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  • Journal article
    Zhou Z, Wang R, Wang H, Liu Y, Lu D, Sun Z, Yang G, Xu Let al., 2021,

    Myocardial extracellular volume fraction quantification in an animal model of the doxorubicin-induced myocardial fibrosis: a synthetic hematocrit method using 3T cardiac magnetic resonance

    , Quantitative imaging in medicine and surgery, Vol: 11, Pages: 510-520, ISSN: 2223-4292

    Background: Visualization of diffuse myocardial fibrosis is challenging and mainly relies on histology.Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), which uses extracellular contrast agents, is a rapidly developingtechnique for measuring the extracellular volume (ECV). The objective of this study was to evaluate thefeasibility of the synthetic myocardial ECV fraction based on 3.0 T CMR compared with the conventionalECV fraction.Methods: This study was approved by the local animal care and ethics committee. Fifteen beagle modelswith diffuse myocardial fibrosis, including 12 experimental and three control subjects, were generatedby injecting doxorubicin 30 mg/m2 intravenously every three weeks for 24 weeks. Short-axis (SAX) and4-chamber long-axis (LAX) T1 maps were acquired for both groups. The association between hematocrit(Hct) and native T1blood was derived from 9 non-contrast CMR T1 maps of 3 control beagles using regressionanalysis. Synthetic ECV was then calculated using the synthetic Hct and compared with conventional ECVat baseline and the 16th and 24th week after doxorubicin administration. The collagen volume fraction (CVF)value was measured on digital biopsy samples. Bland-Altman plots were used to analyze the agreementbetween conventional and synthetic ECV. Correlation analyses were performed to explore the associationamong conventional ECV, synthetic ECV, CVF, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF).Results: The regression model synthetic Hct = 816.46*R1blood − 0.01 (R2=0.617; P=0.012) was used topredict the Hct from native T1blood values. The conventional and synthetic ECV fractions of experimentalanimals at the 16th and 24th week after modeling were significantly higher than those measured at the baseline(31.4%±2.2% and 36.3%±2.1% vs. 22.9%±1.7%; 29.9%±2.4% and 36.1%±2.6% vs. 22.0%±2.4%; all withP<0.05). Bland-Altman plots showed a bias (1.0%) between conventional and synthetic ECV with 95% limitsof agreement

  • Journal article
    Lv J, Wang C, Yang G, 2021,

    PIC-GAN: a parallel imaging coupled generative adversarial network for accelerated multi-channel MRI reconstruction

    , Diagnostics, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2075-4418

    In this study, we proposed a model combing parallel imaging (PI) with generative adversarial network (GAN) architecture (PIC-GAN) for accelerated multi-channel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reconstruction. This model integrated data fidelity and regularization terms into the generator to benefit from multi-coils information and provide an “end-to-end” reconstruction. Besides, to better preserve image details during reconstruction, we combined the adversarial loss with pixel-wise loss in both image and frequency domains. The proposed PIC-GAN framework was evaluated on abdominal and knee MRI images using 2, 4 and 6-fold accelerations with different undersampling patterns. The performance of the PIC-GAN was compared to the sparsity-based parallel imaging (L1-ESPIRiT), the variational network (VN), and conventional GAN with single-channel images as input (zero-filled (ZF)-GAN). Experimental results show that our PIC-GAN can effectively reconstruct multi-channel MR images at a low noise level and improved structure similarity of the reconstructed images. PIC-GAN has yielded the lowest Normalized Mean Square Error (in ×10−5) (PIC-GAN: 0.58 ± 0.37, ZF-GAN: 1.93 ± 1.41, VN: 1.87 ± 1.28, L1-ESPIRiT: 2.49 ± 1.04 for abdominal MRI data and PIC-GAN: 0.80 ± 0.26, ZF-GAN: 0.93 ± 0.29, VN:1.18 ± 0.31, L1-ESPIRiT: 1.28 ± 0.24 for knee MRI data) and the highest Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PIC-GAN: 34.43 ± 1.92, ZF-GAN: 31.45 ± 4.0, VN: 29.26 ± 2.98, L1-ESPIRiT: 25.40 ± 1.88 for abdominal MRI data and PIC-GAN: 34.10 ± 1.09, ZF-GAN: 31.47 ± 1.05, VN: 30.01 ± 1.01, L1-ESPIRiT: 28.01 ± 0.98 for knee MRI data) compared to ZF-GAN, VN and L1-ESPIRiT with an under-sampling factor of 6. The proposed PIC-GAN framework has shown superior reconstruction performance in terms of reducing aliasing artifacts and restoring tissue structures as compared to other c

  • Journal article
    Cao Y, Wang Z, Liu Z, Li Y, Xiao X, Sun L, Zhang Y, Hou H, Zhang P, Yang Get al., 2021,

    Multiparameter Synchronous Measurement With IVUS Images for Intelligently Diagnosing Coronary Cardiac Disease

  • Journal article
    Jin Y, Yang G, Fang Y, Li R, Xu X, Liu Y, Lai Xet al., 2021,

    3D PBV-Net: An automated prostate MRI data segmentation method

  • Journal article
    Zhang N, Yang G, Zhang W, Wang W, Zhou Z, Zhang H, Xu L, Chen Yet al., 2021,

    Fully automatic framework for comprehensive coronary artery calcium scores analysis on non-contrast cardiac-gated CT scan: Total and vessel-specific quantifications

    , European Journal of Radiology, Vol: 134, ISSN: 0720-048X

    ObjectivesTo develop a fully automatic multiview shape constraint framework for comprehensive coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) quantification via deep learning on nonenhanced cardiac CT images.MethodsIn this retrospective single-centre study, a multi-task deep learning framework was proposed to detect and quantify coronary artery calcification from CT images collected between October 2018 and March 2019. A total of 232 non-contrast cardiac-gated CT scans were retrieved and studied (80 % for model training and 20 % for testing). CACS results of testing datasets (n = 46), including Agatston score, calcium volume score, calcium mass score, were calculated fully automatically and manually at total and vessel-specific levels, respectively.ResultsNo significant differences were found in CACS quantification obtained using automatic or manual methods at total and vessel-specific levels (Agatston score: automatic 535.3 vs. manual 542.0, P = 0.993; calcium volume score: automatic 454.2 vs. manual 460.6, P = 0.990; calcium mass score: automatic 128.9 vs. manual 129.5, P = 0.992). Compared to the ground truth, the number of calcified vessels can be accurate recognized automatically (total: automatic 107 vs. manual 102, P = 0.125; left main artery: automatic 15 vs. manual 14, P = 1.000 ; left ascending artery: automatic 37 vs. manual 37, P = 1.000; left circumflex artery: automatic 22 vs. manual 20, P = 0.625; right coronary artery: automatic 33 vs. manual 31, P = 0.500). At the patient’s level, there was no statistic difference existed in the classification of Agatston scoring (P = 0.317) and the number of calcified vessels (P = 0.102) between the automatic and manual results.ConclusionsThe proposed framework can achieve reliable and comprehensive quantification for the CACS, including the calcified extent and distr

  • Journal article
    Litvinukova M, Talavera-Lopez C, Maatz H, Reichart D, Worth CL, Lindberg EL, Kanda M, Polanski K, Heinig M, Lee M, Nadelmann ER, Roberts K, Tuck L, Fasouli ES, DeLaughter DM, McDonough B, Wakimoto H, Gorham JM, Samari S, Mahbubani KT, Saeb-Parsy K, Patone G, Boyle JJ, Zhang H, Zhang H, Viveiros A, Oudit GY, Bayraktar OA, Seidman JG, Seidman CE, Noseda M, Hubner N, Teichmann SAet al., 2020,

    Cells of the adult human heart

    , Nature, Vol: 588, Pages: 466-472, ISSN: 0028-0836

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Advanced insights into disease mechanisms and therapeutic strategies require deeper understanding of the healthy heart’s molecular processes. Knowledge of the full repertoire of cardiac cells and their gene expression profiles is a fundamental first step in this endeavor. Here, using state-of-the-art analyses of large-scale single-cell and nuclei transcriptomes, we characterise six anatomical adult heart regions. Our results highlight the cellular heterogeneity of cardiomyocytes, pericytes, and fibroblasts, revealing distinct atrial and ventricular subsets with diverse developmental origins and specialized properties. We define the complexity of the cardiac vasculature and its changes along the arterio-venous axis. In the immune compartment we identify cardiac resident macrophages with inflammatory and protective transcriptional signatures. Further, inference of cell-cell interactions highlight different macrophage-fibroblast-cardiomyocyte networks between atria and ventricles that are distinct from skeletal muscle. Our human cardiac cell atlas improves our understanding of the human heart and provides a healthy reference for future studies.

  • Journal article
    Haldar S, Khan HR, Boyalla V, Kralj-Hans I, Jones S, Lord J, Onyimadu O, Satishkumar A, Bahrami T, De Souza A, Clague JR, Francis DP, Hussain W, Jarman JW, Jones DG, Chen Z, Mediratta N, Hyde J, Lewis M, Mohiaddin R, Salukhe TV, Murphy C, Kelly J, Khattar RS, Toff WD, Markides V, McCready J, Gupta D, Wong T, CASA-AF Investigatorset al., 2020,

    Catheter ablation vs. thoracoscopic surgical ablation in long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation: CASA-AF randomized controlled trial.

    , European Heart Journal, Vol: 41, Pages: 4471-4480, ISSN: 0195-668X

    AIMS: Long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation (LSPAF) is challenging to treat with suboptimal catheter ablation (CA) outcomes. Thoracoscopic surgical ablation (SA) has shown promising efficacy in atrial fibrillation (AF). This multicentre randomized controlled trial tested whether SA was superior to CA as the first interventional strategy in de novo LSPAF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We randomized 120 LSPAF patients to SA or CA. All patients underwent predetermined lesion sets and implantable loop recorder insertion. Primary outcome was single procedure freedom from AF/atrial tachycardia (AT) ≥30 s without anti-arrhythmic drugs at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included clinical success (≥75% reduction in AF/AT burden); procedure-related serious adverse events; changes in patients' symptoms and quality-of-life scores; and cost-effectiveness. At 12 months, freedom from AF/AT was recorded in 26% (14/54) of patients in SA vs. 28% (17/60) in the CA group [OR 1.128, 95% CI (0.46-2.83), P = 0.83]. Reduction in AF/AT burden ≥75% was recorded in 67% (36/54) vs. 77% (46/60) [OR 1.13, 95% CI (0.67-4.08), P = 0.3] in SA and CA groups, respectively. Procedure-related serious adverse events within 30 days of intervention were reported in 15% (8/55) of patients in SA vs. 10% (6/60) in CA, P = 0.46. One death was reported after SA. Improvements in AF symptoms were greater following CA. Over 12 months, SA was more expensive and provided fewer quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) compared with CA (0.78 vs. 0.85, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Single procedure thoracoscopic SA is not superior to CA in treating LSPAF. Catheter ablation provided greater improvements in symptoms and accrued significantly more QALYs during follow-up than SA. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN18250790 and NCT02755688.

  • Journal article
    Mason J, Kiprianos A, Maughan R, 2021,

    Identification of susceptibility loci for Takayasu arteritis through a large multi-ancestral genome-wide association study

    , American Journal of Human Genetics, Vol: 108, Pages: 8-89, ISSN: 0002-9297

    Takayasu arteritis is a rare inflammatory disease of large arteries. We performed a genetic study in Takayasu arteritis comprising 6,670 individuals (1,226 cases) from five different populations. We revealed previously unreported HLA risk factors and four novel non-HLA susceptibility loci in VPS8, SVEP1, CFL2, and chr13q21, and reinforced IL12B, PTPK2B, and chr21q22 as robust susceptibility loci shared across ancestries. Functional analysis proposed plausible underlying disease mechanisms and pinpointed ETS2 as a potential causal gene for chr21q22 association. We also identified >60 candidate loci with suggestive association (p< 5X10-5) and devised a genetic risk score for Takayasu arteritis. Takayasu arteritis was compared to hundreds of other traits, revealing the closest genetic relatedness to inflammatory bowel disease. Epigenetic patterns within risk loci suggest roles for monocytes and B cells in Takayasu arteritis. This work enhances understanding of the genetic basis and pathophysiology of Takayasu arteritis and provides clues for potential new therapeutic targets.

  • Journal article
    Zhang D, Yang G, Zhao S, Zhang Y, Ghista D, Zhang H, Li Set al., 2020,

    Direct Quantification of Coronary Artery Stenosis Through Hierarchical Attentive Multi-View Learning

    , IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING, Vol: 39, Pages: 4322-4334, ISSN: 0278-0062
  • Journal article
    Fang EF, Xie C, Schenkel JA, Wu C, Long Q, Cui H, Aman Y, Frank J, Liao J, Zou H, Wang NY, Wu J, Liu X, Li T, Fang Y, Niu Z, Yang G, Hong J, Wang Q, Chen G, Li J, Chen H-Z, Kang L, Su H, Gilmour BC, Zhu X, Jiang H, He N, Tao J, Leng SX, Tong T, Woo Jet al., 2020,

    A research agenda for ageing in China in the 21st century (2nd edition): Focusing on basic and translational research, long-term care, policy and social networks

    , AGEING RESEARCH REVIEWS, Vol: 64, ISSN: 1568-1637

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