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  • Journal article
    Ruberti M, 2021,

    Quantum electronic coherences by attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy: <i>ab initio</i> B-spline RCS-ADC study

    , FARADAY DISCUSSIONS, Vol: 228, Pages: 286-311, ISSN: 1359-6640
  • Journal article
    Li S, Driver T, Alexander O, Cooper B, Garratt D, Marinelli A, Cryan JP, Marangos JPet al., 2021,

    Time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy with spectral domain ghost imaging

    , FARADAY DISCUSSIONS, Vol: 228, Pages: 488-501, ISSN: 1359-6640
  • Journal article
    Ashfold M, Chergui M, Fischer I, Ge L, Grell G, Ivanov M, Kirrander A, Kornilov O, Krishnan SR, Kupper J, Kuttner C, Makhija V, Martin F, Matsika S, Minns RS, Natan A, Neumark DM, Palacios A, Pratt S, Roder A, Rost JM, Ruberti M, Stolow A, Titov E, Young Let al., 2021,

    Time-resolved ultrafast spectroscopy: general discussion

    , FARADAY DISCUSSIONS, Vol: 228, Pages: 329-348, ISSN: 1359-6640
  • Journal article
    Danson CN, White M, Barr JRM, Bett T, Blyth P, Bowley D, Brenner C, Collins RJ, Croxford N, Dangor AEB, Devereux L, Dyer PE, Dymoke-Bradshaw A, Edwards CB, Ewart P, Ferguson AI, Girkin JM, Hall DR, Hanna DC, Harris W, Hillier DI, Hooker CJ, Hooker SM, Hopps N, Hull J, Hunt D, Jaroszynski DA, Kempenaars M, Kessler H, Knight PL, Knight S, Knowles A, Lewis CLS, Lipton KS, Littlechild A, Littlechild J, Maggs P, Malcolm GPA, Mangles SPD, Martin W, McKenna P, Moore RO, Morrison C, Najmudin Z, Neely D, New GHC, Norman MJ, Paine T, Parker AW, Penman RR, Pert GJ, Pietraszewski C, Randewich A, Rizvi NH, Seddon N, Sheng Z-M, Slater D, Smith RA, Spindloe C, Taylor R, Thomas G, Tisch JWG, Wark JS, Webb C, Wiggins SM, Willford D, Winstone Tet al., 2021,

    A history of high-power laser research and development in the United Kingdom

    , High Power Laser Science and Engineering, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-86, ISSN: 2095-4719

    The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.

  • Journal article
    Jurgilas S, Chakraborty A, Rich CJH, Caldwell L, Williams HJ, Fitch NJ, Sauer BE, Frye MD, Hutson JM, Tarbutt MRet al., 2021,

    Collisions between ultracold molecules and atoms in a magnetic trap

    , Physical Review Letters, Vol: 126, ISSN: 0031-9007

    We prepare mixtures of ultracold CaF molecules and Rb atoms in a magnetic trap and study theirinelastic collisions. When the atoms are prepared in the spin-stretched state and the molecules inthe spin-stretched component of the first rotationally excited state, they collide inelastically witha rate coefficient k2 = (6.6 ± 1.5) × 10−11 cm3/s at temperatures near 100 µK. We attribute thisto rotation-changing collisions. When the molecules are in the ground rotational state we see noinelastic loss and set an upper bound on the spin-relaxation rate coefficient of k2 < 5.8×10−12 cm3/swith 95% confidence. We compare these measurements to the results of a single-channel loss modelbased on quantum defect theory. The comparison suggests a short-range loss parameter close tounity for rotationally excited molecules, but below 0.04 for molecules in the rotational ground state.

  • Journal article
    Tao S-J, Wang Q-Q, Chen Z, Pan W-W, Yu S, Chen G, Xu X-Y, Han Y-J, Li C-F, Guo G-Cet al., 2021,

    Experimental optimal generation of hybrid entangled states in photonic quantum walks

    , OPTICS LETTERS, Vol: 46, Pages: 1868-1871, ISSN: 0146-9592
  • Journal article
    Rodrigues JD, Dhar HS, Walker BT, Smith JM, Oulton RF, Mintert F, Nyman RAet al., 2021,

    Learning the Fuzzy Phases of Small Photonic Condensates

    , PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, Vol: 126, ISSN: 0031-9007
  • Journal article
    Chevalier H, Paige AJ, Kwon H, Kim MSet al., 2021,

    Violating the Leggett-Garg inequalities with classical light

    , Physical Review A: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Vol: 103, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 1050-2947

    In an endeavor to better define the distinction between classical macroscopic and quantum microscopic regimes, the Leggett-Garg inequalities were established as a test of macroscopic-realistic theories, which are commonly thought to be a suitable class of descriptions for classical dynamics. The relationship between their violation and nonclassicality is however not obvious. We show that classical states of light, which in the quantum optical sense are any convex sums of coherent states, may not satisfy the Leggett-Garg inequalities. After introducing a simple Mach-Zehnder setup and showing how to obtain a violation with a single photon using negative measurements, we focus on classical states of light, in particular those of low average photon number. We demonstrate how one can still perform negative measurements with an appropriate assignment of variables, and show that the inequalities are violable with coherent states. Finally, we abandon the initial phase reference and demonstrate that the violation is still possible, in particular with thermal states of light, and we investigate the effect of intermediate dephasing.

  • Journal article
    Thomas S, Senellart P, 2021,

    The race for the ideal single-photon source is on

    , NATURE NANOTECHNOLOGY, Vol: 16, Pages: 367-368, ISSN: 1748-3387
  • Journal article
    Caldwell L, Tarbutt M, 2021,

    General approach to state-dependent optical tweezer traps for polar molecules

    , Physical Review Research, Vol: 3, ISSN: 2643-1564

    State-dependent optical tweezers can be used to trap a pair of molecules with a separation much smaller than the wavelength of the trapping light, greatly enhancing the dipole-dipole interaction between them. Here we describe a general approach to producing these state-dependent potentials using the tensor part of the ac Stark shift and show how it can be used to carry out two-qubit gates between pairs of molecules. The method is applicable to broad classes of molecules including bialkali molecules produced by atom association and those amenable to direct laser cooling.

  • Journal article
    Joseph D, Callison A, Ling C, Mintert Fet al., 2021,

    Two quantum Ising algorithms for the shortest-vector problem

    , Physical Review A: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Vol: 103, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 1050-2947

    Quantum computers are expected to break today's public key cryptography within a few decades. New cryptosystems are being designed and standardized for the postquantum era, and a significant proportion of these rely on the hardness of problems like the shortest-vector problem to a quantum adversary. In this paper we describe two variants of a quantum Ising algorithm to solve this problem. One variant is spatially efficient, requiring only O(Nlog2N) qubits, where N is the lattice dimension, while the other variant is more robust to noise. Analysis of the algorithms' performance on a quantum annealer and in numerical simulations shows that the more qubit-efficient variant will outperform in the long run, while the other variant is more suitable for near-term implementation.

  • Journal article
    Simsek S, Mintert F, 2021,

    Quantum control with a multi-dimensional Gaussian quantum invariant

    , Quantum, Vol: 5, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 2521-327X

    The framework of quantum invariants is an elegant generalization of adiabatic quantum control to control fields that do not need to change slowly. Due to the unavailability of invariants for systems with more than one spatial dimension, the benefits of this framework have not yet been exploited in multi-dimensional systems. We construct a multi-dimensional Gaussian quantum invariant that permits the design of time-dependent potentials that let the ground state of an initial potential evolve towards the ground state of a final potential. The scope of this framework is demonstrated with the task of shuttling an ion around a corner which is a paradigmatic control problem in achieving scalability of trapped ion quantum information technology.

  • Journal article
    Lie SH, Kwon H, Kim MS, Jeong Het al., 2021,

    Quantum one-time tables for unconditionally secure qubit- commitment

    , Quantum, Vol: 5, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 2521-327X

    The commodity-based cryptography is an alternative approach to realize conventionally impossible cryptographic primitives such as unconditionally secure bit-commitment by consuming pre-established correlation between distrustful participants. A unit of such classical correlation is known as the one-time table (OTT). In this paper, we introduce a new example besides quantum key distribution in which quantum correlation is useful for cryptography. We propose a scheme for unconditionally secure qubit-commitment, a quantum cryptographic primitive forbidden by the recently proven no-masking theorem in the standard model, based on the consumption of the quantum generalization of the OTT, the bipartite quantum state we named quantum one-time tables (QOTT). The construction of the QOTT is based on the newly analyzed internal structure of quantum masker and the quantum secret sharing schemes. Our qubit-commitment scheme is shown to be universally composable. We propose to measure the randomness cost of preparing a (Q)OTT in terms of its entropy, and show that the QOTT with superdense coding can increase the security level with half the cost of OTTs for unconditionally secure bit-commitment. The QOTT exemplifies an operational setting where neither maximally classically correlated state nor maximally entangled state, but rather a well-structured partially entangled mixed state is more valuable resource.

  • Journal article
    Ollivier H, Thomas SE, Wein SC, Wenniger IMDB, Coste N, Loredo JC, Somaschi N, Harouri A, Lemaitre A, Sagnes I, Lanco L, Simon C, Anton C, Krebs O, Senellart Pet al., 2021,

    Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference with Imperfect Single Photon Sources

    , PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, Vol: 126, ISSN: 0031-9007
  • Journal article
    Neveu P, Clarke J, Vanner MR, Verhagen Eet al., 2021,

    Preparation and verification of two-mode mechanical entanglement through pulsed optomechanical measurements

    , NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS, Vol: 23, ISSN: 1367-2630
  • Journal article
    Boissier S, Schofield R, Jin L, Ovvyan A, Nur S, Koppens FHL, Toninelli C, Pernice WHP, Major K, Hinds E, Clark Aet al., 2021,

    Coherent characterisation of a single molecule in a photonic black box

    , Nature Communications, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2041-1723

    Extinction spectroscopy is a powerful tool for demonstrating the coupling of a single quantum emitter to a photonic structure. However, it can be challenging in all but the simplest of geometries to deduce an accurate value of the coupling efficiency from the measured spectrum. Here we develop a theoretical framework to deduce the coupling efficiency from the measured transmission and reflection spectra without precise knowledge of the photonic environment. We then consider the case of a waveguide interrupted by a transverse cut in which an emitter is placed. We apply that theory to a silicon nitride waveguide interrupted by a gap filled with anthracene that is doped with dibenzoterrylene molecules. We describe the fabrication of these devices, and experimentally characterise the waveguide coupling of a single molecule in the gap.

  • Journal article
    Austin D, Johnson A, McGrath F, Wood D, Miseikis L, Siegel T, Hawkins P, Harvey A, Mašín Z, Patchkovskii S, Vacher M, Malhado JP, Ivanov M, Smirnova O, Marangos Jet al., 2021,

    Extracting sub-cycle electronic and nuclear dynamics from high harmonic spectra

    , Scientific Reports, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2045-2322

    We present a new methodology for measuring few-femtosecond electronic and nuclear dynamics in both atoms and polyatomic molecules using multidimensional high harmonic generation (HHG) spectroscopy measurements, in which the spectra are recorded as a function of the laser intensity to form a two-dimensional data set. The method is applied to xenon atoms and to benzene molecules, the latter exhibiting significant fast nuclear dynamics following ionization. We uncover the signature of the sub-cycle evolution of the returning electron flux in strong-field ionized xenon atoms, implicit in the strong field approximation but not previously observed directly. We furthermore extract the nuclear autocorrelation function in strong field ionized benzene cations, which is determined to have a decay of τ0=4±1 fs, in good agreement with the τ0=3.5 fs obtained from direct dynamics variational multi-configuration Gaussian calculations. Our method requires minimal assumptions about the system, and is applicable even to un-aligned polyatomic molecules.

  • Journal article
    Zhao H, Mintert F, Moessner R, Knolle Jet al., 2021,

    Random Multipolar Driving: Tunably Slow Heating through Spectral Engineering

    , PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, Vol: 126, ISSN: 0031-9007
  • Journal article
    Devlin JA, Borchert MJ, Erlewein S, Fleck M, Harrington JA, Latacz B, Warncke J, Wursten E, Bohman MA, Mooser AH, Smorra C, Wiesinger M, Will C, Blaum K, Matsuda Y, Ospelkaus C, Quint W, Walz J, Yamazaki Y, Ulmer Set al., 2021,

    Constraints on the Coupling between Axionlike Dark Matter and Photons Using an Antiproton Superconducting Tuned Detection Circuit in a Cryogenic Penning Trap

    , PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, Vol: 126, ISSN: 0031-9007
  • Journal article
    Enzian G, Price JJ, Freisem L, Nunn J, Janousek J, Buchler BC, Lam PK, Vanner MRet al., 2021,

    Single-Phonon Addition and Subtraction to a Mechanical Thermal State

    , PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, Vol: 126, ISSN: 0031-9007
  • Journal article
    Jarlaud V, Hrmo P, Joshi MK, Thompson RCet al., 2021,

    Coherence properties of highly-excited motional states of a trapped ion

    , Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Vol: 54, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 0953-4075

    We present a study of the coherence properties of a variety of motional states of a single ion confined in a Penning ion trap. We demonstrate that the motion of the ion has a coherence time of the order of 1 s, using Ramsey interferometry. We introduce a technique for preparing the ion in an incoherent superposition of highly-excited motional states using a simple modification of optical sideband cooling. Coherent manipulation of these states allows measurements of optical and motional coherence to be carried out. We show that these highly-excited motional state superpositions have long coherence times despite the incoherent preparation of the states. Such states can be useful for sensitive motional dephasing measurements.

  • Journal article
    Fitch NJ, Lim J, Hinds EA, Sauer BE, Tarbutt MRet al., 2021,

    Methods for measuring the electron's electric dipole moment using ultracold YbF molecules

    , QUANTUM SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2058-9565
  • Journal article
    Doppelbauer M, Walter N, Hofsäss S, Marx S, Schewe HC, Kray S, Pérez-Ríos J, Sartakov BG, Truppe S, Meijer Get al., 2021,

    Characterisation of the state and its interaction with the state in aluminium monofluoride

    , Molecular Physics, Vol: 119, ISSN: 0026-8976

    Recently, we determined the detailed energy level structure of the (Formula presented.), (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.) states of AlF that are relevant to laser cooling and trapping experiments [Truppe et al., Phys. Rev. A. 100 (5), 052513 (2019)]. Here, we investigate the (Formula presented.) state of the AlF molecule. A rotationally resolved (1 + 2)-REMPI spectrum of the (Formula presented.) band is presented and the lifetime of the (Formula presented.) state is measured to be 190(2) ns. Hyperfine-resolved, laser-induced fluorescence spectra of the (Formula presented.) and the (Formula presented.) bands are recorded to determine fine- and hyperfine structure parameters. The interaction between the (Formula presented.) and the nearby (Formula presented.) state is studied and the magnitude of the spin–orbit coupling between the two electronic states is derived using three independent methods to give a consistent value of 10(1) cm (Formula presented.). The triplet character of the A state causes an (Formula presented.) loss from the main A−X laser cooling cycle below the 10 (Formula presented.) level.

  • Conference paper
    Burdekin P, Grandi S, Newbold R, Hoggarth RA, Major KD, Hinds EA, Clark ASet al., 2021,

    Spectroscopy of rubidium with a tuneable single photon source

  • Conference paper
    Schofield RC, Boissier S, Jin L, Ovvyan A, Nur S, Koppens FHL, Toninelli C, Pernice WHP, Major KD, Hinds EA, Clark ASet al., 2021,

    Coupling a single molecule to an interrupted nanophotonic waveguide

  • Conference paper
    Enzian G, Freisem L, Price JJ, Svela A, Clarke J, Shajilal B, Janousek J, Buchler BC, Lam PK, Vanner MRet al., 2021,

    Single- and Multi-Phonon Subtraction to a Mechanical Thermal State via Optomechanics

    We perform single- and multi-phonon subtraction to a mechanical thermal state in a Brillouin optomechanical system. An increase in the mean mechanical occupation and non-Gaussianity in the s-parameterised Wigner phase-space distribution is observed.

  • Conference paper
    Sempere-Llagostera S, Thekkadath GS, Patel RB, Kolthammer WS, Walmsley IAet al., 2021,

    Reducing g<sup>(2)</sup>(0) of a Parametric Down-Conversion Source via Photon-Number Resolution with Superconducting Nanowire Detectors

    We demonstrate a 13±0.4% reduction of the second-order correlation function g(2)(0) by harnessing the photon-number resolving capabilities of commercial superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors, improving the quality of a heralded single-photon source.

  • Conference paper
    Schofield RC, Boissier S, Jin L, Ovvyan A, Nur S, Koppens FHL, Toninelli C, Pernice WHP, Major KD, Hinds EA, Clark ASet al., 2021,

    Coupling a single molecule to an interrupted nanophotonic waveguide

  • Conference paper
    Schofield RC, Boissier S, Jin L, Ovvyan A, Nur S, Koppens FHL, Toninelli C, Pernice WHP, Major KD, Hinds EA, Clark ASet al., 2021,

    Adapted operating fault model for a heat pump life cycle's simulation by Petri net approach

    , Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe / European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC), Publisher: IEEE
  • Conference paper
    Burdekin P, Grandi S, Newbold R, Hoggarth RA, Major KD, Hinds EA, Clark ASet al., 2021,

    Spectroscopy of rubidium with a tuneable single photon source

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