Many Tribology Group publications are Open Access thanks to funding from the EPSRC.

Search or filter publications

Filter by type:

Filter by publication type

Filter by year:

to

Results

  • Showing results for:
  • Reset all filters

Search results

  • Conference paper
    Balcombe R, Fowell MT, Kadiric A, Dini D, Olver AVet al., 2013,

    Modeling the propagation of Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF) cracks in the presence of lubricant

    , Pages: 3577-3579
  • Conference paper
    Giacopini M, Bertocchi L, Baldini A, Dini Det al., 2013,

    A complementarity formulation for the EHL analysis of a connecting rod big end bearing

    , Pages: 3499-3502
  • Conference paper
    Gattinoni C, Lorenz C, Heyes DM, Dini Det al., 2013,

    NEMD simulations of confined liquids under pressure and shear

    , Pages: 912-915
  • Conference paper
    Medina S, Dini D, 2013,

    Aspects of modelling adhesion with surface topography

    , Pages: 184-187
  • Conference paper
    Myant C, Cann P, 2013,

    Lubrication of artificial articular joints

    , Pages: 132-134
  • Conference paper
    Guégan J, Kadiric A, Reddyhoff T, Morales-Espejel G, Spikes Het al., 2013,

    Friction and lubrication of textured surfaces in elasto-hydrodynamic contacts

    , Pages: 1659-1661
  • Conference paper
    Fowell MT, Kadiric A, Morales-Espejel G, Stacke LE, Ioannides Set al., 2013,

    Smearing damage in rolling element bearings

    , Pages: 1135-1137
  • Conference paper
    Nyqvist JT, Kadiric A, Sayles RS, Ioannides Eet al., 2013,

    Three-dimensional analysis of multilayered rough surface contacts

    , Pages: 181-183
  • Journal article
    Putignano D, 2013,

    Experimental investigation of viscoelastic rolling contacts: A comparison with theory

    , Tribology Letters, Vol: 51, Pages: 105-113
  • Conference paper
    Arana C, Evangelou SA, Dini D, 2012,

    Pitch Angle Reduction for Cars under Ac- celeration and Braking by Active Variable Geometry Suspension

    , 51st Conference on Decision and Control; CDC2012
  • Journal article
    Oldfield M, Dini D, Rodriguez y Baena F, 2012,

    Predicting failure in soft tissue phantoms via modeling of non-predetermined tear progression.

    , Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference, Pages: 6305-6308, ISSN: 1557-170X

    The advantageous, curved trajectory of bevel-tipped devices in soft tissue is a function of the interplay between material deformation, contact interactions and material failure. Highly detailed modeling of tool-tissue interactions is therefore vital in optimising performance and design. At high resolution, discontinuous failure of soft tissue phantoms has not been demonstrated. An iterative procedure, making incremental additions to the failure path in an otherwise continuous finite element mesh, is presented to achieve this goal. The procedure's efficacy was demonstrated in two materials including a soft tissue phantom. Failure path is shown to respond well to different and evolving shear and normal stress states. The iterative procedure would thus be ideal for analysing and optimising complex tool-tissue interactions, for instance in needle steering systems, where the path taken by the needle also depends on the progression of a tear which develops ahead of the tip during the insertion process. With the method presented here, this behaviour could be modeled and analysed at an unprecedented resolution.

  • Journal article
    Bertocchi L, Giacopini M, Dini D, 2012,

    Analysis of the lubrication regimes at the small end and big end of a connecting rod of a high performance motorbike engine

    , American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Tribology Division, TRIB, Pages: 229-231

    In the present paper, the algorithm proposed by Giacopini et. al. [1], based on a mass-conserving formulation of the Reynolds equation using the concept of complementarity is suitably extended to include the effects of compressibility, piezoviscosity and shear-thinning on the lubricant properties. This improved algorithm is employed to analyse the performance of the lubricated small end and big end bearings of a connecting rod of a high performance motorbike engine. The application of the algorithm proposed to both the small end and the big end of a con-rod is challenging because of the different causes that sustain the hydrodynamic lubrication in the two cases. In the con-rod big end, the fluid film is mainly generated by the relative high speed rotation between the rod and the crankshaft. The relative speed between the two races forms a wedge of fluid that assures appropriate lubrication and avoids undesired direct contacts. On the contrary, at the con-rod small end the relative rotational speed is low and a complete rotation between the mating surfaces does not occurs since the con-rod only oscillates around its vertical axis. Thus, at every revolution of the crankshaft, there are two different moments in which the relative rotational speed between the con-rod and the piston pin is null. Therefore, the dominant effect in the lubrication is the squeeze caused by the high loads transmitted through the piston pin. In particular both combustion forces and inertial forces contribute to the squeeze effect. This work shows how the formulation developed by the authors is capable of predicting the performance of journal bearings in the unsteady regime, where cavitation and reformation occur several times. Moreover, the effects of the pressure and the shear rate on the density and on the viscosity of the lubricant are taken into account. Copyright © 2012 by ASME.

  • Journal article
    Holtzinger J, Green J, Lamb G, Atkinson D, Spikes Het al., 2012,

    New Method of Measuring Permanent Viscosity Loss of Polymer-Containing Lubricants

    , TRIBOLOGY & LUBRICATION TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 68, Pages: 66-+, ISSN: 1545-858X
  • Journal article
    Bertocchi L, Giacopini M, Strozzi A, Fowell MT, Dini Det al., 2012,

    A mass-conserving complementarity formulation to study fluid film lubrication in the presence of cavitation for non-newtonian and compressible fluids

    , ASME 2012 11th Biennial Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis, ESDA 2012, Vol: 4, Pages: 629-635

    A mass-conserving formulation of the Reynolds equation has been recently developed using the concept of complementarity [1]. The mathematical derivation of the Linear Complementarity Problem (LCP) implemented in the solver favoured in [1] overcomes the drawbacks previously associated with the use of such complementarity formulations for the solution of cavitation problems in which reformation of the liquid film occurs. In the present paper, the proposed methodology, already successfully applied to solve textured bearing and squeeze problems in the presence of cavitation in a one dimensional domain and for incompressible fluids [1], has been extend to a two dimensional domain and the fluid compressibility has been included in the formulation. The evolution of the cavitated region and the contact pressure distribution are studied for a number of different configurations. Some of the results obtained with the proposed scheme are critically analysed and compared with the predictions obtained using alternative formulations (including full CFD calculations). The stability of the proposed algorithm and its flexibility in terms of the implementation of different compressibility laws is highlighted. Copyright © 2012 by ASME.

  • Journal article
    Campen S, Green J, Lamb G, Atkinson D, Spikes Het al., 2012,

    On the Increase in Boundary Friction with Sliding Speed

    , TRIBOLOGY LETTERS, Vol: 48, Pages: 237-248, ISSN: 1023-8883
  • Journal article
    Vengudusamy B, Green JH, Lamb GD, Spikes HAet al., 2012,

    Behaviour of MoDTC in DLC/DLC and DLC/steel contacts

    , TRIBOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 54, Pages: 68-76, ISSN: 0301-679X
  • Journal article
    Timm K, Myant C, Nuguid H, Spikes HA, Grunze Met al., 2012,

    Investigation of friction and perceived skin feel after application of suspensions of various cosmetic powders

    , INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE, Vol: 34, Pages: 458-465, ISSN: 0142-5463
  • Journal article
    Veijgen NK, Masen MA, van der Heide E, 2012,

    A novel approach to measuring the frictional behaviour of human skin in vivo

    , TRIBOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 54, Pages: 38-41, ISSN: 0301-679X
  • Journal article
    Hills DA, Thaitirarot A, Barber JR, Dini Det al., 2012,

    Correlation of fretting fatigue experimental results using an asymptotic approach

    , INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FATIGUE, Vol: 43, Pages: 62-75, ISSN: 0142-1123
  • Journal article
    Fowell MT, Medina S, Olver AV, Spikes HA, Pegg IGet al., 2012,

    Parametric study of texturing in convergent bearings

    , TRIBOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 52, Pages: 7-16, ISSN: 0301-679X
  • Journal article
    Woldman M, van der Heide E, Schipper DJ, Tinga T, Masen MAet al., 2012,

    Investigating the influence of sand particle properties on abrasive wear behaviour

    , Wear, Vol: 294-295, Pages: 419-426, ISSN: 0043-1648
  • Journal article
    Jeffers JRT, Walter WL, 2012,

    Ceramic-on-ceramic bearings in hip arthroplasty STATE OF THE ART AND THE FUTURE

    , JOURNAL OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY-BRITISH VOLUME, Vol: 94B, Pages: 735-745, ISSN: 0301-620X
  • Journal article
    Smith ER, Heyes DM, Dini D, Zaki TAet al., 2012,

    Control-volume representation of molecular dynamics

    , Physical Review E, Vol: 85, Pages: 056705-056705, ISSN: 1539-3755

    A molecular dynamics (MD) parallel to the control volume (CV) formulation of fluid mechanics is developedby integrating the formulas of Irving and Kirkwood [J. Chem. Phys.18, 817 (1950)] over a finite cubic volumeof molecular dimensions. The Lagrangian molecular system is expressed in terms of an Eulerian CV, whichyields an equivalent to Reynolds’ transport theorem for the discrete system. This approach casts the dynamics ofthe molecular system into a form that can be readily compared to the continuum equations. The MD equationsof motion are reinterpreted in terms of a Lagrangian-to-control-volume (LCV) conversion functionθifor eachmoleculei.TheLCVfunction and its spatial derivatives are used to express fluxes and relevant forces across thecontrol surfaces. The relationship between the local pressures computed using the volume average [Lutsko,J.Appl. Phys.64, 1152 (1988)] techniques and the method of planes [Toddet al.,Phys.Rev.E52, 1627 (1995)]emerges naturally from the treatment. Numerical experiments using the MD CV method are reported forequilibrium and nonequilibrium (start-up Couette flow) model liquids, which demonstrate the advantages ofthe formulation. The CV formulation of the MD is shown to be exactly conservative and is, therefore, ideallysuited to obtain macroscopic properties from a discrete system.

  • Journal article
    Quinchia LA, Delgado MA, Franco JM, Spikes HA, Gallegos Cet al., 2012,

    Low-temperature flow behaviour of vegetable oil-based lubricants

    , INDUSTRIAL CROPS AND PRODUCTS, Vol: 37, Pages: 383-388, ISSN: 0926-6690
  • Journal article
    van Kuilenburg J, Masen MA, Groenendijk MNW, Bana V, van der Heide Eet al., 2012,

    An experimental study on the relation between surface texture and tactile friction

    , TRIBOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 48, Pages: 15-21, ISSN: 0301-679X
  • Patent
    Evangelou SA, Dini D, De Meerschman O, Tocatlian A, Kneip C, Palas Cet al., 2012,

    Variable-geometry suspension apparatus and vehicle comprising such apparatus

  • Journal article
    Myant CW, Fan T, Underwood R, cann Pet al., 2012,

    Synovial Fluid Lubrication of Artificial Joints: Protein Film Formation and Composition

    , Faraday Discussions, ISSN: 1364-5498
  • Conference paper
    Oldfield M, Dini D, Rodriguez y Baena F, 2012,

    Predicting Failure in Soft Tissue Phantoms via Modeling of Non-Predetermined Tear Progression

    , 34th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering-in-Medicine-and-Biology-Society (EMBS), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 6305-6308, ISSN: 1557-170X
  • Journal article
    Jeffers JRT, 2012,

    The role of biomechanics and engineering in total hip replacement. Why surgeons need technical help

    , PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART H-JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING IN MEDICINE, Vol: 226, Pages: 947-954, ISSN: 0954-4119
  • Journal article
    Holtzinger J, Green J, Lamb G, Atkinson D, Spikes Het al., 2012,

    New Method of Measuring Permanent Viscosity Loss of Polymer-Containing Lubricants

    , TRIBOLOGY TRANSACTIONS, Vol: 55, Pages: 631-639, ISSN: 1040-2004
  • Journal article
    Fan J, Myant C, Underwood R, Cann Pet al., 2012,

    Synovial fluid lubrication of artificial joints: protein film formation and composition

    , FARADAY DISCUSSIONS, Vol: 156, Pages: 69-85, ISSN: 1359-6640
  • Journal article
    Medina S, Olver AV, Dini D, 2012,

    The Influence of Surface Topography on Energy Dissipation and Compliance in Tangentially Loaded Elastic Contacts

    , JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME, Vol: 134, ISSN: 0742-4787
  • Journal article
    Hills DA, Paynter RJH, Dini D, 2012,

    An overview of the quantification of fretting fatigue lives of complete contacts

    , ENGINEERING FRACTURE MECHANICS, Vol: 80, Pages: 3-12, ISSN: 0013-7944
  • Journal article
    Underwood RJ, Zografos A, Sayles RS, Hart A, Cann Pet al., 2012,

    Edge loading in metal-on-metal hips: low clearance is a new risk factor

    , PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART H-JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING IN MEDICINE, Vol: 226, Pages: 217-226, ISSN: 0954-4119
  • Conference paper
    Coleman I, Dini D, Smith R, 2012,

    Wheel-rail contact detection and stress analysis at railway switches and crossings

    , Pages: 652-654

    Many authors have investigated the phenomenon of wheel-rail contact and from a variety of perspectives. In recent years there has been a research push towards using rolling contact stresses for modeling subsequent material degradation at the wheel-rail interface. This extended abstract describes the development of an integrated tool for advanced wheel-rail contact detection and detailed, non-Hertzian normal and tangential contact stress analysis for use within subsequent material degradation models at the railway switch and crossing interface.

  • Journal article
    Flicek R, Dini D, Hills DA, 2012,

    THE INFLUENCE OF INITIAL RESIDUAL STRESS STATE ON THE STEADY STATE BEHAVIOUR OF CYCLICALLY LOADED COUPLED

    , PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME INTERNATIONAL DESIGN ENGINEERING TECHNICAL CONFERENCES AND COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION IN ENGINEERING CONFERENCE 2011, VOL 1, PTS A AND B, Pages: 1319-1328
  • Journal article
    Botta F, Marx N, Gentili S, Schwingshackl CW, Di Mare L, Cerri G, Dini Det al., 2012,

    Optimal placement of piezoelectric plates for active vibration control of gas turbine blades: experimental results

    , SENSORS AND SMART STRUCTURES TECHNOLOGIES FOR CIVIL, MECHANICAL, AND AEROSPACE SYSTEMS 2012, PTS 1 AND 2, Vol: 8345, ISSN: 0277-786X
  • Journal article
    Medina S, Dini D, 2012,

    A FAST DETERMINISTIC MODEL TO STUDY ADHESION IN ROUGH CONTACTS

    , PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME 11TH BIENNIAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING SYSTEMS DESIGN AND ANALYSIS, VOL 4, Pages: 637-643
  • Conference paper
    Hajishafiee A, Dini D, Zaki T, Kadiric A, Ioannides Set al., 2012,

    MODELLING ELASTO-HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION USING CFD

    , 15th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics (ICEM), Publisher: INEGI-INST ENGENHARIA MECANICA E GESTAO INDUSTRIAL
  • Conference paper
    Rycerz P, Kadiric A, Pasaribu R, Espejel GM, Olver AVet al., 2012,

    EFFECT OF ADDITIVES ON SURFACE PERFORMANCE

    , 15th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics (ICEM), Publisher: INEGI-INST ENGENHARIA MECANICA E GESTAO INDUSTRIAL
  • Journal article
    Ku ISY, Reddyhoff T, Wayte R, Choo JH, Holmes AS, Spikes HAet al., 2012,

    Lubrication of microelectromechanical devices using liquids of different viscosities

    , Journal of Tribology, Vol: 134, ISSN: 0742-4787

    Lubrication of contacting and sliding surfaces in MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) is particularly challenging because of the predominance of surface forces at the microscale. The current paper explores the possibility of using liquid lubrication in this application. Measurements of friction and lubricant film thickness have been made for liquid lubricants of different viscosities, including low viscosity silicone oil, hexadecane, squalane, and water. Testing was carried out using a newly developed MEMS tribometer in which a rotating silicon disk is loaded against a stationary silicon disk. Two different test setups were used: one where both disks are flat, and the other where the stationary disk is structured as in a thrust pad bearing. In all tests the disks were fully submerged in the lubricant. With the flat-on-patterned disk combination, the variation of friction with rotation speed was found to follow classical Stribeck curves for all the lubricants tested. The friction at high speeds also decreased with increasing normal load, in accordance with hydrodynamic lubrication theory. For the least viscous lubricants, it was found that the hydrodynamic friction coefficients remained relatively low even at higher speeds. In particular, for water the friction coefficient for water was around 0.1 at 10,000 rpm. However, boundary friction was found to be unacceptably high at low speeds where there was insufficient lubricant entrainment. The experimental results have been compared with a finite difference solution of Reynolds equation and reasonable agreement is seen between theory and experiment. The results indicate that liquid lubrication is potentially an effective means of lubricating MEMS components with high levels of sliding.

  • Journal article
    Oldfield M, Dini D, Giordano G, Rodriguez y Baena Fet al., 2012,

    Detailed finite element modelling of deep needle insertions into a soft tissue phantom using a cohesive approach

    , ISSN: 1476-8259

    Detailed finite element modelling of needle insertions into soft tissue phantoms encounters difficulties of large deformations, high friction, contact loading and material failure. This paper demonstrates the use of cohesive elements in high-resolution finite element models to overcome some of the issues associated with these factors. Experiments are presented enabling extraction of the strain energy release rate during crack formation. Using data from these experiments, cohesive elements are calibrated and then implemented in models for validation of the needle insertion process. Successful modelling enables direct comparison of finite element and experimental force-displacement plots and energy distributions. Regions of crack creation, relaxation, cutting and full penetration are identified. By closing the loop between experiments and detailed finite element modelling, a methodology is established which will enable design modifications of a soft tissue probe that steers through complex mechanical interactions with the surrounding material.

  • Journal article
    Ku ISY, Reddyhoff T, Wayte R, Choo JH, Holmes AS, Spikes HAet al., 2012,

    Lubrication of microelectromechanical devices using liquids of different viscosities

    , Journal of Tribology, Vol: 134, ISSN: 0742-4787

    Lubrication of contacting and sliding surfaces in MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) is particularly challenging because of the predominance of surface forces at the microscale. The current paper explores the possibility of using liquid lubrication in this application. Measurements of friction and lubricant film thickness have been made for liquid lubricants of different viscosities, including low viscosity silicone oil, hexadecane, squalane, and water. Testing was carried out using a newly developed MEMS tribometer in which a rotating silicon disk is loaded against a stationary silicon disk. Two different test setups were used: one where both disks are flat, and the other where the stationary disk is structured as in a thrust pad bearing. In all tests the disks were fully submerged in the lubricant. With the flat-on-patterned disk combination, the variation of friction with rotation speed was found to follow classical Stribeck curves for all the lubricants tested. The friction at high speeds also decreased with increasing normal load, in accordance with hydrodynamic lubrication theory. For the least viscous lubricants, it was found that the hydrodynamic friction coefficients remained relatively low even at higher speeds. In particular, for water the friction coefficient for water was around 0.1 at 10,000 rpm. However, boundary friction was found to be unacceptably high at low speeds where there was insufficient lubricant entrainment. The experimental results have been compared with a finite difference solution of Reynolds equation and reasonable agreement is seen between theory and experiment. The results indicate that liquid lubrication is potentially an effective means of lubricating MEMS components with high levels of sliding. 2012 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

  • Journal article
    Bills PJ, Racasan R, Underwood RJ, Cann PM, Skinner J, Hart AH, Jiang X, Blunt Let al., 2012,

    Volumetric wear assessment of retrieved metal-on-metal hip prostheses and the impact of measurement uncertainty

    , Wear, Pages: 212-219
  • Journal article
    Heyes DM, Smith ER, Dini D, Spikes HA, Zaki TAet al., 2012,

    Pressure dependence of confined liquid behavior subjected to boundary-driven shear

    , J. Chem. Phys, Vol: 136, Pages: 134705-134705
  • Journal article
    Timm K, Myant C, Spikes HA, Grunze Met al., 2011,

    Particulate lubricants in cosmetic applications

    , Tribology International, Vol: 44, Pages: 1695-1703, ISSN: 1879-2464

    Polymer powders are commonly added to cosmetic formulations to improve product performance and skin feel. This study investigates the effect of particle concentration and size on the lubricating properties of powder suspensions. Results are reported for various particle sizes and concentrations.When the tribological contact was fully immersed the addition of particles had no effect. However different behaviour was observed when the contact was only partially lubricated. In this case, a three-stage friction coefficient curve was observed. By varying the particle size and concentration it was shown that the duration and magnitude of each stage can be controlled.

  • Journal article
    Masen MA, 2011,

    A systems based experimental approach to tactile friction

    , JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS, Vol: 4, Pages: 1620-1626, ISSN: 1751-6161
  • Journal article
    Myant CW, underwood R, fan J, cann Pet al., 2011,

    Lubrication of metal-on-metal hip joints: The effect of proteincontent and load on film formation and wear

    , Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, Vol: 6, Pages: 30-40, ISSN: 1751-6161

    Lubricant films were measured for a series of bovine serum and protein containing (albumin, globulin) saline solutions for CoCrMo femoral component sliding against a glass disc. Central film thickness was measured by optical interferometry as a function of time (constant mean speed: 0 and 10 mm/s) and variable mean speed (0–50 mm/s). The effect of load (5–20 N) on film thickness was also studied. The development of the wear scar on the CoCrMo surface was monitored by measuring the width of the contact zone during the film thickness tests. The results showed film thickness increased with time for both the static and sliding tests. Films formed in the static, loaded test were typically in the range of 3–40 nm. The globulin containing solutions formed the thickest films. In the sliding tests a wear scar rapidly formed on the implant component for the bovine serum and albumin fluids, negligible wear was observed for the globulin solutions. Film thickness increased with sliding time for all test solutions and was much greater than predicted by isoviscous EHL models. The film increase was found to correlate with increasing wear scar size and thus decreasing contact pressure. A new lubricating mechanism is proposed whereby during sliding the fluid undergoes bulk phase separation rheology, so that an elevated protein phase forms in the inlet zone. This protein phase is a high-viscosity biphasic matrix, which is periodically entrained into the contact forming a thick protective hydro-gel film. One of the main findings of this study is that film thickness was very sensitive to load; to a much greater extent than predicted by EHL models. Thus film formation in MoM hip joints is very susceptible to high contact pressures which might be due to implant misalignment and edge-loading.

  • Journal article
    Mueller M, Topolovec-Miklozic K, Dardin A, Spikes Het al., 2011,

    The Design of Boundary Film-Forming PMA Viscosity Modifiers

    , TRIBOLOGY & LUBRICATION TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 67, Pages: 50-+, ISSN: 1545-858X
  • Journal article
    Timm K, Myant C, Spikes HA, Schneider M, Ladnorg T, Grunze Met al., 2011,

    Cosmetic powder suspensions in compliant, fingerprintlike contacts

    , BIOINTERPHASES, Vol: 6, Pages: 126-134, ISSN: 1934-8630

This data is extracted from the Web of Science and reproduced under a licence from Thomson Reuters. You may not copy or re-distribute this data in whole or in part without the written consent of the Science business of Thomson Reuters.

Request URL: http://wlsprd.imperial.ac.uk:80/respub/WEB-INF/jsp/search-t4-html.jsp Request URI: /respub/WEB-INF/jsp/search-t4-html.jsp Query String: id=391&limit=50&page=8&respub-action=search.html Current Millis: 1591330238004 Current Time: Fri Jun 05 05:10:38 BST 2020