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  • Journal article
    Dechant B, Kattge J, Pavlick R, Schneider FD, Sabatini FM, Moreno-Martínez Á, Butler EE, van Bodegom PM, Vallicrosa H, Kattenborn T, Boonman CCF, Madani N, Wright IJ, Dong N, Feilhauer H, Peñuelas J, Sardans J, Aguirre-Gutiérrez J, Reich PB, Leitão PJ, Cavender-Bares J, Myers-Smith IH, Durán SM, Croft H, Prentice IC, Huth A, Rebel K, Zaehle S, Šímová I, Díaz S, Reichstein M, Schiller C, Bruelheide H, Mahecha M, Wirth C, Malhi Y, Townsend PAet al., 2024,

    Intercomparison of global foliar trait maps reveals fundamental differences and limitations of upscaling approaches

    , Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol: 311, ISSN: 0034-4257

    Foliar traits such as specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) concentrations play important roles in plant economic strategies and ecosystem functioning. Various global maps of these foliar traits have been generated using statistical upscaling approaches based on in-situ trait observations. Here, we intercompare such global upscaled foliar trait maps at 0.5° spatial resolution (six maps for SLA, five for N, three for P), categorize the upscaling approaches used to generate them, and evaluate the maps with trait estimates from a global database of vegetation plots (sPlotOpen). We disentangled the contributions from different plant functional types (PFTs) to the upscaled maps and quantified the impacts of using different plot-level trait metrics on the evaluation with sPlotOpen: community weighted mean (CWM) and top-of-canopy weighted mean (TWM). We found that the global foliar trait maps of SLA and N differ drastically and fall into two groups that are almost uncorrelated (for P only maps from one group were available). The primary factor explaining the differences between these groups is the use of PFT information combined with remote sensing-derived land cover products in one group while the other group mostly relied on environmental predictors alone. The maps that used PFT and corresponding land cover information exhibit considerable similarities in spatial patterns that are strongly driven by land cover. The maps not using PFTs show a lower level of similarity and tend to be strongly driven by individual environmental variables. Upscaled maps of both groups were moderately correlated to sPlotOpen data aggregated to the grid-cell level (R = 0.2–0.6) when processing sPlotOpen in a way that is consistent with the respective trait upscaling approaches, including the plot-level trait metric (CWM or TWM) and the scaling to the grid cells with or without accounting for fractional land cover. The impact of using TWM or CWM was relevant

  • Journal article
    Boran I, Pettorelli N, Köberle AC, Borges RA, De Palma A, Delgado D, Deneault A, Deprez A, Imbach P, Jennings NR, Salzmann AM, Widerberg O, Chan Set al., 2024,

    Making Global Climate Action work for nature and people: Priorities for Race to Zero and Race to Resilience

    , Environmental Science and Policy, Vol: 159, ISSN: 1462-9011

    There is increasing recognition in science and policy that the current nature and climate change crises are highly intertwined, and that these need to be jointly addressed. Within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Race to Zero (R2Z) and the Race to Resilience (R2R) campaigns foster climate action by cities, regions, businesses, investors, and civil society organizations for mitigation and adaptation. The campaigns are part of UNFCCC-backed institutional arrangements linking intergovernmental climate governance with actions beyond national commitments to support the implementation of the Paris Agreement, also referred to as the Global Climate Action Agenda (GCAA). Both mobilization campaigns highlight and promote the contribution of nature to climate mitigation, adaptation, and resilience. Yet, the integration of nature in climate ambition is more complex than indicated in the calls to action. We here identify key areas of concern in the alignment of climate and biodiversity goals, discussing the biophysical and socio-ecological considerations relative to (i) practices for enhancing land-based and marine sinks to limit warming; (ii) the unpredictability of biodiversity dynamics under climate change; (iii) the spatial scale at which actions can be implemented; and (iv) the types of metrics that can be used for tracking progress. We provide recommendations for the two mobilization campaigns to integrate in their criteria and metrics frameworks to support effective and equitable actions that deliver for climate, but also for nature and people. We then make a call to action for transdisciplinary knowledge production and dissemination that strengthens science-policy interactions.

  • Journal article
    Burtonshaw JEJ, Paluszny A, Mohammadpour A, Zimmerman RWet al., 2024,

    Effects of reservoir mechanical properties on induced seismicity during subsurface hydrogen storage.

    , Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci, Vol: 382

    The intermittent storage of hydrogen in subsurface porous media such as depleted gas fields could be pivotal to a successful energy transition. Numerical simulations investigate the intermittent storage of hydrogen in a porous, depleted subsurface reservoir. Various parametric studies are performed to assess the effect of mechanical properties of the reservoir (i.e. Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, Biot coefficient and permeability) on the induced fault slip of a single through-going fault that transverses the entire reservoir. Simulations are run using a three-dimensional, finite element, fully coupled hydromechanical code with explicit representations of layers and faults. The effect of the domain mesh refinement and fault mesh refinement on the fault slip versus operation time solution is investigated. The fault is observed to slip in two distinct events, one during the second injection period and one in the third injection period. The fault is not observed to slip during the storage or withdrawal periods. It is found that in order to minimize seismic risk, a reservoir rock with high Young's modulus (>40 GPa), high Poisson's ratio (>0.30) and high Biot coefficient (>0.65) would be preferable for hydrogen storage. Reservoir rocks of low Young's modulus (10-30 GPa), intermediate Poisson's ratio (0.00-0.30) and low-to-intermediate Biot coefficient (0.25-0.65), at high injection rates, were found to have higher potential of inducing large seismic events.This article is part of the theme issue 'Induced seismicity in coupled subsurface systems'.

  • Journal article
    Paluszny A, Schultz R, Zimmermann G, 2024,

    Induced seismicity in coupled subsurface systems.

    , Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci, Vol: 382
  • Journal article
    Ewers RM, Orme CDL, Pearse WD, Zulkifli N, Yvon-Durocher G, Yusah KM, Yoh N, Yeo DCJ, Wong A, Williamson J, Wilkinson CL, Wiederkehr F, Webber BL, Wearn OR, Wai L, Vollans M, Twining JP, Turner EC, Tobias JA, Thorley J, Telford EM, Teh YA, Tan HH, Swinfield T, Svátek M, Struebig M, Stork N, Sleutel J, Slade EM, Sharp A, Shabrani A, Sethi SS, Seaman DJI, Sawang A, Roxby GB, Rowcliffe JM, Rossiter SJ, Riutta T, Rahman H, Qie L, Psomas E, Prairie A, Poznansky F, Pillay R, Picinali L, Pianzin A, Pfeifer M, Parrett JM, Noble CD, Nilus R, Mustaffa N, Mullin KE, Mitchell S, Mckinlay AR, Maunsell S, Matula R, Massam M, Martin S, Malhi Y, Majalap N, Maclean CS, Mackintosh E, Luke SH, Lewis OT, Layfield HJ, Lane-Shaw I, Kueh BH, Kratina P, Konopik O, Kitching R, Kinneen L, Kemp VA, Jotan P, Jones N, Jebrail EW, Hroneš M, Heon SP, Hemprich-Bennett DR, Haysom JK, Harianja MF, Hardwick J, Gregory N, Gray R, Gray REJ, Granville N, Gill R, Fraser A, Foster WA, Folkard-Tapp H, Fletcher RJ, Fikri AH, Fayle TM, Faruk A, Eggleton P, Edwards DP, Drinkwater R, Dow RA, Döbert TF, Didham RK, Dickinson KJM, Deere NJ, de Lorm T, Dawood MM, Davison CW, Davies ZG, Davies RG, Dančák M, Cusack J, Clare EL, Chung A, Chey VK, Chapman PM, Cator L, Carpenter D, Carbone C, Calloway K, Bush ER, Burslem DFRP, Brown KD, Brooks SJ, Brasington E, Brant H, Boyle MJW, Both S, Blackman J, Bishop TR, Bicknell JE, Bernard H, Basrur S, Barclay MVL, Barclay H, Atton G, Ancrenaz M, Aldridge DC, Daniel OZ, Reynolds G, Banks-Leite Cet al., 2024,

    Thresholds for adding degraded tropical forest to the conservation estate.

    , Nature

    Logged and disturbed forests are often viewed as degraded and depauperate environments compared with primary forest. However, they are dynamic ecosystems1 that provide refugia for large amounts of biodiversity2,3, so we cannot afford to underestimate their conservation value4. Here we present empirically defined thresholds for categorizing the conservation value of logged forests, using one of the most comprehensive assessments of taxon responses to habitat degradation in any tropical forest environment. We analysed the impact of logging intensity on the individual occurrence patterns of 1,681 taxa belonging to 86 taxonomic orders and 126 functional groups in Sabah, Malaysia. Our results demonstrate the existence of two conservation-relevant thresholds. First, lightly logged forests (<29% biomass removal) retain high conservation value and a largely intact functional composition, and are therefore likely to recover their pre-logging values if allowed to undergo natural regeneration. Second, the most extreme impacts occur in heavily degraded forests with more than two-thirds (>68%) of their biomass removed, and these are likely to require more expensive measures to recover their biodiversity value. Overall, our data confirm that primary forests are irreplaceable5, but they also reinforce the message that logged forests retain considerable conservation value that should not be overlooked.

  • Journal article
    Aliaga-Samanez A, Romero D, Murray K, Segura M, Real R, Olivero Jet al., 2024,

    Potential climate change effects on the distribution of urban and sylvatic dengue and yellow fever vectors.

    , Pathog Glob Health, Pages: 1-11

    Climate change may increase the risk of dengue and yellow fever transmission by urban and sylvatic mosquito vectors. Previous research primarily focused on Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. However, dengue and yellow fever have a complex transmission cycle involving sylvatic vectors. Our aim was to analyze how the distribution of areas favorable to both urban and sylvatic vectors could be modified as a consequence of climate change. We projected, to future scenarios, baseline distribution models already published for these vectors based on the favorability function, and mapped the areas where mosquitoes' favorability could increase, decrease or remain stable in the near (2041-2060) and distant (2061-2080) future. Favorable areas for the presence of dengue and yellow fever vectors show little differences in the future compared to the baseline models, with changes being perceptible only at regional scales. The model projections predict dengue vectors expanding in West and Central Africa and in South-East Asia, reaching Borneo. Yellow fever vectors could spread in West and Central Africa and in the Amazon. In some locations of Europe, the models suggest a reestablishment of Ae. aegypti, while Ae. albopictus will continue to find new favorable areas. The results underline the need to focus more on vectors Ae. vittatus, Ae. luteocephalus and Ae. africanus in West and Central sub-Saharan Africa, especially Cameroon, Central Africa Republic, and northern Democratic Republic of Congo; and underscore the importance of enhancing entomological monitoring in areas where populations of often overlooked vectors may thrive as a result of climate changes.

  • Journal article
    Klages JP, Hillenbrand C-D, Bohaty SM, Salzmann U, Bickert T, Lohmann G, Knahl HS, Gierz P, Niu L, Titschack J, Kuhn G, Frederichs T, Müller J, Bauersachs T, Larter RD, Hochmuth K, Ehrmann W, Nehrke G, Rodríguez-Tovar FJ, Schmiedl G, Spezzaferri S, Läufer A, Lisker F, van de Flierdt T, Eisenhauer A, Uenzelmann-Neben G, Esper O, Smith JA, Pälike H, Spiegel C, Dziadek R, Ronge TA, Freudenthal T, Gohl Ket al., 2024,

    Ice sheet-free West Antarctica during peak early Oligocene glaciation.

    , Science

    One of Earth's most fundamental climate shifts - the greenhouse-icehouse transition 34 Ma ago - initiated Antarctic ice-sheet build-up, influencing global climate until today. However, the extent of the ice sheet during the Early Oligocene Glacial Maximum (~33.7-33.2 Ma) that immediately followed this transition, a critical knowledge gap for assessing feedbacks between permanently glaciated areas and early Cenozoic global climate reorganization, is uncertain. Here, we present shallow-marine drilling data constraining earliest Oligocene environmental conditions on West Antarctica's Pacific margin - a key region for understanding Antarctic ice sheet-evolution. These data indicate a cool-temperate environment, with mild ocean and air temperatures preventing West Antarctic Ice Sheet formation. Climate-ice sheet modeling corroborates a highly asymmetric Antarctic ice sheet, thereby revealing its differential regional response to past and future climatic change.

  • Other
    Steinbruegge G, Dunnigan A, King S, Mason P, Hensley S, Carter Let al., 2024,

    Geodetic Contributions of the VenSAR Instrument for Inferring the Interior Structure of Venus

    <jats:p>Introduction:&amp;#160; One of the science priorities of the EnVision mission is to infer the interior structure of Venus, including the properties and thicknesses of its crust, mantle, and core [1]. Measurements of the moment of inertia and length-of-day variations provide critical geodetic constraints to understand the bulk interior structure of the planet. The polar moment of inertia of Venus is inversely proportional to the precession rate.&amp;#160;Measuring the precession rate directly from orbit is challenging. For Magellan, spacecraft ephemeris errors dominated the measurement errors and for EnVision very similar challenges are expected. The precession rate itself depends on a number of geodetic parameters, namely the orbital mean motion, the spin rate, the second-degree gravity coefficient, the total mass of the planet, the radius, and the obliquity. To constrain the inertia tensor of Venus and hence to meet the EnVision objectives, the gravity field information must be complemented by measurements of the rotational state. Therefore, augmenting the gravity science solution with surface feature tracking and/or altimetry &amp;#8211; abilities that VenSAR offers &amp;#8211; can be critical in achieving EnVision science objectives. VenSAR has the capability to make use of globally distributed VenSAR altimetry data and ground-track intersections (cross-over points) to create a dense geodetic net. These observations can be used in concert with gravity observations and SAR images (Figure 1) to improve the a posteriori orbit determination, to solve for the rotation state of Venus including spin axis orientation and precession, and to allow the co-registration of other data products generated by the EnVision mission via improving the overall reference frame of Venus. The precise measurement of the rotation state allows us to infer constraints on the interior structure (e.g., by inferring the moment of inertia) as has been recently demon

  • Other
    McVann P, Ghail R, Mason P, Manning Cet al., 2024,

    The Creation of a Radiometric Correction Module in Python for Chandrayaan-2

    <jats:p>Introduction: Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a powerful tool for the remote sensing of planetary surfaces. It allows for high resolution imaging of the surface at different wavelength ranges (or &amp;#8216;bands&amp;#8217;), each providing different information. The European Space Agency has an open-source toolbox named SNAP for the exploration of Earth Observation data. However, there is no equivalent open-source toolbox for non-terrestrial datasets. This project aims to begin the development of an open-source toolbox created for planetary missions, with an initial focus on the development of radiometric correction module for SAR data acquisitions from the ISRO&amp;#8217;s Lunar, Chandrayaan-2 mission.Chandrayaan-2: Launched by the ISRO in 2019, Chandrayaan-2 is the first fully-polarimetric SAR to study the Moon. This allows for the gathering of detailed information on the properties of surficial elements such as the structure or the orientation. The Dual Frequency Synthetic Aperture Radar (DFSAR) onboard the satellite will image in both S- and L-Band frequencies, the latter allowing for shallow ~3m penetration into the Lunar surface [1]. This mission's main scientific goals are to create high-resolution maps of the polar regions, estimate the distribution and thickness of the regolith and to make a quantitative estimation of water-ice in the polar regions of the Moon.The Lunar South Pole: A heavily cratered region of great interest due to the suspected presence of water-ice in the permanently shadowed regions (PSRs.) It is also the location of candidate landing regions for NASA&amp;#8217;s Artemis III mission. Evidence for the presence of subsurface water-ice has been provisionally interpreted from anomalies in UV and VIR albedo, and high Circular Polarisation Ratio (CPR) in remotely sensed data [2]. The initial data return of Chandrayaan-2 has indicated that craters in both PSRs and non-PSRs have anomalous CPR values in both the S

  • Journal article
    Kadelbach P, Weinmayr G, Chen J, Jaensch A, Rodopoulou S, Strak M, de Hoogh K, Andersen ZJ, Bellander T, Brandt J, Cesaroni G, Fecht D, Forastiere F, Gulliver J, Hertel O, Hoffmann B, Hvidtfeldt UA, Katsouyanni K, Ketzel M, Leander K, Ljungman P, Magnusson PKE, Pershagen G, Rizzuto D, Samoli E, Severi G, Stafoggia M, Tjonneland A, Vermeulen R, Peters A, Wolf K, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Brunekreef B, Hoek G, Zitt E, Nagel Get al., 2024,

    Long-term exposure to air pollution and chronic kidney disease-associated mortality-Results from the pooled cohort of the European multicentre ELAPSE-study

    , ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, Vol: 252, ISSN: 0013-9351

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