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  • Journal article
    Feinberg H, Rambaruth ND, Jégouzo SA, Jacobsen KM, Djurhuus R, Poulsen TB, Weis WI, Taylor ME, Drickamer Ket al., 2021,

    Binding sites for acylated trehalose analogs of glycolipid ligands on an extended carbohydrate-recognition domain of the macrophage receptor mincle

    , Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol: 291, Pages: 21222-21233, ISSN: 1083-351X

    The macrophage receptor mincle binds to trehalose dimycolate on the surface of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Signaling initiated by this interaction leads to cytokine production, which underlies the ability of mycobacteria to evade the immune system and also to function as adjuvants. In previous work, the mechanism for binding of the sugar headgroup of trehalose dimycolate to mincle has been elucidated, but the basis for enhanced binding to glycolipid ligands, in which hydrophobic substituents are attached to the 6-hydroxyl groups, has been the subject of speculation. In the work reported here, the interaction of trehalose derivatives with bovine mincle has been probed with a series of synthetic mimics of trehalose dimycolate in binding assays, in structural studies by x-ray crystallography, and by site-directed mutagenesis. Binding studies reveal that, rather than reflecting specific structural preference, the apparent affinity of mincle for ligands with hydrophobic substituents correlates with their overall size. Structural and mutagenesis analysis provides evidence for interaction of the hydrophobic substituents with multiple different portions of the surface of mincle and confirms the presence of three Ca2+-binding sites. The structure of an extended portion of the extracellular domain of mincle, beyond the minimal C-type carbohydrate-recognition domain, also constrains the way that the binding domains may interact on the surface of macrophages.

  • Journal article
    Nielsen CD-T, Mooij WJ, Sale D, Rzepa HS, Bures J, Spivey ACet al., 2019,

    Reversibility and reactivity in an acid catalyzed cyclocondensation to give furanochromanes - a reaction at the "oxonium-Prins' vs. "ortho-quinone methide cycloaddition' mechanistic nexus

    , Chemical Science, Vol: 10, Pages: 406-412, ISSN: 2041-6520

    Herein we report a combined experimental and computational investigation of the acid catalyzed cyclocondensation reaction between styrenyl homoallylic alcohols and salicylaldehyde to form furanochromanes. We disclose a previously unreported isomerisation of the ‘unnatural’ trans-fused products to the diastereomeric ‘natural’ cis-fused congeners. Notwithstanding the appeal of assuming this corresponds to endo to exo isomerisation of Diels–Alder (D–A) adducts via concerted retro-cycloaddition/cycloaddition reactions of an in situ generated ortho-quinone methide with the styrenyl alkene, our combined Hammett/DFT study reveals a stepwise Prins-like process via discrete benzylic carbocation intermediates for all but the most electron deficient styrenes. As these reactions fortuitously lie at the intersection of these two mechanistic manifolds, it allows us to propose an experimentally determined indicative ρ+ value of ca. −3 as marking this nexus between a stepwise Prins-type pathway and a concerted cycloaddition reaction. This value should prove useful for categorising other reactions formally involving ‘ortho-quinomethides’, without the need for the extensive computation performed here. Logical optimisation of the reaction based upon the mechanistic insight led to the use of HFIP as an additive which enables exclusive formation of ‘natural’ cis-fused products with a ∼100-fold reaction rate increase and improved scope.

  • Book chapter
    Shao S, Yu J, Nixon PJ, 2019,

    Selective replacement of the damaged D1 reaction center subunit during the repair of the oxygen-evolving photosystem II complex

    , Oxygen Production and Reduction in Artificial and Natural Systems, Editors: Barber, Ruban, Nixon, Publisher: World Scientific, Pages: 319-338

    The multi-subunit photosystem II (PSII) pigment-protein complex found in plants, algae and cyanobacteria is nature’s biological catalyst for producing oxygen from water. PSII needs sunlight to drive water oxidation but too much light can cause irreversible damage to pigments and proteins within PSII and loss of enzyme activity. Damaged PSII complexes can, however, be repaired in a highly selective process involving the replacement of damaged components by newly synthesized copies and the recycling of undamaged protein subunits and co-factors. Although substantial progress has been made to identify the enzymes and accessory factors involved in repair, many fundamental questions remain unanswered. In this chapter we discuss recent ideas on how the damaged D1 reaction center subunit, which is the subunit most prone to damage in PSII, is specifically recognized for replacement. Detachment of CP43 allowing access by FtsH proteases to the N-terminal tail of D1 seems to underpin selective degradation.

  • Journal article
    Barlow N, Kusumaatmaja H, Salehi-Reyhani A, Brooks N, Barter LMC, Flemming AJ, Ces Oet al., 2018,

    Measuring bilayer surface energy and curvature in asymmetric droplet interface bilayers

    , Journal of the Royal Society Interface, Vol: 15, ISSN: 1742-5662

    For the past decade, droplet interface bilayers (DIBs) have had an increased prevalence in biomolecular and biophysical literature. However, much of the underlying physics of these platforms is poorly characterized. To further our understanding of these structures, lipid membrane tension on DIB membranes is measured by analysing the equilibrium shape of asymmetric DIBs. To this end, the morphology of DIBs is explored for the first time using confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. The experimental results confirm that, in accordance with theory, the bilayer interface of a volume-asymmetric DIB is curved towards the smaller droplet and a lipid-asymmetric DIB is curved towards the droplet with the higher monolayer surface tension. Moreover, the DIB shape can be exploited to measure complex bilayer surface energies. In this study, the bilayer surface energy of DIBs composed of lipid mixtures of phosphatidylgylcerol (PG) and phosphatidylcholine are shown to increase linearly with PG concentrations up to 25%. The assumption that DIB bilayer area can be geometrically approximated as a spherical cap base is also tested, and it is discovered that the bilayer curvature is negligible for most practical symmetric or asymmetric DIB systems with respect to bilayer area.

  • Journal article
    Herraiz A, Stokes L, Turnbull C, Hutton I, Baker W, Savolainen Vet al., 2018,

    Developing a new variety of kentia palms (Howea forsteriana): up-regulation of cytochrome b561 and chalcone synthase is associated with the red coloration of the stems

    , Botany Letters, Vol: 165, Pages: 241-247, ISSN: 2381-8115

    The kentia palm (Howea forsteriana) is endemic to a 12 km2 volcanic island in the Tasman Sea, Lord Howe Island. It is one of the most traded houseplants in the world. The typical kentia palm presents a dark green-coloured stem. Note that the stem is made of leaf rachis and petioles, which are intermingled towards the base. However, we discovered on Lord Howe Island a new biological variety that has a red stem. Red-stemmed palm species are known and highly demanded as decorative plants. However, these red palm horticultural varieties require tropical or subtropical conditions to grow, hence commercialization is limited. Thus, a red-stemmed variety of H. forsteriana may have tremendous market potential. Nonetheless, palm trees grow generally slowly and often reach maturity at 15–20 years old or later, which may make conventional strategies unsuitable for the propagation of a new variety. This difficulty needs to be addressed before commercialization can be achieved. Here, we found that anthocyanin is responsible for the red colouration of the stem in the new variety. Using RNA sequencing and quantitative PCR, we identified two gene isoforms displaying altered expression associated with this red colouration, encoding a cytochrome b561 and a chalcone synthase. The latter protein is known to be part of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, which plays a central role in pigmentation in plants. The levels of cytochrome b561 transcripts accumulated were found to be well correlated with an increased anthocyanin concentration in the red stems.

  • Journal article
    Barlow NE, Bolognesi G, Haylock S, Flemming AJ, Brooks NJ, Barter LMC, Ces Oet al., 2017,

    Rheological Droplet Interface Bilayers (rheo-DIBs): Probing the Unstirred Water Layer Effect on Membrane Permeability via Spinning Disk Induced Shear Stress

    , Scientific Reports, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2045-2322

    A new rheological droplet interface bilayer (rheo-DIB) device is presented as a tool to apply shear stress on biological lipid membranes. Despite their exciting potential for affecting high-throughput membrane translocation studies, permeability assays conducted using DIBs have neglected the effect of the unstirred water layer (UWL). However as demonstrated in this study, neglecting this phenomenon can cause significant underestimates in membrane permeability measurements which in turn limits their ability to predict key processes such as drug translocation rates across lipid membranes. With the use of the rheo-DIB chip, the effective bilayer permeability can be modulated by applying shear stress to the droplet interfaces, inducing flow parallel to the DIB membranes. By analysing the relation between the effective membrane permeability and the applied stress, both the intrinsic membrane permeability and UWL thickness can be determined for the first time using this model membrane approach, thereby unlocking the potential of DIBs for undertaking diffusion assays. The results are also validated with numerical simulations.

  • Journal article
    Zheng RB, Jégouzo SAF, Joe M, Bai Y, Tran H-A, Shen K, Saupe J, Xia L, Ahmed MF, Liu Y-H, Patil PS, Tripathi A, Hung S-C, Taylor ME, Lowary TL, Drickamer Ket al., 2017,

    Insights into Interactions of Mycobacteria with the Host Innate Immune System from a Novel Array of Synthetic Mycobacterial Glycans.

    , ACS Chemical Biology, Vol: 12, Pages: 2990-3002, ISSN: 1554-8929

    An array of homogeneous glycans representing all the major carbohydrate structures present in the cell wall of the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria has been probed with a panel of glycan-binding receptors expressed on cells of the mammalian innate immune system. The results provide an overview of interactions between mycobacterial glycans and receptors that mediate uptake and survival in macrophages, dendritic cells, and sinusoidal endothelial cells. A subset of the wide variety of glycan structures present on mycobacterial surfaces interact with cells of the innate immune system through the receptors tested. Endocytic receptors, including the mannose receptor, DC-SIGN, langerin, and DC-SIGNR (L-SIGN), interact predominantly with mannose-containing caps found on the mycobacterial polysaccharide lipoarabinomannan. Some of these receptors also interact with phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides and mannose-containing phenolic glycolipids. Many glycans are ligands for overlapping sets of receptors, suggesting multiple, redundant routes by which mycobacteria can enter cells. Receptors with signaling capability interact with two distinct sets of mycobacterial glycans: targets for dectin-2 overlap with ligands for the mannose-binding endocytic receptors, while mincle binds exclusively to trehalose-containing structures such as trehalose dimycolate. None of the receptors surveyed bind furanose residues, which often form part of the epitopes recognized by antibodies to mycobacteria. Thus, the innate and adaptive immune systems can target different sets of mycobacterial glycans. This array, the first of its kind, represents an important new tool for probing, at a molecular level, biological roles of a broad range of mycobacterial glycans, a task that has not previously been possible.

  • Journal article
    Osborne OG, De-Kayne R, Bidartondo MI, Hutton I, Baker WJ, Turnbull CGN, Savolainen Vet al., 2017,

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi promote coexistence and niche divergence of sympatric palm species on a remote oceanic island

    , New Phytologist, Vol: 217, Pages: 1254-1266, ISSN: 0028-646X

    Microbes can have profound effects on their hosts, driving natural selection, promoting speciation and determining species distributions. However, soil-dwelling microbes are rarely investigated as drivers of evolutionary change in plants.We used metabarcoding and experimental manipulation of soil microbiomes to investigate the impact of soil and root microbes in a well-known case of sympatric speciation, the Howea palms of Lord Howe Island (Australia). Whereas H. forsteriana can grow on both calcareous and volcanic soils, H. belmoreana is restricted to, but more successful on, volcanic soil, indicating a trade-off in adaptation to the two soil types.We suggest a novel explanation for this trade-off. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are significantly depleted in H. forsteriana on volcanic soil, relative to both H. belmoreana on volcanic soil and H. forsteriana on calcareous soil. This is mirrored by the results of survival experiments, where the sterilization of natural soil reduces Howea fitness in every soil–species combination except H. forsteriana on volcanic soil. Furthermore, AMF-associated genes exhibit evidence of divergent selection between Howea species.These results show a mechanism by which divergent adaptation can have knock-on effects on host–microbe interactions, thereby reducing interspecific competition and promoting the coexistence of plant sister species.

  • Journal article
    Noble E, Kumar S, Gorlitz F, Stain C, Dunsby CW, French PMWet al., 2017,

    In vivo label-free mapping of the effect of a photosystem II inhibiting herbicide in plants using chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime

    , Plant Methods, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1746-4811

    BackgroundIn order to better understand and improve the mode of action of agrochemicals, it is useful to be able to visualize their uptake and distribution in vivo, non-invasively and, ideally, in the field. Here we explore the potential of plant autofluorescence (specifically chlorophyll fluorescence) to provide a readout of herbicide action across the scales utilising multiphoton-excited fluorescence lifetime imaging, wide-field single-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging and single point fluorescence lifetime measurements via a fibre-optic probe.ResultsOur studies indicate that changes in chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime can be utilised as an indirect readout of a photosystem II inhibiting herbicide activity in living plant leaves at three different scales: cellular (~μm), single point (~1 mm2) and macroscopic (~8 × 6 mm2 of a leaf). Multiphoton excited fluorescence lifetime imaging of Triticum aestivum leaves indicated that there is an increase in the spatially averaged chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime of leaves treated with Flagon EC—a photosystem II inhibiting herbicide. The untreated leaf exhibited an average lifetime of 560 ± 30 ps while the leaf imaged 2 h post treatment exhibited an increased lifetime of 2000 ± 440 ps in different fields of view. The results from in vivo wide-field single-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging excited at 440 nm indicated an increase in chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime from 521 ps in an untreated leaf to 1000 ps, just 3 min after treating the same leaf with Flagon EC, and to 2150 ps after 27 min. In vivo single point fluorescence lifetime measurements demonstrated a similar increase in chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime. Untreated leaf presented a fluorescence lifetime of 435 ps in the 440 nm excited chlorophyll channel, CH4 (620–710 nm). In the first 5 min after treatment, mean fluorescence lifetime is observed to have increased to 1 ns and then to 1.3 ns after 60 min. For

  • Journal article
    Abas H, Linsdall SM, Mamboury M, Rzepa HS, Spivey ACet al., 2017,

    Total Synthesis of (+)-Lophirone H and Its pentamethyl ether utilizing an oxonium-prins cyclization

    , Organic Letters, Vol: 19, Pages: 2486-2489, ISSN: 1523-7052

    The first total synthesis of (+)-lophirone H (1) and its pentamethyl ether 29, featuring an oxonium–Prins cyclization/benzylic cation trapping reaction, is described.

  • Journal article
    Barlow NE, Smpokou E, Friddin MS, Macey R, Gould I, Turnbull C, Flemming AJ, Brooks NJ, Ces O, Barter LMCet al., 2017,

    Engineering plant membranes using droplet interface bilayers

    , Biomicrofluidics, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1932-1058

    Droplet interface bilayers (DIBs) have become widely recognised as a robust platform for constructing model membranes and are emerging as a key technology for the bottom-up assembly of synthetic cell-like and tissue-like structures. DIBs are formed when lipid-monolayer coated water droplets are brought together inside a well of oil, which is excluded from the interface as the DIB forms. The unique features of the system, compared to traditional approaches (e.g., supported lipid bilayers, black lipid membranes, and liposomes), is the ability to engineer multi-layered bilayer networks by connecting multiple droplets together in 3D, and the capability to impart bilayer asymmetry freely within these droplet architectures by supplying droplets with different lipids. Yet despite these achievements, one potential limitation of the technology is that DIBs formed from biologically relevant components have not been well studied. This could limit the reach of the platform to biological systems where bilayer composition and asymmetry are understood to play a key role. Herein, we address this issue by reporting the assembly of asymmetric DIBs designed to replicate the plasma membrane compositions of three different plant species; Arabidopsis thaliana, tobacco, and oats, by engineering vesicles with different amounts of plant phospholipids, sterols and cerebrosides for the first time. We show that vesicles made from our plant lipid formulations are stable and can be used to assemble asymmetric plant DIBs. We verify this using a bilayer permeation assay, from which we extract values for absolute effective bilayer permeation and bilayer stability. Our results confirm that stable DIBs can be assembled from our plant membrane mimics and could lead to new approaches for assembling model systems to study membrane translocation and to screen new agrochemicals in plants.

  • Journal article
    Barlow NE, Bolognesi G, Flemming AJ, Brooks N, Barter LMC, Ces Oet al., 2016,

    Multiplexed droplet Interface bilayer formation

    , Lab on a Chip, Vol: 16, Pages: 4653-4657, ISSN: 1473-0197

    We present a simple method for the multiplexed formation ofdroplet interface bilayers (DIBs) using a mechanically operatedlinear acrylic chamber array. To demonstrate the functionality ofthe chip design, a lipid membrane permeability assay is performed.We show that multiple, symmetric DIBs can be created andseparated using this robust low-cost approach.

  • Journal article
    Chan CL, Bolognesi G, Bhandarkar A, Friddin M, Brooks NJ, Seddon J, Law R, Barter L, Ceset al., 2016,

    DROPLAY: laser writing of functional patterns within biological microdroplet displays

    , Lab on a Chip, Vol: 16, Pages: 4621-4627, ISSN: 1473-0197

    In this study, we introduce an optofluidic method for the rapid construction of large-area cell-sized droplet assemblieswith user-defined re-writable two-dimensional patterns of functional droplets. Light responsive water-in-oil dropletscapable of releasing fluorescent dye molecules upon exposure were generated and self-assembled into arrays in amicrofluidic device. This biological architecture was exploited by the scanning laser of a confocal microscope to ‘write’ userdefined patterns of differentiated (fluorescent) droplets in a network of originally undifferentiated (non-fluorescent)droplets. As a result, long lasting images were produced on a droplet fabric with droplets acting as pixels of a biologicalmonitor, which can be erased and re-written on-demand. Regio-specific light-induced droplet differentiation within a largepopulation of droplets provides a new paradigm for the rapid construction of bio-synthetic systems with potential as tissuemimics and biological display materials.

  • Journal article
    Barretto S, Michoux F, Hellgardt K, Nixon PJet al., 2016,

    Pneumatic hydrodynamics influence transplastomic protein yields and biological responses during in vitro shoot regeneration of Nicotiana tabacum callus: Implications for bioprocess routes to plant-made biopharmaceuticals

    , Biochemical Engineering Journal, Vol: 11, Pages: 73-81, ISSN: 1369-703X

    Transplastomic plants are capable of high-yield production of recombinant biopharmaceutical proteins. Planttissue culture combines advantages of agricultural cultivation with the bioprocess consistency associated withsuspension culture. Overexpression of recombinant proteins through regeneration of transplastomic Nicotianatabacum shoots from callus tissue in RITA® temporary immersion bioreactors has been previously demonstrated.In this study we investigated the hydrodynamics of periodic pneumatic suspension of liquid medium duringtemporary immersion culture (4 minutes aeration every 8 hours), and the impact on biological responses andtransplastomic expression of fragment C of tetanus toxin (TetC). Biomass was grown under a range of aerationrates for 3, 20 and 40-day durations. Growth, mitochondrial activity (a viability indicator) and TetC protein yieldswere correlated against the hydrodynamic parameters, shear rate and energy dissipation rate (per kg of medium).A critical aeration rate of 440 ml min-1 was identified, corresponding to a shear rate of 96.7 s-1, pneumatic powerinput of 8.8 mW kg-1and initial 20-day pneumatic energy dissipation of 127 J kg-1, at which significant reductionsin biomass accumulation and mitochondrial activity were observed. There was an exponential decline in TetCyields with increasing aeration rates at 40 days, across the entire range of conditions tested. These observationshave important implications for the optimisation and scale-up of transplastomic plant tissue culture bioprocessesfor biopharmaceutical production.

  • Journal article
    Dunning LT, Hipperson H, Baker WJ, Butlin RK, Devaux C, Hutton I, Igea J, Papadopulos AST, Quan X, Smadja CM, Turnbull CGN, Savolainen Vet al., 2016,

    Ecological speciation in sympatric palms: 1. Gene expression, selection and pleiotropy

    , Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol: 29, Pages: 1472-1487, ISSN: 1420-9101

    Ecological speciation requires divergent selection, reproductive isolation, and a genetic mechanism to link the two. We examined the role of gene expression and coding sequence evolution in this process using two species of Howea palms that have diverged sympatrically on Lord Howe Island, Australia. These palms are associated with distinct soil types and have displaced flowering times, representing an ideal candidate for ecological speciation. We generated large amounts of RNA-Seq data from multiple individuals and tissue types collected on the island from each of the two species. We found that differentially expressed loci as well as those with divergent coding sequences between Howea species were associated with known ecological and phenotypic differences, including response to salinity, drought, pH and flowering time. We identified loci with potential dual function in flowering time and soil adaptation, which effect on flowering time was validated by knocking orthologous genes in a model plant species. These results indicate that pleiotropy could have favoured the evolution of barrier traits in this system, despite ongoing gene flow.

  • Conference paper
    Ces O, Elani Y, Karamdad K, Friddin MS, Barter LMC, Bolognesi G, Law RV, Chan CL, Brooks NJ, Seddon JMet al., 2016,

    Novel microfluidic technologies for the bottom-up construction of artificial cells

    This talk will outline novel microfluidic strategies for biomembrane engineering that are capable of fabricating vesicles [1], droplet interface bilayer networks [2], multisomes [3] and artificial tissues [4] where parameters such as membrane asymmetry, membrane curvature, compartment connectivity and individual compartment contents can be controlled. Various bulk methods, such as extrusion, gentle hydration and electroformation, have been synonymous with the formation of lipid vesicles over recent years. However these strategies suffer from significant shortcomings associated with these processes including limited control of vesicle structural parameters such as size, lamellarity, membrane composition and internal contents. To address this technological bottleneck we have developed novel microfluidic platforms to form lipid vesicles in high-Throughput with full control over the composition of both the inner and outer leaflet of the membrane thereby enabling the manufacture of symmetric and asymmetric vesicles. This is achieved by manufacturing microfluidic channels with a step junction, produced by double-layer photolithography, which facilitates the transfer of a W/O emulsion across an oil-water phase boundary and the self-Assembly of a phospholipid bilayer. These platforms are being used to explore the role of asymmetry in biological systems [1] and study the engineering rules that regulate membrane mediated protein-protein interactions [5]. In addition, these technologies are enabling the construction of biological machines capable of acting as micro-reactors [6], environmental sensors and smart delivery vehicles [5] as well as complex multi-compartment artificial cells where the contents and connectivity of each compartment can be controlled. These compartments are separated by biological functional membranes that can facilitate transport between the compartments themselves and between the compartments and external environment. This approach has led to the deve

  • Journal article
    Kanvil S, Collins CM, Powell G, Turnbull CGNet al., 2015,

    Cryptic Virulence and Avirulence Alleles Revealed by Controlled Sexual Recombination in Pea Aphids

    , GENETICS, Vol: 199, Pages: 581-593, ISSN: 0016-6731
  • Journal article
    O'Donnelly K, Zhao G, Patel P, Butt MS, Mak LH, Kretschmer S, Woscholski R, Barter LMCet al., 2014,

    Isolation and kinetic characterisation of hydrophobically distinct populations of form I Rubisco

    , Planet Methods, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1746-4811

    BackgroundRubisco (Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) is a Calvin Cycle enzyme involved in CO2 assimilation. It is thought to be a major cause of photosynthetic inefficiency, suffering from both a slow catalytic rate and lack of specificity due to a competing reaction with oxygen. Revealing and understanding the engineering rules that dictate Rubisco’s activity could have a significant impact on photosynthetic efficiency and crop yield.ResultsThis paper describes the purification and characterisation of a number of hydrophobically distinct populations of Rubisco from both Spinacia oleracea and Brassica oleracea extracts. The populations were obtained using a novel and rapid purification protocol that employs hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) as a form I Rubisco enrichment procedure, resulting in distinct Rubisco populations of expected enzymatic activities, high purities and integrity.ConclusionsWe demonstrate here that HIC can be employed to isolate form I Rubisco with purities and activities comparable to those obtained via ion exchange chromatography (IEC). Interestingly, and in contrast to other published purification methods, HIC resulted in the isolation of a number of hydrophobically distinct Rubisco populations. Our findings reveal a so far unaccounted diversity in the hydrophobic properties within form 1 Rubisco. By employing HIC to isolate and characterise Spinacia oleracea and Brassica oleracea, we show that the presence of these distinct Rubisco populations is not species specific, and we report for the first time the kinetic properties of Rubisco from Brassica oleracea extracts. These observations may aid future studies concerning Rubisco’s structural and functional properties.

  • Journal article
    Miller D, Booth PJ, Seddon JM, Templer RH, Law RV, Woscholski R, Ces O, Barter LMCet al., 2013,

    Protocell design through modular compartmentalization

    , JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY INTERFACE, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1742-5689
  • Journal article
    Feinberg H, Jegouzo SAF, Rowntree TJW, Guan Y, Brash MA, Taylor ME, Weis WI, Drickamer Ket al., 2013,

    Mechanism for Recognition of an Unusual Mycobacterial Glycolipid by the Macrophage Receptor Mincle

    , JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, Vol: 288, Pages: 28457-28465
  • Journal article
    Windram O, Madhou P, McHattie S, Hill C, Hickman R, Cooke E, Jenkins DJ, Penfold CA, Baxter L, Breeze E, Kiddle SJ, Rhodes J, Atwell S, Kliebenstein DJ, Kim Y-S, Stegle O, Borgwardt K, Zhang C, Tabrett A, Legaie R, Moore J, Finkenstadt B, Wild DL, Mead A, Rand D, Beynon J, Ott S, Buchanan-Wollaston V, Denby KJet al., 2012,

    Arabidopsis defense against Botrytis cinerea: Chronology and regulation deciphered by high-resolution temporal transcriptomic analysis

    , Plant Cell, Vol: 24, Pages: 3530-3557, ISSN: 1040-4651

    Transcriptional reprogramming forms a major part of a plant’s response to pathogen infection. Many individual components and pathways operating during plant defense have been identified, but our knowledge of how these different components interact is still rudimentary. We generated a high-resolution time series of gene expression profiles from a single Arabidopsis thaliana leaf during infection by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Approximately one-third of the Arabidopsis genome is differentially expressed during the first 48 h after infection, with the majority of changes in gene expression occurring before significant lesion development. We used computational tools to obtain a detailed chronology of the defense response against B. cinerea, highlighting the times at which signaling and metabolic processes change, and identify transcription factor families operating at different times after infection. Motif enrichment and network inference predicted regulatory interactions, and testing of one such prediction identified a role for TGA3 in defense against necrotrophic pathogens. These data provide an unprecedented level of detail about transcriptional changes during a defense response and are suited to systems biology analyses to generate predictive models of the gene regulatory networks mediating the Arabidopsis response to B. cinerea.

  • Journal article
    Wormit A, Butt SM, Chairam I, McKenna JF, Nunes-Nesi A, Kjaer L, O'Donnelly K, Fernie AR, Woscholski R, Barter MCL, Hamann Tet al., 2012,

    Osmosensitive Changes of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Response to Cellulose Biosynthesis Inhibition

    , PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, Vol: 159, Pages: 105-117, ISSN: 0032-0889
  • Journal article
    Charalambous K, Booth PJ, Woscholski R, Seddon JM, Templer RH, Law RV, Barter LMC, Ces Oet al., 2012,

    Engineering de Novo Membrane-Mediated Protein-Protein Communication Networks

    , JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 134, Pages: 5746-5749, ISSN: 0002-7863
  • Journal article
    Fournier F, Gardner EM, Guo R, Donaldson PM, Barter LMC, Palmer DJ, Barnett CJ, Willison KR, Gould IR, Klug DRet al., 2008,

    Optical fingerprinting of peptides using two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy: Proof of principle

    , ANALYTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY, Vol: 374, Pages: 358-365, ISSN: 0003-2697
  • Journal article
    Donaldson PM, Guo R, Fournier F, Gardner EM, Barter LMC, Barnett CJ, Gould IR, Klug DR, Palmer DJ, Willison KRet al., 2007,

    Direct identification and decongestion of Fermi resonances by control of pulse time ordering in two-dimensional IR spectroscopy (vol 127, art no. 114513, 2007)

    , JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, Vol: 127, ISSN: 0021-9606
  • Journal article
    Barter LMC, Klug DR, Woscholski R, 2007,

    Does history repeat itself? The emergence of a new discipline (vol 1, pg 737, 2006)

    , ACS CHEMICAL BIOLOGY, Vol: 2, Pages: 271-271, ISSN: 1554-8929
  • Journal article
    Donaldson PM, Guo R, Fournier F, Gardner EM, Barter LMC, Palmer DJ, Barnett CJ, Willison KR, Gould IR, Klug DRet al., 2007,

    Direct identification and decongestion of Fermi Resonances by control of pulse time-ordering in 2D-IR Spectroscopy

    , Journal Of Chemical Physics
  • Journal article
    Barter LMC, Klug DR, Woscholski R, 2006,

    Does history repeat itself? The emergence of a new discipline

    , ACS CHEMICAL BIOLOGY, Vol: 1, Pages: 737-740, ISSN: 1554-8929
  • Journal article
    Barter LMC, Durrant JR, Klug DR, 2003,

    A quantitative structure-function relationship for the Photosystern II reaction center: Supermolecular behavior in natural photosynthesis

    , PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Vol: 100, Pages: 946-951, ISSN: 0027-8424
  • Journal article
    Barter LMC, Schilstra MJ, Barber J, Durrant JR, Klug DRet al., 2001,

    Are the trapping dynamics in Photosystem II sensitive to Q(A) redox potential?

    , JOURNAL OF PHOTOCHEMISTRY AND PHOTOBIOLOGY A-CHEMISTRY, Vol: 142, Pages: 127-132, ISSN: 1010-6030

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