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  • Journal article
    Girn M, Rosas FE, Daws RE, Gallen CL, Gazzaley A, Carhart-Harris RLet al., 2023,

    A complex systems perspective on psychedelic brain action

    , TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES, Vol: 27, Pages: 433-445, ISSN: 1364-6613
  • Journal article
    Luppi AI, Mediano PAM, Rosas FE, Allanson J, Pickard JD, Williams GB, Craig MM, Finoia P, Peattie ARD, Coppola P, Menon DK, Bor D, Stamatakis EAet al., 2023,

    Reduced emergent character of neural dynamics in patients with a disrupted connectome

    , NeuroImage, Vol: 269, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 1053-8119

    High-level brain functions are widely believed to emerge from the orchestrated activity of multiple neural systems. However, lacking a formal definition and practical quantification of emergence for experimental data, neuroscientists have been unable to empirically test this long-standing conjecture. Here we investigate this fundamental question by leveraging a recently proposed framework known as “Integrated Information Decomposition,” which establishes a principled information-theoretic approach to operationalise and quantify emergence in dynamical systems — including the human brain. By analysing functional MRI data, our results show that the emergent and hierarchical character of neural dynamics is significantly diminished in chronically unresponsive patients suffering from severe brain injury. At a functional level, we demonstrate that emergence capacity is positively correlated with the extent of hierarchical organisation in brain activity. Furthermore, by combining computational approaches from network control theory and whole-brain biophysical modelling, we show that the reduced capacity for emergent and hierarchical dynamics in severely brain-injured patients can be mechanistically explained by disruptions in the patients’ structural connectome. Overall, our results suggest that chronic unresponsiveness resulting from severe brain injury may be related to structural impairment of the fundamental neural infrastructures required for brain dynamics to support emergence.

  • Journal article
    Carhart-Harris RL, Chandaria S, Erritzoe DE, Gazzaley A, Girn M, Kettner H, Mediano PAM, Nutt DJ, Rosa FE, Roseman L, Timmermann C, Weiss B, Zeifman RJ, Friston KJet al., 2023,

    Canalization and plasticity in psychopathology

    , NEUROPHARMACOLOGY, Vol: 226, ISSN: 0028-3908
  • Journal article
    Ruffini G, Damiani G, Lozano-Soldevilla D, Deco N, Rosas FE, Kiani NA, Ponce-Alvarez A, Kringelbach ML, Carhart-Harris R, Deco Get al., 2023,

    LSD-induced increase of Ising temperature and algorithmic complexity of brain dynamics

    , PLoS Computational Biology, Vol: 19, Pages: 1-29, ISSN: 1553-734X

    A topic of growing interest in computational neuroscience is the discovery of fundamental principles underlying global dynamics and the self-organization of the brain. In particular, the notion that the brain operates near criticality has gained considerable support, and recent work has shown that the dynamics of different brain states may be modeled by pairwise maximum entropy Ising models at various distances from a phase transition, i.e., from criticality. Here we aim to characterize two brain states (psychedelics-induced and placebo) as captured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with features derived from the Ising spin model formalism (system temperature, critical point, susceptibility) and from algorithmic complexity. We hypothesized, along the lines of the entropic brain hypothesis, that psychedelics drive brain dynamics into a more disordered state at a higher Ising temperature and increased complexity. We analyze resting state blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI data collected in an earlier study from fifteen subjects in a control condition (placebo) and during ingestion of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Working with the automated anatomical labeling (AAL) brain parcellation, we first create "archetype" Ising models representative of the entire dataset (global) and of the data in each condition. Remarkably, we find that such archetypes exhibit a strong correlation with an average structural connectome template obtained from dMRI (r = 0.6). We compare the archetypes from the two conditions and find that the Ising connectivity in the LSD condition is lower than in the placebo one, especially in homotopic links (interhemispheric connectivity), reflecting a significant decrease of homotopic functional connectivity in the LSD condition. The global archetype is then personalized for each individual and condition by adjusting the system temperature. The resulting temperatures are all near but above the critical point of the model i

  • Journal article
    Scagliarini T, Nuzzi D, Antonacci Y, Faes L, Rosas FE, Marinazzo D, Stramaglia Set al., 2023,

    Gradients of O-information: Low-order descriptors of high-order dependencies

    , Physical Review Research, Vol: 5, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 2643-1564

    O-information is an information-theoretic metric that captures the overall balance between redundant and synergistic information shared by groups of three or more variables. To complement the global assessment provided by this metric, here we propose the gradients of the O-information as low-order descriptors that can characterize how high-order effects are localized across a system of interest. We illustrate the capabilities of the proposed framework by revealing the role of specific spins in Ising models with frustration, in Ising models with three-spin interactions, and in a linear vectorial autoregressive process. We also provide an example of practical data analysis on U.S. macroeconomic data. Our theoretical and empirical analyses demonstrate the potential of these gradients to highlight the contribution of variables in forming high-order informational circuits.

  • Journal article
    Herzog R, Rosas FE, Whelan R, Fittipaldi S, Santamaria-Garcia H, Cruzat J, Birba A, Moguilner S, Tagliazucchi E, Prado P, Ibanez Aet al., 2022,

    Genuine high-order interactions in brain networks and neurodegeneration

    , Neurobiology of Disease, Vol: 175, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 0969-9961

    Brain functional networks have been traditionally studied considering only interactions between pairs of regions, neglecting the richer information encoded in higher orders of interactions. In consequence, most of the connectivity studies in neurodegeneration and dementia use standard pairwise metrics. Here, we developed a genuine high-order functional connectivity (HOFC) approach that captures interactions between 3 or more regions across spatiotemporal scales, delivering a more biologically plausible characterization of the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration. We applied HOFC to multimodal (electroencephalography [EEG], and functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI]) data from patients diagnosed with behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and healthy controls. HOFC revealed large effect sizes, which, in comparison to standard pairwise metrics, provided a more accurate and parsimonious characterization of neurodegeneration. The multimodal characterization of neurodegeneration revealed hypo and hyperconnectivity on medium to large-scale brain networks, with a larger contribution of the former. Regions as the amygdala, the insula, and frontal gyrus were associated with both effects, suggesting potential compensatory processes in hub regions. fMRI revealed hypoconnectivity in AD between regions of the default mode, salience, visual, and auditory networks, while in bvFTD between regions of the default mode, salience, and somatomotor networks. EEG revealed hypoconnectivity in the γ band between frontal, limbic, and sensory regions in AD, and in the δ band between frontal, temporal, parietal and posterior areas in bvFTD, suggesting additional pathophysiological processes that fMRI alone can not capture. Classification accuracy was comparable with standard biomarkers and robust against confounders such as sample size, age, education, and motor artifacts (from fMRI and EEG). We conclude that high-order interactions p

  • Journal article
    Rajpal H, Martinez Mediano PA, Rosas De Andraca FE, Timmermann Slater CB, Brugger S, Muthukumaraswamy S, Seth A, Bor D, Carhart-Harris R, Jensen Het al., 2022,

    Psychedelics and schizophrenia: Distinct alterations to Bayesian inference

    , NeuroImage, Vol: 263, ISSN: 1053-8119

    Schizophrenia and states induced by certain psychotomimetic drugs may share some physiological and phenomenological properties, but they differ in fundamental ways: one is a crippling chronic mental disease, while the others are temporary, pharmacologically-induced states presently being explored as treatments for mental illnesses. Building towards a deeper understanding of these different alterations of normal consciousness, here we compare the changes in neural dynamics induced by LSD and ketamine (in healthy volunteers) against those associated with schizophrenia, as observed in resting-state M/EEG recordings. While both conditions exhibit increased neural signal diversity, our findings reveal that this is accompanied by an increased transfer entropy from the front to the back of the brain in schizophrenia, versus an overall reduction under the two drugs. Furthermore, we show that these effects can be reproduced via different alterations of standard Bayesian inference applied on a computational model based on the predictive processing framework. In particular, the effects observed under the drugs are modelled as a reduction of the precision of the priors, while the effects of schizophrenia correspond to an increased precision of sensory information. These findings shed new light on the similarities and differences between schizophrenia and two psychotomimetic drug states, and have potential implications for the study of consciousness and future mental health treatments.

  • Journal article
    Hancock F, Cabral J, Luppi AI, Rosas FE, Mediano PAM, Dipasquale O, Turkheimer FEet al., 2022,

    Metastability, fractal scaling, and synergistic information processing: what phase relationships reveal about intrinsic brain activity

    , NeuroImage, Vol: 259, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 1053-8119

    Dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) in resting-state fMRI holds promise to deliver candidate biomarkers for clinical applications. However, the reliability and interpretability of dFC metrics remain contested. Despite a myriad of methodologies and resulting measures, few studies have combined metrics derived from different conceptualizations of brain functioning within the same analysis - perhaps missing an opportunity for improved interpretability. Using a complexity-science approach, we assessed the reliability and interrelationships of a battery of phase-based dFC metrics including tools originating from dynamical systems, stochastic processes, and information dynamics approaches. Our analysis revealed novel relationships between these metrics, which allowed us to build a predictive model for integrated information using metrics from dynamical systems and information theory. Furthermore, global metastability - a metric reflecting simultaneous tendencies for coupling and decoupling - was found to be the most representative and stable metric in brain parcellations that included cerebellar regions. Additionally, spatiotemporal patterns of phase-locking were found to change in a slow, non-random, continuous manner over time. Taken together, our findings show that the majority of characteristics of resting-state fMRI dynamics reflect an interrelated dynamical and informational complexity profile, which is unique to each acquisition. This finding challenges the interpretation of results from cross-sectional designs for brain neuromarker discovery, suggesting that individual life-trajectories may be more informative than sample means.

  • Journal article
    Wang Z, Chen J, Rosas FE, Zhu Tet al., 2022,

    A hypergraph-based framework for personalized recommendations via user preference and dynamics clustering

    , Expert Systems with Applications, Vol: 204, Pages: 117552-117552, ISSN: 0957-4174

    The ever-increasing number of users and items continuously imposes new challenges to existent clustering-based recommendation algorithms. To better simulate the interactions between users and items in the recommendation system, in this paper, we propose a collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm based on dynamics clustering and similarity measurement in hypergraphs (Hg-PDC). The main idea of Hg-PDC is to discover several interest communities by aggregating users with high attention, and make recommendations within each community, thereby improving the recommendation performance and reducing the time cost. Firstly, we introduce a hypergraph model to capture complex relations beyond pairwise relations, while preserving attention relations in the network. In addition, we construct a novel hypergraph model, which defines a user and his evaluated items to form a hyperedge. Secondly, an extended game dynamics clustering method is proposed for the constructed hypergraph to aggregate users with high attention into the same interest community. Here, we combine the payoff function in game theory with the traditional dynamics clustering method. Finally, we apply the dynamics clustering results and a new similarity measurement strategy with user preferences to recommend items for target users. The effectiveness of Hg-PDC is verified by experiments on six real datasets. Experimental results illustrate that our algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms in prediction errors and recommendation performance.

  • Journal article
    Virgo N, Rosas FE, Biehl M, 2022,

    Embracing sensorimotor history: Time-synchronous and time-unrolled Markov blankets in the free-energy principle.

    , Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Vol: 45, Pages: e215-e215, ISSN: 0140-525X

    The free-energy principle (FEP) builds on an assumption that sensor-motor loops exhibit Markov blankets in stationary state. We argue that there is rarely reason to assume a system's internal and external states are conditionally independent given the sensorimotor states, and often reason to assume otherwise. However, under mild assumptions internal and external states are conditionally independent given the sensorimotor history.

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