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  • Journal article
    Anthony DB, Nguyen SN, Qian H, Xu S, Shaw CMD, Greenhalgh ES, Bismarck A, Shaffer MSPet al., 2023,

    Silica aerogel infused hierarchical glass fiber polymer composites

    , Composites Communications, Vol: 39, Pages: 101531-101531, ISSN: 2452-2139
  • Journal article
    Davies J, Dobra R, Wilson G, Matthews J, Boeri M, Elborn S, Kee F, Madge Set al., 2023,

    A Systematic Review to Identify and Collate Factors Influencing Patient Journeys Through Clinical Trials

    , Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, ISSN: 0141-0768
  • Journal article
    Ghani L, Zhang X, Munk CF, Hariharan P, Lan B, Yun HS, Byrne B, Guan L, Loland CJ, Liu X, Chae PSet al., 2023,

    Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane Linker-Bearing Triazine-Based Triglucosides for Solubilization and Stabilization of Membrane Proteins.

    , Bioconjug Chem

    High-resolution membrane protein structures are essential for a fundamental understanding of the molecular basis of diverse cellular processes and for drug discovery. Detergents are widely used to extract membrane-spanning proteins from membranes and maintain them in a functional state for downstream characterization. Due to limited long-term stability of membrane proteins encapsulated in conventional detergents, development of novel agents is required to facilitate membrane protein structural study. In the current study, we designed and synthesized tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane linker-bearing triazine-based triglucosides (TTGs) for solubilization and stabilization of membrane proteins. When these glucoside detergents were evaluated for four membrane proteins including two G protein-coupled receptors, a few TTGs including TTG-C10 and TTG-C11 displayed markedly enhanced behaviors toward membrane protein stability relative to two maltoside detergents [DDM (n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside) and LMNG (lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol)]. This is a notable feature of the TTGs as glucoside detergents tend to be inferior to maltoside detergents at stabilizing membrane proteins. The favorable behavior of the TTGs for membrane protein stability is likely due to the high hydrophobicity of the lipophilic groups, an optimal range of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance, and the absence of cis-trans isomerism.

  • Journal article
    Davies J, Morales S, Alton E, Martin Iet al., 2023,

    Lytic bacteriophage is a promising adjunct to common antibioticsacross cystic fibrosis clinical strains and culture models ofPseudomonas aeruginosa infection

    , Antibiotics, ISSN: 2079-6382
  • Journal article
    Kusch S, Singh M, Thieron H, Spanu PD, Panstruga Ret al., 2023,

    Site-specific analysis reveals candidate cross-kingdom small RNAs, tRNA and rRNA fragments, and signs of fungal RNA phasing in the barley-powdery mildew interaction.

    , Mol Plant Pathol

    The establishment of host-microbe interactions requires molecular communication between both partners, which may involve the mutual transfer of noncoding small RNAs. Previous evidence suggests that this is also true for powdery mildew disease in barley, which is caused by the fungal pathogen Blumeria hordei. However, previous studies lacked spatial resolution regarding the accumulation of small RNAs upon host infection by B. hordei. Here, we analysed site-specific small RNA repertoires in the context of the barley-B. hordei interaction. To this end, we dissected infected leaves into separate fractions representing different sites that are key to the pathogenic process: epiphytic fungal mycelium, infected plant epidermis, isolated haustoria, a vesicle-enriched fraction from infected epidermis, and extracellular vesicles. Unexpectedly, we discovered enrichment of specific 31-33-base 5'-terminal fragments of barley 5.8S ribosomal RNA in extracellular vesicles and infected epidermis, as well as particular B. hordei transfer RNA fragments in haustoria. We describe canonical small RNAs from both the plant host and the fungal pathogen that may confer cross-kingdom RNA interference activity. Interestingly, we found first evidence of phased small interfering RNAs in B. hordei, a feature usually attributed to plants, which may be associated with the posttranscriptional control of fungal coding genes, pseudogenes, and transposable elements. Our data suggest a key and possibly site-specific role for cross-kingdom RNA interference and noncoding RNA fragments in the host-pathogen communication between B. hordei and its host barley.

  • Journal article
    Kotta-Loizou I, 2023,

    Virus Infection Impairs Fungal Response to Stress: Effect of Salt

    , Viruses, ISSN: 1999-4915
  • Journal article
    Feary J, Quintero Santofimio V, Potts J, Vermeulen R, Kromhout H, Knox-Brown B, Amaral Aet al., 2023,

    Occupational exposures and small airways obstruction in the UK Biobank Cohort

    , ERJ Open Research, ISSN: 2312-0541
  • Journal article
    Kusch S, Qian J, Loos A, Kümmel F, Spanu PD, Panstruga Ret al., 2023,

    Long-term and rapid evolution in powdery mildew fungi.

    , Mol Ecol

    The powdery mildew fungi (Erysiphaceae) are globally distributed plant pathogens with a range of more than 10,000 plant hosts. In this review, we discuss the long- and short-term evolution of these obligate biotrophic fungi and outline their diversity with respect to morphology, lifestyle, and host range. We highlight their remarkable ability to rapidly overcome plant immunity, evolve fungicide resistance, and broaden their host range, e.g., through adaptation and hybridization. Recent advances in genomics and proteomics, particularly in cereal powdery mildews (genus Blumeria), provided first insights into mechanisms of genomic adaptation in these fungi. Transposable elements play key roles in shaping their genomes, where even close relatives exhibit diversified patterns of recent and ongoing transposon activity. These transposons are ubiquitously distributed in the powdery mildew genomes, resulting in a highly adaptive genome architecture lacking obvious regions of conserved gene space. Transposons can also be neo-functionalized to encode novel virulence factors, particularly candidate secreted effector proteins, which may undermine the plant immune system. In cereals like barley and wheat, some of these effectors are recognized by plant immune receptors encoded by resistance genes with numerous allelic variants. These effectors determine incompatibility ("avirulence") and evolve rapidly through sequence diversification and copy number variation. Altogether, powdery mildew fungi possess plastic genomes that enable their fast evolutionary adaptation towards overcoming plant immunity, host barriers, and chemical stress such as fungicides, foreshadowing future outbreaks, host range shifts and expansions as well as potential pandemics by these pathogens.

  • Journal article
    Dawes TJW, McCabe C, Dimopoulos K, Stewart I, Bax S, Harries C, Samaranayake CB, Kempny A, Molyneaux PL, Seitler S, Semple T, Li W, George PM, Kouranos V, Chua F, Renzoni EA, Kokosi M, Jenkins G, Wells AU, Wort SJ, Price LCet al., 2023,

    Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor treatment and survival in interstitial lung disease pulmonary hypertension: A Bayesian retrospective observational cohort study

    , Respirology, Vol: 28, Pages: 262-272, ISSN: 1323-7799

    Background and ObjectivePulmonary hypertension is a life-limiting complication of interstitial lung disease (ILD-PH). We investigated whether treatment with phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) in patients with ILD-PH was associated with improved survival.MethodsConsecutive incident patients with ILD-PH and right heart catheterisation, echocardiography and spirometry data were followed from diagnosis to death, transplantation or censoring with all follow-up and survival data modelled by Bayesian methods.ResultsThe diagnoses in 128 patients were idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n = 74, 58%), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (n = 17, 13%), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (n = 12, 9%), undifferentiated ILD (n = 8, 6%) and other lung diseases (n = 17, 13%). Final outcomes were death (n = 106, 83%), transplantation (n = 9, 7%) and censoring (n = 13, 10%). Patients treated with PDE5i (n = 50, 39%) had higher mean pulmonary artery pressure (median 38 mm Hg [interquartile range, IQR: 34, 43] vs. 35 mm Hg [IQR: 31, 38], p = 0.07) and percentage predicted forced vital capacity (FVC; median 57% [IQR: 51, 73] vs. 52% [IQR: 45, 66], p=0.08) though differences did not reach significance. Patients treated with PDE5i survived longer than untreated patients (median 2.18 years [95% CI: 1.43, 3.04] vs. 0.94 years [0.69, 1.51], p = 0.003) independent of all other prognostic markers by Bayesian joint-modelling (HR 0.39, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.59, p < 0.001) and propensity-matched analyses (HR 0.38, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.58, p < 0.001). Survival difference with treatment was significantly larger if right ventricular function was normal, rather than abnormal, at presentation (+2.55 years, 95% CI: −0.03, +3.97 vs. +0.98 years, 95% CI: +0.47, +2.00, p = 0.04).ConclusionPDE5i treatment in ILD-PH should be investigated by a prospective randomized trial.

  • Journal article
    Weiland K, Alge K, Mautner A, Bauer A, Bismarck Aet al., 2023,

    Horse manure as resource for biogas and nanolignocellulosic fibres.

    , Bioresour Technol, Vol: 372

    Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) has key applications in composites, water filters and as emulsifiers. The affinity of NFC to water is a challenge, as it negatively influences its integrity. Lignin, a major component of plant biomass, is a natural hydrophobiser. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of biomass to produce biomethane allows to up-concentrate lignin in the fermentation residue containing lignocellulosic fibres. Horse manure was used as substrate for biogas production from which nanolignocellulose fibres (LCNF) were extracted. A biogas yield of 207 LN kgVS-1 with a methane concentration of 65 % was achieved. From the fermentation residue LCNFs, in yields of up to 41 %, with lignin contents between 23 and 29 wt% depending on fermentation time were obtained. Nanopapers produced from LCNFs possessed tensile strengths and moduli of 45 to 91 MPa and 7 to 8 GPa, respectively. The increased lignin content was responsible for decreased water absorption capacity of nanopapers.

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