secondly, soot in engine oils and lubricant degradation products are generally colloidal. Thirdly, there is an increasing interest in the development of lubricants containing dispersed nanoparticles to limit friction and wear. For all the above it is important to understand when and how colloidal solid particles pass through lubricated contacts and also their behaviour in such contacts. In the current study, the behaviour of dispersed particles covering a range of sizes between 20 and 200 nm diameter has been studied in lubricating contacts. Optical interferometry has been employed to explore the behaviour of such particles in very thin film contacts. Friction has also been measured. Of particular interest was the effect of slide-roll ratio on particle entrainment and the influence of the ratio of the particle diameter to the elastohydrodynamic lubricant film thickness. © 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Journal article
    Chinas-Castillo F, Spikes HA, 2000,

    Film Formation by Colloidal Overbased Detergents in Lubricated Contacts

    , Tribology Transactions, Vol: 43, Pages: 357-366, ISSN: 1040-2004
  • Journal article
    Yokoyama F, Spikes HA, 2000,

    Film-forming properties of polyolesters, polyphenyl ethers and their mixtures over a wide range of temperature

    , Tribology Transactions, Vol: 43, Pages: 130-136, ISSN: 1040-2004
  • Journal article
    Glovnea R, Spikes HA, 2000,

    The influence of lubricant upon EHD film behavior during sudden halting of motion

    , Tribology Transactions, Vol: 43, Pages: 731-739, ISSN: 0569-8197
  • Conference paper
    Kadiric A, Jalisi ISZ, Sayles RS, Makino Tet al., 2000,

    Influence of entrapped fluid in rough surface contacts

    , Proceedings of the International Tribology Conference Nagasaki 2000, Pages: 283-288
  • Journal article
    Guangteng G, Cann PME, Olver AV, Spikes HAet al., 2000,

    An experimental study of film thickness between rough surfaces in EHD contacts

    , Tribology International, Vol: 33, Pages: 183-189, ISSN: 0301-679X
  • Book chapter
    Olver AV, Guangteng G, Spikes HA, 2000,

    Film thickness and pressure in micro-EHD contacts

    , Thinning Films and Tribological Interfaces, Editors: Dowson, Dowson, Publisher: Elsevier, Pages: 503-510, ISBN: 9780444505316
  • Journal article
    Wei DP, Spikes HA, 2000,

    Fuel lubricity - fundamentals and review

    , Fuels International, Vol: 1, Pages: 45-65, ISSN: 1470-4625
  • Journal article
    Yokoyama F, Spikes HA, 2000,

    Influence of degradation on the film-forming properties of polyolester oils

    , Journal of Synthetic Lubrication, Vol: 17, Pages: 8-22, ISSN: 0265-6582
  • Journal article
    Chinas-Castillo F, Spikes HA, 2000,

    The behavior of colloidal solid particles in elastohydrodynamic contacts

    , Tribology Transactions, Vol: 43, Pages: 387-394, ISSN: 0569-8197
  • Journal article
    Hurley S, Cann PME, Spikes HA, 2000,

    Lubrication and reflow properties of thermally aged greases

    , Tribology Transactions, Vol: 43, Pages: 221-228, ISSN: 0027-6782
  • Journal article
    Spikes HA, 2000,

    The borderline of elastohydrodynamic and boundary lubrication

    , Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part C-Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, Vol: 214, Pages: 23-37, ISSN: 0954-4062
  • Journal article
    Hurley S, Cann PME, 2000,

    Starved lubrication of EHL contacts: Relationship to bulk properties

    , NLGI Spokesman (National Lubricating Grease Institute), Vol: 64, Pages: 15-23, ISSN: 0027-6782
  • Journal article
    Guangteng G, Cann PME, Olver AV, Spikes HAet al., 2000,

    An experimental study of film thickness between rough surfaces in EHD contacts

    , Tribology International, Vol: 33, Pages: 183-189, ISSN: 0301-679X
  • Journal article
    Zhu Y, Ogano S, Kelsall G, Spikes HAet al., 2000,

    The study of lubricant additive reactions using non-aqueous electrochemistry

    , Tribology Transactions, Vol: 43, Pages: 175-186, ISSN: 0569-8197
  • Journal article
    Sayles RS, 2000,

    A case study of cylinder-liner wear in relation to 'varnish' films in a large long-stroke marine diesel engine

    , SAE technical paper, Vol: 2000-01-1783, ISSN: 0148-7191
  • Journal article
    Hurley S, Cann PME, Spikes HA, 2000,

    Lubrication and reflow properties of thermally aged greases

    , Tribology Transactions, Vol: 43, Pages: 9-14, ISSN: 1040-2004
  • Journal article
    Guangteng G, Cann PME, Olver AV, Spikes HAet al., 2000,

    Lubricant film thickness in rough surface, mixed elastohydrodynamic contact

    , Transactions of the ASME Journal of Tribology, Vol: 122, Pages: 65-76, ISSN: 0742-4787
  • Journal article
    Taylor L, Dratva A, Spikes HA, 2000,

    Friction and wear behaviour of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate additive

    , Tribology Transactions, Vol: 43, Pages: 469-479, ISSN: 1040-2004
  • Journal article
    Hurley S, Cann PME, Spikes HA, 2000,

    Lubrication and reflow properties of thermally aged greases

    , Tribology Transactions, Vol: 43, Pages: 221-228, ISSN: 0027-6782
  • Conference paper
    Hurley S, Cann PME, 2000,

    Examination of grease structure by SEM and AFM techniques

    , 67th Annual Meeting National Lubricating Grease Institute, Asheville NC, Pages: all-all
  • Journal article
    Hurley S, Cann PME, 2000,

    Infrared spectroscopic characterisation of grease lubricant films on metal surfaces

    , NLGI Spokesman (National Lubricating Grease Institute), Vol: 64, Pages: 13-21, ISSN: 0027-6782
  • Journal article
    Guangteng G, Cann PME, Olver AV, Spikes HAet al., 2000,

    An experimental study of film thickness between rough surfaces in EHD contacts

    , Tribology International, Vol: 33, Pages: 183-189, ISSN: 0301-679X
  • Journal article
    Hurley S, Cann P, 1999,

    Presentations for 66th annual meeting: Characterisation of grease lubricant films. Paper 9924

    , NLGI Spokesman, Vol: 63, ISSN: 0027-6782

    A study investigated rolled grease lubricant films applied on steel surfaces. This study focused on how the combination of high local shear stresses and the presence of the metal surface can lead to major changes in the chemistry and structure of grease lubricant films. Using IR reflectance microspectroscopy, this research determined the concentration and distribution of the grease components both within and outside the overrolled track. Changes in the film composition and the generation of new species, which were both the result of shear degradation, were observed. Original is an abstract.

  • Journal article
    Hurley S, Cann P, 1999,

    Presentations for 66th annual meeting: Started lubrication of EHL contacts - Relationship to bulk grease properties. Paper 9904

    , NLGI Spokesman, Vol: 63, ISSN: 0027-6782

    The effect of grease composition (thickener type and concentration) on lubricant film thickness under starved conditions was investigated. The film thickness of a number of model greases made with the same base oil but different thickeners (diurea, lithium complex, lithium hydroxystearate) was measured. Base oil release, yield stress, and contact replenishment measurements were related to starved film thickness. Shear stability was thought to be an important factor, as this will control grease breakdown and subsequent oil release at the side of the track. Starved film curves for a range of greases were related to the ability of the grease to replenish the contact. Original is an abstract.

  • Conference paper
    Wilkinson CMR, Olver AV, 1999,

    The durability of gear and disc specimens - Part II: Post failure examination and gear-disc correlation

    , 53rd Annual Meeting of the Society-of-Tribologists-and-Lubrication-Engineers, Publisher: TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, Pages: 610-618, ISSN: 1040-2004
  • Journal article
    Lee-Prudhoe I, Sayles RS, Kadiric A, 1999,

    Investigations into asperity persistence in heavily loaded contacts

    , Journal of Tribology-Transactions of the ASME, Vol: 121, Pages: 441-448, ISSN: 0742-4787
  • Conference paper
    Wilkinson CMR, Olver AV, 1999,

    The durability of gear and disc specimens - Part 1: The effect of some novel materials and surface treatments

    , 53rd Annual Meeting of the Society-of-Tribologists-and-Lubrication-Engineers, Publisher: SOC TRIBOLOGISTS & LUBRICATION ENGINEERS, Pages: 503-510, ISSN: 1040-2004
  • Conference paper
    Kim TH, Olver AV, 1999,

    The fatigue behaviour of chamfered steel cylinders

    , 25th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 267-275
  • Conference paper
    Hurley S, Cann PM, 1999,

    IR spectroscopic analysis of grease lubricant films in rolling contacts

    , 25th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 589-600
  • Journal article
    Luke P, Olver AV, 1999,

    A study of churning losses in dip-lubricated spur gears

    , PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART G-JOURNAL OF AEROSPACE ENGINEERING, Vol: 213, Pages: 337-346, ISSN: 0954-4100
  • Conference paper
    Luke P, Olver AV, 1999,

    A study of churning losses in dip-lubricated spur gears

    , Seminar on Aerospace Transmissions Technology in the 21st Century II, Publisher: PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERING PUBLISHING LTD, Pages: 1-18, ISSN: 1357-9193
  • Journal article
    Cann PME, 1999,

    Thin-film grease lubrication

    , PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART J-JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING TRIBOLOGY, Vol: 213, Pages: 405-416, ISSN: 1350-6501
  • Journal article
    Gunsel S, Korcek S, Smeeth M, Spikes HAet al., 1999,

    The elastohydrodynamic friction and film forming properties of lubricant base oils

    , Tribology Transactions, Vol: 42, Pages: 559-569, ISSN: 1040-2004
  • Journal article
    Makino T, Sayles RS, 1999,

    A simplified diagram of seizure criteria for lubricated sliding rough surfaces

    , Transactions of the ASME Journal of Tribology, Vol: 121, Pages: 655-660, ISSN: 0742-4787
  • Journal article
    Cann PME, Lubrecht AA, 1999,

    An analysis of the mechanisms of grease lubrication in rolling element bearings

    , Lubrication Science, Vol: 11, Pages: 227-245, ISSN: 0954-0075
  • Journal article
    Yin J, Eissa KI, Gohar R, Cann PMEet al., 1999,

    Rebounding lubricant layers

    , Lubrication Science, Vol: 12, Pages: 3-30, ISSN: 0954-0075
  • Journal article
    Sugimura J, Okumura T, Yamamoto Y, Spikes HAet al., 1999,

    Simple equation for elastohydrodynamic film thickness under acceleration

    , Tribology International, Vol: 32, Pages: 117-123, ISSN: 0301-679X
  • Book chapter
    Guangteng G, Cann PME, Spikes HA, Olver AVet al., 1999,

    Mapping of surface features in the thin film lubrication regime

    , Lubrication at the Frontier, Editors: Dowson, Priest, Taylor, Ehret, Childs, Dalmaz, Berthier, Flamand, Georges, Lubrecht, Dowson, Priest, Taylor, Ehret, Childs, Dalmaz, Berthier, Flamand, Georges, Lubrecht, Dowson, Priest, Taylor, Ehret, Childs, Dalmaz, Berthier, Flamand, Georges, Lubrecht, Publisher: Elsevier Science, Pages: 175-183, ISBN: 9780444502674
  • Journal article
    Hurley S, Cann PME, 1999,

    Grease composition and film thickness in rolling contacts

    , NLGI Spokesman (National Lubricating Grease Institute), Vol: 63, Pages: 12-22, ISSN: 0027-6782
  • Book chapter
    Jacod B, Pubilier F, Cann PME, Lubrecht AAet al., 1999,

    An analysis of track replenishment mechanisms in the starved regime

    , Lubrication at the Frontier, Editors: Dowson, Priest, Taylor, Ehret, Childs, Dalmaz, Berthier, Flamand, Georges, Lubrecht, Publisher: Elsevier Science, Pages: 483-492, ISBN: 9780444502674
  • Journal article
    Wei DP, Spikes HA, Korcek S, 1999,

    The lubricity of gasoline

    , Tribology Transactions, Vol: 42, Pages: 813-823, ISSN: 1040-2004
  • Journal article
    Cann PME, 1999,

    Thin-film grease lubrication

    , Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part J-Journal of Engineering Tribology, Vol: 213, Pages: 405-416, ISSN: 1350-6501
  • Book chapter
    Kim TH, Olver AV, 1999,

    The fatigue behaviour of chamfered steel cylinders

    , Lubrication at the Frontier, Editors: Dowson, Priest, Taylor, Ehret, Childs, Dalmaz, Berthier, Flamand, Georges, Lubrecht, Publisher: Elsevier Science, Pages: 267-275, ISBN: 9780444502674
  • Book chapter
    Hurley S, Cann PME, 1999,

    IR spectroscopic analysis of grease lubricant films in rolling contacts

    , Lubrication at the Frontier, Editors: Dowson, Priest, Taylor, Ehret, Childs, Dalmaz, Berthier, Flamand, Georges, Lubrecht, Publisher: Elsevier, Pages: 589-600, ISBN: 9780444502674
  • Conference paper
    Jacod B, Pubilier F, Cann PME, Lubrecht AAet al., 1999,

    Track replenishment in and out of contact

    , 25th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Pages: 483-492

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