BibTex format

author = {Kittl, C and Halewood, C and Stephen, JM and Gupte, CM and Weiler, A and Williams, A and Amis, AA},
doi = {10.1177/0363546514560993},
journal = {American Journal of Sports Medicine},
pages = {354--362},
title = {Length change patterns in the lateral extra-articular structures of the knee and related reconstructions},
url = {},
volume = {43},
year = {2015}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Background:Lateral extra-articular soft tissue reconstructions in the knee may be used as a combined procedure in revision anterior cruciate ligament surgery as well as in primary treatment for patients who demonstrate excessive anterolateral rotatory instability. Only a few studies examining length change patterns and isometry in lateral extra-articular reconstructions have been published.Purpose:To determine a recommended femoral insertion area and graft path for lateral extra-articular reconstructions by measuring length change patterns through a range of knee flexion angles of several combinations of tibial and femoral insertion points on the lateral side of the knee.Study Design:Controlled laboratory study.Methods:Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were freed of skin and subcutaneous fat. The knee was then mounted in a kinematics rig that loaded the quadriceps muscles and simulated open-chain knee flexion. The length changes of several combinations of tibiofemoral points were measured at knee flexion angles between 0° and 90° by use of linear variable displacement transducers. The changes in length relative to the 0° measurement were recorded.Results:The anterior fiber region of the iliotibial tract displayed a significantly different (P < .001) length change pattern compared with the posterior fiber region. The reconstructions that had a femoral insertion site located proximal to the lateral epicondyle and with the grafts passed deep to the lateral collateral ligament displayed similar length change patterns to each other, with small length increases during knee extension. These reconstructions also showed a significantly lower total strain range compared with the reconstruction located anterior to the epicondyle (P < .001).Conclusion:These findings show that the selection of graft attachment points and graft course affects length change pattern during knee flexion. A graft attached proximal to the lateral femoral epicondyle and running deep
AU - Kittl,C
AU - Halewood,C
AU - Stephen,JM
AU - Gupte,CM
AU - Weiler,A
AU - Williams,A
AU - Amis,AA
DO - 10.1177/0363546514560993
EP - 362
PY - 2015///
SN - 0363-5465
SP - 354
TI - Length change patterns in the lateral extra-articular structures of the knee and related reconstructions
T2 - American Journal of Sports Medicine
UR -
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 43
ER -