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Journal articleMediano PAM, Rosas FE, Farah JC, et al., 2022,
The apparent dichotomy between information-processing and dynamical approaches to complexity science forces researchers to choose between two diverging sets of tools and explanations, creating conflict and often hindering scientific progress. Nonetheless, given the shared theoretical goals between both approaches, it is reasonable to conjecture the existence of underlying common signatures that capture interesting behavior in both dynamical and information-processing systems. Here, we argue that a pragmatic use of integrated information theory (IIT), originally conceived in theoretical neuroscience, can provide a potential unifying framework to study complexity in general multivariate systems. By leveraging metrics put forward by the integrated information decomposition framework, our results reveal that integrated information can effectively capture surprisingly heterogeneous signatures of complexity—including metastability and criticality in networks of coupled oscillators as well as distributed computation and emergent stable particles in cellular automata—without relying on idiosyncratic, ad hoc criteria. These results show how an agnostic use of IIT can provide important steps toward bridging the gap between informational and dynamical approaches to complex systems.Originally conceived within theoretical neuroscience, integrated information theory (IIT) has been rarely used in other fields—such as complex systems or non-linear dynamics—despite the great value it has to offer. In this article, we inspect the basics of IIT, dissociating it from its contentious claims about the nature of consciousness. Relieved of this philosophical burden, IIT presents itself as an appealing formal framework to study complexity in biological or artificial systems, applicable in a wide range of domains. To illustrate this, we present an exploration of integrated information in complex systems and relate it to other notions of complexity commonly used in sys
Journal articleDekkers G, Rosas F, van Waterschoot T, et al., 2022,
Dynamic sensor activation and decision-level fusion in wireless acoustic sensor networks for classification of domestic activities, Information Fusion, Vol: 77, Pages: 196-210, ISSN: 1566-2535
For the past decades there has been a rising interest for wireless sensor networks to obtain information about an environment. One interesting modality is that of audio, as it is highly informative for numerous applications including speech recognition, urban scene classification, city monitoring, machine listening and classifying domestic activities. However, as they operate at prohibitively high energy consumption, commercialisation of battery-powered wireless acoustic sensor networks has been limited. To increase the network's lifetime, this paper explores the joint use of decision-level fusion and dynamic sensor activation. Hereby adopting a topology where processing – including feature extraction and classification – is performed on a dynamic set of sensor nodes that communicate classification outputs which are fused centrally. The main contribution of this paper is the comparison of decision-level fusion with different dynamic sensor activation strategies on the use case of automatically classifying domestic activities. Results indicate that using vector quantisation to encode the classification output, computed at each sensor node, can reduce the communication per classification output to 8 bit without loss of significant performance. As the cost for communication is reduced, local processing tends to dominate the overall energy budget. It is indicated that dynamic sensor activation, using a centralised approach, can reduce the average time a sensor node is active up to 20% by leveraging redundant information in the network. In terms of energy consumption, this resulted in an energy reduction of up to 80% as the cost for computation dominates the overall energy budget.
Journal articleKettlun F, Rosas F, Oberli C, 2021,
Singular value decomposition (SVD) beamforming is an attractive tool for reducing the energy consumption of data transmissions in wireless sensor networks whose nodes are equipped with multiple antennas. However, this method is often not practical due to two important shortcomings: it requires channel state information at the transmitter and the computation of the SVD of the channel matrix is generally too complex. To deal with these issues, we propose a method for establishing an SVD beamforming link without requiring feedback of actual channel or SVD coefficients to the transmitter. Concretely, our method takes advantage of channel reciprocity and a power iteration algorithm (PIA) for determining the precoding and decoding singular vectors from received preamble sequences. A low-complexity version that performs no iterations is proposed and shown to have a signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) loss within 1 dB of the bit error rate of SVD beamforming with least squares channel estimates. The low-complexity method significantly outperforms maximum ratio combining diversity and Alamouti coding. We also show that the computational cost of the proposed PIA-based method is less than the one of using the Golub–Reinsch algorithm for obtaining the SVD. The number of computations of the low-complexity version is an order of magnitude smaller than with Golub–Reinsch. This difference grows further with antenna array size.
Journal articleVermeulen T, Reynders B, Rosas FE, et al., 2021,
With the massive growth of wireless networks comes a bigger impact of collisions and interference, which has a negative effect on throughput and energy efficiency. To deal with this problem, we propose an in-band wireless collision and interference detection scheme based on full-duplex technology. To study its performance, we compare its throughput and energy efficiency with the performance of traditional half-duplex and symmetric in-band full-duplex transmissions. Our analysis considers a realistic protocol and overhead modeling, and a measurement-based self-interference model. Our results indicate that our proposed collision detection scheme can provide significant gains in terms of throughput and energy efficiency in large wireless networks. Moreover, when compared to half-duplex and symmetric full-duplex, our analysis shows that this scheme allows up to 45% more nodes in the network for the same energy consumption per bit. These results suggest that this could be an enabling technology towards efficient, dense wireless networks.
Journal articleTimmermann Slater CB, Kettner H, Letheby C, et al., 2021,
Can the use of psychedelic drugs induce lasting changes in metaphysical beliefs? While it is popularly believed that they can, this question has never been formally tested. Here we exploited a large sample derived from prospective online surveying to determine whether and how beliefs concerning the nature of reality, consciousness, and free-will, change after psychedelic use. Results revealed significant shifts away from ‘physicalist’ or ‘materialist’ views, and towards panpsychism and fatalism, post use. With the exception of fatalism, these changes endured for at least 6 months, and were positively correlated with the extent of past psychedelic-use and improved mental-health outcomes. Path modelling suggested that the belief-shifts were moderated by impressionability at baseline and mediated by perceived emotional synchrony with others during the psychedelic experience. The observed belief-shifts post-psychedelic-use were consolidated by data from an independent controlled clinical trial. Together, these findings imply that psychedelic-use may causally influence metaphysical beliefs—shifting them away from ‘hard materialism’. We discuss whether these apparent effects are contextually independent.
Journal articleLuppi A, Mediano PAM, Rosas FE, et al., 2021,
What it is like to be a bit: an integrated information decomposition account of emergent mental phenomena, Neuroscience of Consciousness, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2057-2107
A central question in neuroscience concerns the relationship between consciousness and its physical substrate. Here, we argue that a richer characterization of consciousness can be obtained by viewing it as constituted of distinct information-theoretic elements. In other words, we propose a shift from quantification of consciousness—viewed as integrated information—to its decomposition. Through this approach, termed Integrated Information Decomposition (ΦID), we lay out a formal argument that whether the consciousness of a given system is an emergent phenomenon depends on its information-theoretic composition—providing a principled answer to the long-standing dispute on the relationship between consciousness and emergence. Furthermore, we show that two organisms may attain the same amount of integrated information, yet differ in their information-theoretic composition. Building on ΦID’s revised understanding of integrated information, termed ΦR, we also introduce the notion of ΦR-ing ratio to quantify how efficiently an entity uses information for conscious processing. A combination of ΦR and ΦR-ing ratio may provide an important way to compare the neural basis of different aspects of consciousness. Decomposition of consciousness enables us to identify qualitatively different ‘modes of consciousness’, establishing a common space for mapping the phenomenology of different conscious states. We outline both theoretical and empirical avenues to carry out such mapping between phenomenology and information-theoretic modes, starting from a central feature of everyday consciousness: selfhood. Overall, ΦID yields rich new ways to explore the relationship between information, consciousness, and its emergence from neural dynamics.
Journal articleKuc J, Kettner H, Rosas F, et al., 2021,
Psychedelic experience dose-dependently modulated by cannabis: results of a prospective online survey, Psychopharmacology, Vol: 239, Pages: 1425-1440, ISSN: 0033-3158
Rationale.Classic psychedelics are currently being studied as novel treatments for a range of psychiatric disorders. However, research on how psychedelics interact with other psychoactive substances remains scarce.ObjectivesThe current study aimed to explore the subjective effects of psychedelics when used alongside cannabis.MethodsParticipants (n = 321) completed a set of online surveys at 2 time points: 7 days before, and 1 day after a planned experience with a serotonergic psychedelic. The collected data included demographics, environmental factors (so-called setting) and five validated questionnaires: Mystical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ), visual subscales of Altered States of Consciousness Questionnaire (ASC-Vis), Challenging Experience Questionnaire (CEQ), Ego Dissolution Inventory (EDI) and Emotional Breakthrough Inventory (EBI). Participants were grouped according to whether they had reported using no cannabis (n = 195) or low (n = 53), medium (n = 45) or high (n = 28) dose, directly concomitant with the psychedelic. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) and contrasts was used to analyse differences in subjective effects between groups while controlling for potential confounding contextual ‘setting’ variables.ResultsThe simultaneous use of cannabis together with classic serotonergic psychedelics was associated with more intense psychedelic experience across a range of measures: a linear relationship was found between dose and MEQ, ASC-Vis and EDI scores, while a quadratic relationship was found for CEQ scores. No relationship was found between the dose of cannabis and the EBI.ConclusionsResults imply a possible interaction between the cannabis and psychedelic on acute subjective experiences; however, design limitations hamper our ability to draw firm inferences on directions of causality and the clinical implications of any such interactions.
Journal articleGatica M, Cofre R, Mediano PAM, et al., 2021,
Journal articleMediano PAM, Rosas FE, Barrett AB, et al., 2021,
When employing nonlinear methods to characterize complex systems, it is important to determine to what extent they are capturing genuine nonlinear phenomena that could not be assessed by simpler spectral methods. Specifically, we are concerned with the problem of quantifying spectral and phasic effects on an observed difference in a nonlinear feature between two systems (or two states of the same system). Here we derive, from a sequence of null models, a decomposition of the difference in an observable into spectral, phasic, and spectrum-phase interaction components. Our approach makes no assumptions about the structure of the data and adds nuance to a wide range of time series analyses.
Journal articleRosas De Andraca FE, Morales P,
A generalisation of the maximum entropy principle for curved statistical manifolds, Physical Review Research, ISSN: 2643-1564
The maximum entropy principle (MEP) is one of the most prominent methods to investigate andmodel complex systems. Despite its popularity, the standard form of the MEP can only generateBoltzmann-Gibbs distributions, which are ill-suited for many scenarios of interest. As a principledapproach to extend the reach of the MEP, this paper revisits its foundations in information geometryand shows how the geometry of curved statistical manifolds naturally leads to a generalisation of theMEP based on the Rényi entropy. By establishing a bridge between non-Euclidean geometry andthe MEP, our proposal sets a solid foundation for the numerous applications of the Rényi entropy,and enables a range of novel methods for complex systems analysis.
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