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  • Conference paper
    Raposo de Lima M, Horrocks S, Daniels S, Lamptey M, Harrison M, Vaidyanathan Ret al., 2023,

    The role of conversational AI in ageing and dementia care at home: a participatory study

    , 2023 32nd IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), Publisher: IEEE, ISSN: 1944-9437

    Conversational artificial intelligence (AI) technologies hold significant promise to support the independence,well-being and safety of older adults living with frailty ordementia at home. However, further studies are needed toidentify: 1) valuable scenarios of support, 2) desired interactivefeatures, and 3) key challenges preventing long-term adoptionand utility in dementia care. In this paper, we explore therole of conversational technology in ageing and dementia careat home. Using a community-based participatory approach, weengaged 20 stakeholders, including people with lived experienceof dementia and frailty, to understand preferences, perceivedbenefits and concerns about integrating conversational AIinto daily routines at home. We uncovered key roles of thetechnology, including support of daily functions, health monitoring, risk mitigation, and cognitive stimulation. We emphasizethe need for adapting interactions to different levels of userfamiliarity and progression of cognitive decline. We addressthe importance of the communication style and suggest carefuluse of open-ended questions with target populations. We furtherdiscuss feasibility considerations to overcome current barriersto adoption. Overall, this work proposes design guidelines toshape the future conceptualization and development of naturallanguage interactions to support dementia care at home.

  • Journal article
    Raposo de Lima M, Vaidyanathan R, Barnaghi P, 2023,

    Discovering behavioural patterns using conversational technology for in-home health and well-being monitoring

    , IEEE Internet of Things Journal, Vol: 10, Pages: 18537-18552, ISSN: 2327-4662

    Advancements in conversational AI have createdunparalleled opportunities to promote the independence andwell-being of older adults, including people living with dementia(PLWD). However, conversational agents have yet to demonstratea direct impact in supporting target populations at home,particularly with long-term user benefits and clinical utility. Weintroduce an infrastructure fusing in-home activity data capturedby Internet of Things (IoT) technologies with voice interactionsusing conversational technology (Amazon Alexa). We collect 3103person-days of voice and environmental data across 14 households with PLWD to identify behavioural patterns. Interactionsinclude an automated well-being questionnaire and 10 topics ofinterest, identified using topic modelling. Although a significantdecrease in conversational technology usage was observed afterthe novelty phase across the cohort, steady state data acquisitionfor modelling was sustained. We analyse household activitysequences preceding or following Alexa interactions throughpairwise similarity and clustering methods. Our analysis demonstrates the capability to identify individual behavioural patterns,changes in those patterns and the corresponding time periods.We further report that households with PLWD continued usingAlexa following clinical events (e.g., hospitalisations), which offersa compelling opportunity for proactive health and well-beingdata gathering related to medical changes. Results demonstratethe promise of conversational AI in digital health monitoringfor ageing and dementia support and offer a basis for trackinghealth and deterioration as indicated by household activity, whichcan inform healthcare professionals and relevant stakeholdersfor timely interventions. Future work will use the bespokebehavioural patterns extracted to create more personalised AIconversations.

  • Journal article
    Graham NS, Sharp DJ, 2023,

    Dementia after traumatic brain injury

    , BMJ: British Medical Journal, Vol: 383, Pages: 2065-2065, ISSN: 1759-2151
  • Journal article
    Graham N, Zimmerman K, Heslegrave A, Keshavan A, Moro F, Abed-Maillard S, Bernini A, Dunet V, Garbero E, Nattino G, Chieregato A, Fainardi E, Baciu C, Gradisek P, Magnoni S, Oddo M, Bertolini G, Schott JM, Zetterberg H, Sharp Det al., 2023,

    Alzheimer’s disease marker phospho-tau181 is not elevated in the first year after moderate-severe TBI

    , Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, ISSN: 0022-3050

    Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with the tauopathies Alzheimer’s disease and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Advanced immunoassays show significant elevations in plasma total tau (t-tau) early post-TBI, but concentrations subsequently normalise rapidly. Tau phosphorylated at serine-181 (p-tau181) is a well-validated Alzheimer’s disease marker that could potentially seed progressive neurodegeneration. We tested whether post-traumatic p-tau181 concentrations are elevated and relate to progressive brain atrophy.Methods: Plasma p-tau181 and other post-traumatic biomarkers, including total-tau (t-tau), neurofilament light (NfL), ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), were assessed after moderate-to-severe TBI in the BIO-AX-TBI cohort (first sample mean 2.7 days, second sample within 10 days, then 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months, n=42). Brain atrophy rates were assessed in aligned serial MRI (n=40). Concentrations were compared patients with and without Alzheimer’s disease, with healthy controls.Results: Plasma p-tau181 concentrations were significantly raised in patients with Alzheimer’s disease but not after TBI, where concentrations were non-elevated, and remained stable over one year. P-tau181 after TBI was not predictive of brain atrophy rates in either grey or white matter. In contrast, substantial trauma-associated elevations in t-tau, NfL, GFAP and UCH-L1 were seen, with concentrations of NfL and t-tau predictive of brain atrophy rates.Conclusions: Plasma p-tau181 is not significantly elevated during the first year after moderate-to-severe TBI and levels do not relate to neuroimaging measures of neurodegeneration.

  • Journal article
    Palermo F, Chen Y, Capstick A, Fletcher-Lloyd N, Walsh C, Kouchaki S, Jessica T, Balazikova O, Soreq E, Scott G, Rostill H, Nilforooshan R, Barnaghi Pet al., 2023,

    TIHM: an open dataset for remote healthcare monitoring in dementia

    , Scientific Data, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2052-4463

    Dementia is a progressive condition that affects cognitive and functional abilities. There is a need for reliable and continuous health monitoring of People Living with Dementia (PLWD) to improve their quality of life and support their independent living. Healthcare services often focus on addressing and treating already established health conditions that affect PLWD. Managing these conditions continuously can inform better decision-making earlier for higher-quality care management for PLWD. The Technology Integrated Health Management (TIHM) project developed a new digital platform to routinely collect longitudinal, observational, and measurement data, within the home and apply machine learning and analytical models for the detection and prediction of adverse health events affecting the well-being of PLWD. This work describes the TIHM dataset collected during the second phase (i.e., feasibility study) of the TIHM project. The data was collected from homes of 56 PLWD and associated with events and clinical observations (daily activity, physiological monitoring, and labels for health-related conditions). The study recorded an average of 50 days of data per participant, totalling 2803 days.

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  • Finalist: Best Paper - IEEE Transactions on Mechatronics (awarded June 2021)

  • Finalist: IEEE Transactions on Mechatronics; 1 of 5 finalists for Best Paper in Journal

  • Winner: UK Institute of Mechanical Engineers (IMECHE) Healthcare Technologies Early Career Award (awarded June 2021): Awarded to Maria Lima (UKDRI CR&T PhD candidate)

  • Winner: Sony Start-up Acceleration Program (awarded May 2021): Spinout company Serg Tech awarded (1 of 4 companies in all of Europe) a place in Sony corporation start-up boot camp

  • “An Extended Complementary Filter for Full-Body MARG Orientation Estimation” (CR&T authors: S Wilson, R Vaidyanathan)