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Journal articleArcher M, Cottingham M, Hartinger M, et al., 2022,
Observations across the heliosphere typically rely on in situ spacecraft observations producing time-series data. While often this data is analysed visually, it lends itself more naturally to our sense of sound. The simplest method of converting oscillatory data into audible sound is audification—a one-to-one mapping of data samples to audio samples—which has the benefit that no information is lost, thus is a true representation of the original data. However, audification can make some magnetospheric ULF waves observations pass by too quickly for someone to realistically be able to listen to effectively. For this reason, we detail various existing audio time scale modification techniques developed for music, applying these to ULF wave observations by spacecraft and exploring how they affect the properties of the resulting audio. Through a public dialogue we arrive at recommendations for ULF wave researchers on rendering these waves audible and discuss the scientific and educational possibilities of these new methods.
Journal articleArcher M, Waters C, Dewan S, et al., 2022,
Educational research highlights that improved careers education is needed to increase participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Current UK careers resources concerning the space sector, however, are found to perhaps not best reflect the diversity of roles present and may in fact perpetuate misconceptions about the usefulness of science. We, therefore, compile a more diverse set of space-related jobs, which will be used in the development of a new space careers resource.
Journal articleArcher M, Southwood D, Hartinger M, et al., 2022,
How a realistic magnetosphere alters the polarizations of surface, fast magnetosonic, and Alfvén waves, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol: 127, ISSN: 2169-9380
System-scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves within Earth's magnetosphere are often understood theoretically using box models. While these have been highly instructive in understanding many fundamental features of the various wave modes present, they neglect the complexities of geospace such as the inhomogeneities and curvilinear geometries present. Here, we show global MHD simulations of resonant waves impulsively excited by a solar wind pressure pulse. Although many aspects of the surface, fast magnetosonic (cavity/waveguide), and Alfvén modes present agree with the box and axially symmetric dipole models, we find some predictions for large-scale waves are significantly altered in a realistic magnetosphere. The radial ordering of fast mode turning points and Alfvén resonant locations may be reversed even with monotonic wave speeds. Additional nodes along field lines that are not present in the displacement/velocity occur in both the perpendicular and compressional components of the magnetic field. Close to the magnetopause, the perpendicular oscillations of the magnetic field have the opposite handedness to the velocity. Finally, widely used detection techniques for standing waves, both across and along the field, can fail to identify their presence. We explain how all these features arise from the MHD equations when accounting for a non-uniform background field and propose modified methods that might be applied to spacecraft observations.
Journal articleArcher M, Hartinger M, Plaschke F, et al., 2021,
Surface waves process the turbulent disturbances which drive dynamics in many space, astrophysical and laboratory plasma systems, with the outer boundary of Earth’s magnetosphere, the magnetopause, providing an accessible environment to study them. Like waves on water, magnetopause surface waves are thought to travel in the direction of the driving solar wind, hence a paradigm in global magnetospheric dynamics of tailward propagation has been well-established. Here we show through multi-spacecraft observations, global simulations, and analytic theory that the lowest-frequency impulsively-excited magnetopause surface waves, with standing structure along the terrestrial magnetic field, propagate against the flow outside the boundary. Across a wide local time range (09–15h) the waves’ Poynting flux exactly balances the flow’s advective effect, leading to no net energy flux and thus stationary structure across the field also. Further down the equatorial flanks, however, advection dominates hence the waves travel downtail, seeding fluctuations at the resonant frequency which subsequently grow in amplitude via the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and couple to magnetospheric body waves. This global response, contrary to the accepted paradigm, has implications on radiation belt, ionospheric, and auroral dynamics and potential applications to other dynamical systems.
Journal articleArcher MO, Day N, Barnes S, 2021,
Demonstrating change from a drop-in space soundscape exhibit by using graffiti walls both before and after, Geoscience Communication, Vol: 4, Pages: 57-67, ISSN: 2569-7110
Impact evaluation in public engagement necessarily requires measuring change. However, this is extremely challenging for drop-in activities due to their very nature. We present a novel method of impact evaluation which integrates graffiti walls into the experience both before and after the main drop-in activity. The activity in question was a soundscape exhibit, where young families experienced the usually inaudible sounds of near-Earth space in an immersive and accessible way. We apply two analysis techniques to the captured before and after data – quantitative linguistics and thematic analysis. These analyses reveal significant changes in participants' responses after the activity compared to before, namely an increased diversity in language used to describe space and altered conceptions of what space is like. The results demonstrate that the soundscape was surprisingly effective at innately communicating key aspects of the underlying science simply through the act of listening. The impacts also highlight the power of sonification in stimulating public engagement, which, through reflection, can lead to altered associations, perceptions, and understanding. Therefore, we show that this novel approach to drop-in activity evaluation, using graffiti walls both before and after the activity and applying rigorous analysis to this data, has the power to capture change and, thus, have a short-term impact. We suggest that commonly used evaluation tools suitable for drop-in activities, such as graffiti walls, should be integrated both before and after the main activity in general, rather than only using them afterwards as is typically the case.
Journal articleArcher M, DeWitt J, Davenport C, et al., 2021,
Going beyond the one-off: How can STEM engagement programmes with young people have real lasting impact?, Research for All, Vol: 5, Pages: 67-85, ISSN: 2399-8121
A major focus in the STEM public engagement sector concerns engaging withyoung people, typically through schools. The aims of these interventions areoften to positively affect students' aspirations towards continuing STEMeducation and ultimately into STEM-related careers. Most schools engagementactivities take the form of short one-off interventions that, while able toachieve positive outcomes, are limited in the extent to which they can havelasting impacts on aspirations. In this paper we discuss various differentemerging programmes of repeated interventions with young people, assessing whatimpacts can realistically be expected. Short series of interventions appearalso to suffer some limitations in the types of impacts achievable. However,deeper programmes that interact with both young people and those that influencethem over significant periods of time (months to years) seem to be moreeffective in influencing aspirations. We discuss how developing a Theory ofChange and considering young people's wider learning ecologies are required inenabling lasting impacts in a range of areas. Finally, we raise severalsector-wide challenges to implementing and evaluating these emergingapproaches.
Journal articleBellouin N, Quaas J, Gryspeerdt E, et al., 2020,
Aerosols interact with radiation and clouds. Substantial progress made over the past 40 years in observing, understanding, and modeling these processes helped quantify the im balance in the Earth’s radiation budget caused by anthropogenic aerosols, called aerosol radiative forcing, but uncertainties remain large. This review provides a new range of aerosol radiative forcing over the industrial era based on multiple, traceable and arguable lines of evidence, including modelling approaches, theoretical considerations, and obser vations. Improved understanding of aerosol absorption and the causes of trends in surface radiative fluxes constrain the forcing from aerosol-radiation interactions. A robust theoretical foundation and convincing evidence constrain the forcing caused by aerosol61 driven increases in liquid cloud droplet number concentration. However, the influence of anthropogenic aerosols on cloud liquid water content and cloud fraction is less clear, and the influence on mixed-phase and ice clouds remains poorly constrained. Observed changes in surface temperature and radiative fluxes provide additional constraints. These multiple lines of evidence lead to a 68% confidence interval for the total aerosol effective radiative forcing of −1.60 to −0.65 W m−2, or −2.0 to −0.4 W m−2 with a 90% like lihood. Those intervals are of similar width to the last Intergovernmental Panel on Cli mate Change assessment but shifted towards more negative values. The uncertainty will narrow in the future by continuing to critically combine multiple lines of evidence, especially those addressing industrial-era changes in aerosol sources and aerosol effects on liquid cloud amount and on ice clouds.
Journal articlePhan TD, Shay MA, Eastwood JP, et al., 2016,
Establishing the Context for Reconnection Diffusion Region Encounters and Strategies for the Capture and Transmission of Diffusion Region Burst Data by MMS, Space Science Reviews, Vol: 199, Pages: 631-650, ISSN: 0038-6308
© 2015, The Author(s). This paper describes the efforts of our Inter-Disciplinary Scientist (IDS) team to (a) establish the large-scale context for reconnection diffusion region encounters by MMS at the magnetopause and in the magnetotail, including the distinction between X-line and O-line encounters, that would help the identification of diffusion regions in spacecraft data, and (b) devise possible strategies that can be used by MMS to capture and transmit burst data associated with diffusion region candidates. At the magnetopause we suggest the strategy of transmitting burst data from all magnetopause crossings so that no magnetopause reconnection diffusion regions encountered by the spacecraft will be missed. The strategy is made possible by the MMS mass memory and downlink budget. In the magnetotail, it is estimated that MMS will be able to transmit burst data for all diffusion regions, all reconnection jet fronts (a.k.a. dipolarization fronts) and separatrix encounters, but less than 50 % of reconnection exhausts encountered by the spacecraft. We also discuss automated burst trigger schemes that could capture various reconnection-related phenomena. The identification of candidate diffusion region encounters by the burst trigger schemes will be verified and improved by a Scientist-In-The-Loop (SITL). With the knowledge of the properties of the region surrounding the diffusion region and the combination of automated burst triggers and further optimization by the SITL, MMS should be able to capture most diffusion regions it encounters.
Journal articleKurth WS, Hospodarsky GB, Gurnett DA, et al., 2016,
The Saturn auroral campaign carried out in the spring of 2013 used multiple Earth-based observations, remote-sensing observations from Cassini, and in situ-observations from Cassini to further our understanding of auroras at Saturn. Most of the remote sensing and Earth-based measurements are, by nature, not continuous. And, even the in situ measurements, while continuously obtained, are not always obtained in regions relevant to the study of the aurora. Saturn kilometric radiation, however, is remotely monitored nearly continuously by the Radio and Plasma Wave Science instrument on Cassini. This radio emission, produced by the cyclotron maser instability, is tightly tied to auroral processes at Saturn as are auroral radio emissions at other planets, most notably Jupiter and Earth. This paper provides the time history of the intensity of the radio emissions through the auroral campaign as a means of understanding the temporal relationships between the sometimes widely spaced observations of the auroral activity. While beaming characteristics of the radio emissions are known to prevent single spacecraft observations of this emission from being a perfect auroral activity indicator, we demonstrate a good correlation between the radio emission intensity and the level of UV auroral activity, when both measurements are available.
Journal articleBadman SV, Provan G, Bunce EJ, et al., 2016,
On 21–22 April 2013, during a coordinated auroral observing campaign, instruments onboard Cassini and the Hubble Space Telescope observed Saturn’s aurora while Cassini traversed Saturn’s high latitude auroral field lines. Signatures of upward and downward field-aligned currents were detected in the nightside magnetosphere in the magnetic field and plasma measurements. The location of the upward current corresponded to the bright ultraviolet auroral arc seen in the auroral images, and the downward current region was located poleward of the upward current in an aurorally dark region. Within the polar cap magnetic field and plasma fluctuations were identified with periods of ∼20 and ∼60 min. The northern and southern auroral ovals were observed to rock in latitude in phase with the respective northern and southern planetary period oscillations. A solar wind compression impacted Saturn’s magnetosphere at the start of 22 April 2013, identified by an intensification and extension to lower frequencies of the Saturn kilometric radiation, with the following sequence of effects: (1) intensification of the auroral field-aligned currents; (2) appearance of a localised, intense bulge in the dawnside (04–06 LT) aurora while the midnight sector aurora remained fainter and narrow; and (3) latitudinal broadening and poleward contraction of the nightside aurora, where the poleward motion in this sector is opposite to that expected from a model of the auroral oval’s usual oscillation. These observations are interpreted as the response to tail reconnection events, initially involving Vasyliunas-type reconnection of closed mass-loaded magnetotail field lines, and then proceeding onto open lobe field lines, causing the contraction of the polar cap region on the night side.
Journal articleVanniere B, Czaja A, Dacre H, et al., 2016,
The cold sector of mid-latitude storms is characterised by distinctive features such as strong surface heat fluxes, shallow convection, convective precipitation and synoptic subsidence. In order to evaluate the contribution of processes occurring in the cold sector to the mean climate, an appropriate indicator is needed. This study describes the systematic presence of negative PV behind the cold front of extratropical storms in winter. The origin of this negative PV is analysed using ERA-Interim data, potential vorticity tendencies averaged over the depth of the boundary layer are evaluated. It is found that negative PV is generated by diabatic processes in the cold sector and by Ekman pumping at the low centre, whereas positive PV is generated by Ekman advection of potential temperature in the warm sector. We suggest here that the negative PV at low-levels can be used to identify the cold sector. A PV-based indicator is applied to estimate the respective contributions of the cold sector and the remainder of the storm to upward motion, and large scale and convective precipitation. We compare the PV-based indicator with other distinctive features that could be used as markers of the cold sector, and find that potential vorticity is the best criterion when taken alone, and the best when combined with any other.
Journal articleOdelstad E, Eriksson AI, Edberg NJT, et al., 2015,
Evolution of the plasma environment of comet 67P from spacecraft potential measurements by the Rosetta Langmuir probe instrument, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol: 42, Pages: 10126-10134, ISSN: 1944-8007
We study the evolution of the plasma environment of comet 67P using measurements of the spacecraft potential from early September 2014 (heliocentric distance 3.5 AU) to late March 2015 (2.1 AU) obtained by the Langmuir probe (RPC-LAP) instrument. The low collision rate keeps the electron temperature high (~ 5 eV), resulting in a negative spacecraft potential whose magnitude depends on the electron density. This potential is more negative in the northern (summer) hemisphere, particularly over sunlit parts of the neck region on the nucleus, consistent with neutral gas measurements by ROSINA-COPS. Assuming constant electron temperature, the spacecraft potential traces the electron density. This increases as the comet approaches the Sun, most clearly in the southern hemisphere by a factor possibly as high as 20 - 44 between September 2014 and January 2015. The northern hemisphere plasma density increase stays around a factor of around or below 8 - 12, consistent with seasonal insolation change.
Journal articleArridge CS, Eastwood J, Jackman CM, et al., 2015,
Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process in solar system and astrophysical plasmas, through which stored magnetic energy associated with current sheets is converted into thermal, kinetic and wave energy1, 2, 3, 4. Magnetic reconnection is also thought to be a key process involved in shedding internally produced plasma from the giant magnetospheres at Jupiter and Saturn through topological reconfiguration of the magnetic field5, 6. The region where magnetic fields reconnect is known as the diffusion region and in this letter we report on the first encounter of the Cassini spacecraft with a diffusion region in Saturn’s magnetotail. The data also show evidence of magnetic reconnection over a period of 19 h revealing that reconnection can, in fact, act for prolonged intervals in a rapidly rotating magnetosphere. We show that reconnection can be a significant pathway for internal plasma loss at Saturn6. This counters the view of reconnection as a transient method of internal plasma loss at Saturn5, 7. These results, although directly relating to the magnetosphere of Saturn, have applications in the understanding of other rapidly rotating magnetospheres, including that of Jupiter and other astrophysical bodies.
Journal articleWalker SN, Balikhin MA, Shklyar DR, et al., 2015,
Magnetosonic waves are commonly observed in the vicinity of the terrestrial magnetic equator. It has been proposed that within this region they may interact with radiation belt electrons, accelerating some to high energies. These wave-particle interactions depend upon the characteristic properties of the wave mode. Hence determination of the wave properties is a fundamental part of understanding these interaction processes. Using data collected during the Cluster Inner Magnetosphere Campaign, this paper identifies an occurrence of magnetosonic waves, discusses their generation and propagation properties from a theoretical perspective, and utilises multispacecraft measurements to experimentally determine their dispersion relation. Their experimental dispersion is found to be in accordance with that based on cold plasma theory.
Journal articleBeth A, Garnier P, Toublanc D, et al., 2015,
The planetary exospheres are poorly known in their outer parts, since the neutral densities are low comparedwith the instruments detection capabilities. The exospheric models are thus often the main sourceof information at such high altitudes. We present a new way to take into account analytically the additionaleffect of the radiation pressure on planetary exospheres. In a series of papers, we present with anHamiltonian approach the effect of the radiation pressure on dynamical trajectories, density profiles andescaping thermal flux. Our work is a generalisation of the study by Bishop and Chamberlain (Bishop, J.,Chamberlian, J.W. . Icarus 81, 145–163). In this first paper, we present the complete solutions ofparticles trajectories, which are not conics, under the influence of the solar radiation pressure with someassumptions. This problem is similar to the classical Stark problem (Stark, J. . Ann. Phys. 348,965–982). This problem was largely tackled in the literature and more specifically, recently by Lantoineand Russell (Lantoine, G., Russell, R.P. . Celest. Mech. Dynam. Astron. 109, 333–366) and byBiscani and Izzo (Biscani, F., Izzo, D. . Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 439, 810–822) as we will discussin this paper. We give here the full set of solutions for the motion of a particle (in our case for an atomor a molecule), i.e. the space coordinates and the time solution for bounded and unbounded trajectoriesin terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. We thus provide here the complete set of solutions for this so-callStark effect (Stark, J. . Ann. Phys. 348, 965–982) in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions (Jacobi, C.G.J. . Fundamenta nova theoriae functionum ellipticarum. Sumtibus fratrum), which may be usedto model the trajectories of particles in planetary exospheres.
Journal articleParfitt R, Czaja A, 2015,
A new decomposition of the time mean sea level pressure, precipitation, meridional velocity (v) and pressure vertical velocity (ω) is applied to ERA-Interim reanalysis data over the North Atlantic ocean for the December-February 1979–2011 time period. The decomposition suggests that the atmosphere over the Gulf Stream is dominated by a continuous series of synoptic systems, or baroclinic waves, propagating across the region. The time mean value of precipitation, meridional velocity and ω (the latter being taken as a proxy for upward and downward motion) is accordingly set by the propagating waves. The result is particularly striking for ω (v) considering that ascent and descent (poleward and equatorward flow) could reasonably be expected to cancel out in such a series of waves.These results shed a new light on analyses of the storm track heat budget in which the residual between diabatic heating and “transient” eddy heat fluxes (singled out through band pass time filtering or spatial Fourier analysis) is interpreted as a Rossby wave source. This interpretation is questioned because, as a consequence of the filtering used, these studies prevent any direct contribution of the “transients” to the time mean ω or meridional velocity, attributing entirely both fields to the circulation associated with the thermally forced Rossby wave. The fact that “transients” directly contribute to the observed time mean ω over the Gulf Stream might also explain the discrepancy between the observed and predicted response of the vertical motion field to heating in midlatitudes.
Journal articleHietala H, Drake JF, Phan TD, et al., 2015,
A significant fraction of the energy released by magnetotail reconnection appears to go into ion heating, but this heating is generally anisotropic. We examine ARTEMIS dual-spacecraft observations of a long-duration magnetotail exhaust generated by anti-parallel reconnection in conjunction with Particle-In-Cell simulations, showing spatial variations in the anisotropy across the outflow far (> 100di) downstream of the X-line. A consistent pattern is found in both the spacecraft data and the simulations: Whilst the total temperature across the exhaust is rather constant, near the boundaries Ti,|| dominates. The plasma is well-above the firehose threshold within patchy spatial regions at |BX| ∈ [0.1, 0.5]B0, suggesting that the drive for the instability is strong and the instability is too weak to relax the anisotropy. At the mid-plane (|BX|0.1 B0), Ti,⊥ > Ti,|| and ions undergo Speiser-like motion despite the large distance from the X-line.
Journal articlePilkington NM, Achilleos N, Arridge CS, et al., 2015,
For over 10 years, the Cassini spacecraft has patrolled Saturn's magnetosphere and observed its magnetopause boundary over a wide range of prevailing solar wind and interior plasma conditions. We now have data that enable us to resolve a significant dawn-dusk asymmetry and find that the magnetosphere extends farther from the planet on the dawnside of the planet by 7 ± 1%. In addition, an opposing dawn-dusk asymmetry in the suprathermal plasma pressure adjacent to the magnetopause has been observed. This probably acts to reduce the size asymmetry and may explain the discrepancy between the degree of asymmetry found here and a similar asymmetry found by Kivelson and Jia (2014) using MHD simulations. Finally, these observations sample a wide range of season, allowing the “intrinsic” polar flattening (14 ± 1%) caused by the magnetodisc to be separated from the seasonally induced north-south asymmetry in the magnetopause shape found theoretically (5 ± 1% when the planet's magnetic dipole is tilted away from the Sun by 10–17°).
Journal articleBeth A, Garnier P, Toublanc D, et al., 2015,
The planetary exospheres are poorly known in their outer parts, since the neutral densities are low compared with the instruments detection capabilities. The exospheric models are thus often the main source of information at such high altitudes. We present a new way to take into account analytically the additional effect of the radiation pressure on planetary exospheres. In a series of papers, we present with an Hamiltonian approach the effect of the radiation pressure on dynamical trajectories, density profiles and escaping thermal flux. Our work is a generalization of the study by Bishop and Chamberlain (1989). In this second part of our work, we present here the density profiles of atomic Hydrogen in planetary exospheres subject to the radiation pressure. We first provide the altitude profiles of ballistic particles (the dominant exospheric population in most cases), which exhibit strong asymmetries that explain the known geotail phenomenon at Earth. The radiation pressure strongly enhances the densities compared with the pure gravity case (i.e. the Chamberlain profiles), in particular at noon and midnight. We finally show the existence of an exopause that appears naturally as the external limit for bounded particles, above which all particles are escaping.
Journal articleOsipov S, Stenchikov G, Brindley H, et al., 2015,
In this study we attempted to better quantify radiative effects of dust over the Arabian Peninsula and their dependence on input parameters. For this purpose we have developed a stand-alone column radiation transport model coupled with the Mie, T-matrix and geometric optics calculations and driven by reanalysis meteorological fields and atmospheric composition. Numerical experiments were carried out for a wide range of aerosol optical depths, including extreme values developed during the dust storm on 18–20 March 2012. Comprehensive ground-based observations and satellite retrievals were used to estimate aerosol optical properties, validate calculations and carry out radiation closure. The broadband surface albedo, fluxes at the bottom and top of the atmosphere as well as instantaneous dust radiative forcing were estimated both from the model and observations. Diurnal cycle of the shortwave instantaneous dust direct radiative forcing was studied for a range of aerosol and surface characteristics representative of the Arabian Peninsula. Mechanisms and parameters responsible for diurnal variability of the radiative forcing were evaluated. We found that intrinsic variability of the surface albedo and its dependence on atmospheric conditions, along with anisotropic aerosol scattering, are mostly responsible for diurnal effects.
Journal articleRichter I, Koenders C, Auster H-U, et al., 2015,
We report on magnetic field measurements madein the innermost coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenkoin its low activity state. Quasi-coherent, large-amplitude(δB/B ∼ 1), compressional magnetic field oscillations at5 ∼ 40 mHz dominate the immediate plasma environmentof the nucleus. This differs from previously studied cometinteractionregions where waves at the cometary ion gyrofrequenciesare the main feature. Thus classical pick-up iondriven instabilities are unable to explain the observations. We10 propose a cross-field current instability associated with newborncometary ion currents as a possible source mechanism
Journal articleAuster H-U, Apathy I, Berghofer G, et al., 2015,
<jats:p> Knowledge of the magnetization of planetary bodies constrains their origin and evolution, as well as the conditions in the solar nebular at that time. On the basis of magnetic field measurements during the descent and subsequent multiple touchdown of the Rosetta lander Philae on the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P), we show that no global magnetic field was detected within the limitations of analysis. The Rosetta Magnetometer and Plasma Monitor (ROMAP) suite of sensors measured an upper magnetic field magnitude of less than 2 nanotesla at the cometary surface at multiple locations, with the upper specific magnetic moment being <3.1 × 10 <jats:sup>−5</jats:sup> ampere–square meters per kilogram for meter-size homogeneous magnetized boulders. The maximum dipole moment of 67P is 1.6 × 10 <jats:sup>8</jats:sup> ampere–square meters. We conclude that on the meter scale, magnetic alignment in the preplanetary nebula is of minor importance. </jats:p>
Journal articleRyder CL, McQuaid JB, Flamant C, et al., 2015,
Advances in understanding mineral dust and boundary layer processes over the Sahara from Fennec aircraft observations, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol: 15, Pages: 8479-8520, ISSN: 1680-7324
The Fennec climate programme aims to improve understanding of the Saharan climate system through a synergy of observations and modelling. We present a description of the Fennec airborne observations during 2011 and 2012 over the remote Sahara (Mauritania and Mali) and the advances in the understanding of mineral dust and boundary layer processes they have provided. Aircraft instrumentation aboard the UK FAAM BAe146 and French SAFIRE (Service des Avions Français Instrumentés pour la Recherche en Environnement) Falcon 20 is described, with specific focus on instrumentation specially developed for and relevant to Saharan meteorology and dust. Flight locations, aims and associated meteorology are described. Examples and applications of aircraft measurements from the Fennec flights are presented, highlighting new scientific results delivered using a synergy of different instruments and aircraft. These include (1) the first airborne measurement of dust particles sizes of up to 300 microns and associated dust fluxes in the Saharan atmospheric boundary layer (SABL), (2) dust uplift from the breakdown of the nocturnal low-level jet before becoming visible in SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible Infra-Red Imager) satellite imagery, (3) vertical profiles of the unique vertical structure of turbulent fluxes in the SABL, (4) in situ observations of processes in SABL clouds showing dust acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) at −15 °C, (5) dual-aircraft observations of the SABL dynamics, thermodynamics and composition in the Saharan heat low region (SHL), (6) airborne observations of a dust storm associated with a cold pool (haboob) issued from deep convection over the Atlas Mountains, (7) the first airborne chemical composition measurements of dust in the SHL region with differing composition, sources (determined using Lagrangian backward trajectory calculations) and absorption properties between 2011 and 2012, (8) coincident ozone and
Journal articleVoulgarakis A, Marlier ME, Faluvegi G, et al., 2015,
Interannual variability of tropospheric trace gases and aerosols: The role of biomass burning emissions, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol: 120, Pages: 7157-7173, ISSN: 2169-897X
Fires are responsible for a range of gaseous and aerosol emissions. However, their influence onthe interannual variability of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols has not been systematically investigatedfrom a global perspective. We examine biomass burning emissions as a driver of interannual variability oflarge-scale abundances of short-lived constituents such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydroxyl radicals (OH),ozone, and aerosols using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE composition-climate model and arange of observations, with an emphasis on satellite information. Our model captures the observed variabilityof the constituents examined in most cases, but with substantial underestimates in boreal regions. Thestrongest interannual variability on a global scale is found for carbon monoxide (~10% for its global annualburden), while the lowest is found for tropospheric ozone (~1% for its global annual burden). Regionally,aerosol optical depth shows the largest variability which exceeds 50%. Areas of strong variability of bothaerosols and CO include the tropical land regions (especially Equatorial Asia and South America) and northernhigh latitudes, while even regions in the northern midlatitudes experience substantial interannual variability ofaerosols. Ozone variability peaks over equatorial Asia in boreal autumn, partly due to varying biomass burningemissions, and over the western and central Pacific in the rest of the year, mainly due to meteorologicalfluctuations. We find that biomass burning emissions are almost entirely responsible for global CO interannualvariability, and similarly important for OH variability. The same is true for global and regional aerosol variability,especially when not taking into account dust and sea-salt particles. We show that important implications canarise from such interannual influences for regional climate and air quality
Journal articleBalikhin MA, Shprits YY, Walker SN, et al., 2015,
A number of modes of oscillations of particles and fields can exist in space plasmas. Since the early 1970s, space missions have observed noise-like plasma waves near the geomagnetic equator known as 'equatorial noise'. Several theories were suggested, but clear observational evidence supported by realistic modelling has not been provided. Here we report on observations by the Cluster mission that clearly show the highly structured and periodic pattern of these waves. Very narrow-banded emissions at frequencies corresponding to exact multiples of the proton gyrofrequency (frequency of gyration around the field line) from the 17th up to the 30th harmonic are observed, indicating that these waves are generated by the proton distributions. Simultaneously with these coherent periodic structures in waves, the Cluster spacecraft observes 'ring' distributions of protons in velocity space that provide the free energy for the waves. Calculated wave growth based on ion distributions shows a very similar pattern to the observations.
Journal articleHorbury TS, Archer MO, Brown P, et al., 2015,
The MAGIC of CINEMA: First in-flight science results from a miniaturised anisotropic magnetoresistive magnetometer, Annales Geophysicae, Vol: 33, Pages: 725-735, ISSN: 1432-0576
We present the first in-flight results from a novel miniaturised anisotropic magnetoresistive space magnetometer, MAGIC (MAGnetometer from Imperial College), aboard the first CINEMA (CubeSat for Ions, Neutrals, Electrons and MAgnetic fields) spacecraft in low Earth orbit. An attitude-independent calibration technique is detailed using the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF), which is temperature dependent in the case of the outboard sensor. We show that the sensors accurately measure the expected absolute field to within 2% in attitude mode and 1% in science mode. Using a simple method we are able to estimate the spacecraft's attitude using the magnetometer only, thus characterising CINEMA's spin, precession and nutation. Finally, we show that the outboard sensor is capable of detecting transient physical signals with amplitudes of ~ 20–60 nT. These include field-aligned currents at the auroral oval, qualitatively similar to previous observations, which agree in location with measurements from the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) and POES (Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites) spacecraft. Thus, we demonstrate and discuss the potential science capabilities of the MAGIC instrument onboard a CubeSat platform.
Journal articleNilsson H, Wieser GS, Behar E, et al., 2015,
Evolution of the ion environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko - Observations between 3.6 and 2.0 AU, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol: 583, ISSN: 0004-6361
Context. The Rosetta spacecraft is escorting comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from a heliocentric distance of >3.6 AU, wherethe comet activity was low, until perihelion at 1.24 AU. Initially, the solar wind permeates the thin comet atmosphere formed fromsublimation.Aims. Using the Rosetta Plasma Consortium Ion Composition Analyzer (RPC-ICA), we study the gradual evolution of the comet ionenvironment, from the first detectable traces of water ions to the stage where cometary water ions accelerated to about 1 keV energyare abundant. We compare ion fluxes of solar wind and cometary origin.Methods. RPC-ICA is an ion mass spectrometer measuring ions of solar wind and cometary origins in the 10 eV–40 keV energyrange.Results. We show how the flux of accelerated water ions with energies above 120 eV increases between 3.6 and 2.0 AU. The 24 haverage increases by 4 orders of magnitude, mainly because high-flux periods become more common. The water ion energy spectraalso become broader with time. This may indicate a larger and more uniform source region. At 2.0 AU the accelerated water ion fluxis frequently of the same order as the solar wind proton flux. Water ions of 120 eV–few keV energy may thus constitute a significantpart of the ions sputtering the nucleus surface. The ion density and mass in the comet vicinity is dominated by ions of cometary origin.The solar wind is deflected and the energy spectra broadened compared to an undisturbed solar wind.Conclusions. The flux of accelerated water ions moving from the upstream direction back toward the nucleus is a strongly nonlinearfunction of the heliocentric distance.
Journal articleCarr CM, Edberg NJT, Eriksson AI, et al., 2015,
We use measurements from the Rosetta plasma consortium Langmuir probe and mutual impedance probe to study the spatial distribution of low-energy plasma in the near-nucleus coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The spatial distribution is highly structured with the highest density in the summer hemisphere and above the region connecting the two main lobes of the comet, i.e., the neck region. There is a clear correlation with the neutral density and the plasma to neutral density ratio is found to be ∼1–2·10−6, at a cometocentric distance of 10 km and at 3.1 AU from the Sun. A clear 6.2 h modulation of the plasma is seen as the neck is exposed twice per rotation. The electron density of the collisionless plasma within 260 km from the nucleus falls off with radial distance as ∼1/r. The spatial structure indicates that local ionization of neutral gas is the dominant source of low-energy plasma around the comet.
Journal articleMangeon T, Field R, Fromm M, et al., 2015,
Satellite versus ground-based estimates of burned area: a comparison between MODIS based burned area and fire agency reports over North America in 2007, The Anthropocene Review, Vol: 3, Pages: 76-92, ISSN: 2053-0196
North American wildfire management teams routinely assess burned area on site during firefighting campaigns; meanwhile, satellite observations provide systematic and global burned-area data. Here we compare satellite and ground-based daily burned area for wildfire events for selected large fires across North America in 2007 on daily timescales. In a sample of 26 fires across North America, we found the Global Fire Emissions Database Version 4 (GFED4) estimated about 80% of the burned area logged in ground-based Incident Status Summary (ICS-209) over 8-day analysis windows. Linear regression analysis found a slope between GFED and ICS-209 of 0.67 (with R = 0.96). The agreement between these data sets was found to degrade at short timescales (from R = 0.81 for 4-day to R = 0.55 for 2-day). Furthermore, during large burning days (> 3000 ha) GFED4 typically estimates half of the burned area logged in the ICS-209 estimates.
Journal articleVoulgarakis A, Field RD, 2015,
Fires impact atmospheric composition through their emissions, which range from long-lived gases to short-lived gases and aerosols. Effects are typically larger in the tropics and boreal regions but can also be substantial in highly populated areas in the northern mid-latitudes. In all regions, fire can impact air quality and health. Similarly, its effect on large-scale atmospheric processes, including regional and global atmospheric chemistry and climate forcing, can be substantial, but this remains largely unexplored. The impacts are primarily realised in the boundary layer and lower free troposphere but can also be noticeable in upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region, for the most intense fires. In this review, we summarise the recent literature on findings related to fire impact on atmospheric composition, air quality and climate. We explore both observational and modelling approaches and present information on key regions and on the globe as a whole. We also discuss the current and future directions in this area of research, focusing on the major advances in emission estimates, the emerging efforts to include fire as a component in Earth system modelling and the use of modelling to assess health impacts of fire emissions.
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