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  • Journal article
    Liu M, Issautier K, Moncuquet M, Meyer-Vernet N, Maksimovic M, Huang J, Martinovic MM, Griton L, Chrysaphi N, Jagarlamudi VK, Bale SD, Pulupa M, Kasper JC, Stevens MLet al., 2023,

    Total electron temperature derived from quasi-thermal noise spectroscopy in the pristine solar wind from Parker Solar Probe observations

    , ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS, Vol: 674, ISSN: 0004-6361
  • Journal article
    Zhong C, Cheng S, Kasoar M, Arcucci Ret al., 2023,

    Reduced-order digital twin and latent data assimilation for global wildfire prediction

    , NATURAL HAZARDS AND EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCES, Vol: 23, Pages: 1755-1768, ISSN: 1561-8633
  • Journal article
    Pyakurel PS, Phan TD, Drake JF, Shay MA, Oieroset M, Haggerty CC, Stawarz J, Burch JL, Ergun RE, Gershman DJ, Giles BL, Torbert RB, Strangeway RJ, Russell CTet al., 2023,

    On the Short-scale Spatial Variability of Electron Inflows in Electron-only Magnetic Reconnection in the Turbulent Magnetosheath Observed by MMS

    , ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 948, ISSN: 0004-637X
  • Journal article
    Rodenkirchen C, Ackerman AK, Mignanelli PM, Cliff A, Wise GJ, Breul P, Douglas JO, Bagot PAJ, Moody MP, Appleton M, Ryan MP, Hardy MC, Pedrazzini S, Stone HJet al., 2023,

    Effect of Alloying on the Microstructure, Phase Stability, Hardness, and Partitioning Behavior of a New Dual-Superlattice Nickel-Based Superalloy

  • Journal article
    Madanian H, Omidi N, Sibeck DG, Andersson L, Ramstad R, Xu S, Gruesbeck JR, Schwartz SJ, Frahm RA, Brain DA, Kajdic P, Eparvier FG, Mitchell DL, Curry SMet al., 2023,

    Transient Foreshock Structures Upstream of Mars: Implications of the Small Martian Bow Shock

  • Journal article
    Cael BB, Bloch-Johnson J, Ceppi P, Fredriksen H-B, Goodwin P, Gregory JM, Smith CJ, Williams RGet al., 2023,

    Energy budget diagnosis of changing climate feedback

    , Science Advances, Vol: 9

    <jats:p> The climate feedback determines how Earth’s climate responds to anthropogenic forcing. It is thought to have been more negative in recent decades due to a sea surface temperature “pattern effect,” whereby warming is concentrated in the western tropical Pacific, where nonlocal radiative feedbacks are very negative. This phenomenon has however primarily been studied within climate models. We diagnose a pattern effect from historical records as an evolution of the climate feedback over the past five decades. Our analysis assumes a constant rate of change of the climate feedback, which is justified post hoc. We find a decrease in climate feedback by 0.8 ± 0.5 W m <jats:sup>−2</jats:sup> K <jats:sup>−1</jats:sup> over the past 50 years, corresponding to a reduction in climate sensitivity. Earth system models’ climate feedbacks instead increase over this period. Understanding and simulating this historical trend and its future evolution are critical for reliable climate projections. </jats:p>

  • Journal article
    Jensen EA, Gopalswamy N, Wilson LB, Jian LK, Fung SF, Nieves-Chinchilla T, Shelton M, Li L, Deshpande M, Purves L, Lazio J, Manchester WB, Wood BE, Kooi JE, Wexler DB, Bale S, Pevtsov A, Jackson BV, Kenny MNet al., 2023,

    The Faraday Effect Tracker of Coronal and Heliospheric Structures (FETCH) instrument

  • Journal article
    Froment C, Agapitov OV, Krasnoselskikh V, Karbashewski S, Dudok de Wit T, Larosa A, Colomban L, Malaspina D, Kretzschmar M, Jagarlamudi VK, Bale SD, Bonnell JW, Mozer FS, Pulupa Met al., 2023,

    Whistler waves generated inside magnetic dips in the young solar wind: Observations of the search-coil magnetometer on board Parker Solar Probe

    , ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS, Vol: 672, ISSN: 0004-6361
  • Journal article
    Gryspeerdt E, Povey AC, Grainger RG, Hasekamp O, Hsu NC, Mulcahy JP, Sayer AM, Sorooshian Aet al., 2023,

    Uncertainty in aerosol-cloud radiative forcing is driven by clean conditions

    , Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol: 23, Pages: 4115-4122, ISSN: 1680-7316

    Atmospheric aerosols and their impact on cloud properties remain the largest uncertainty in the human forcing of theclimate system. By increasing the concentration of cloud droplets (Nd ), aerosols reduce droplet size and increase the reflectivity of clouds (a negative radiative forcing). Central to this climate impact is the susceptibility of cloud droplet number to aerosol (β ), the diversity of which explains much of the variation in the radiative forcing from aerosol-cloud interactions (RFaci) in global climate models. This has made measuring β a key target for developing observational constraints of the aerosol forcing. While the aerosol burden of the clean, pre-industrial atmosphere has been demonstrated as a key uncertainty for the aerosol forcing, here we show that the behaviour of clouds under these clean conditions is of equal importance for understanding the spread in radiative forcing estimates between models and observations. This means that the uncertainty in the aerosol impact on clouds is, counterintuitively, driven by situations with little aerosol. Discarding clean conditions produces a close agreement between different model and observational estimates of the cloud response to aerosol, but does not provide a strong constraint on the RFaci. This makes constraining aerosol behaviour in clean conditions an important goal for future observational studies.

  • Journal article
    Huang J, Kasper JC, Larson DE, McManus MD, Whittlesey P, Livi R, Rahmati A, Romeo O, Klein KG, Sun W, van der Holst B, Huang Z, Jian LK, Szabo A, Verniero JL, Chen CHK, Lavraud B, Liu M, Badman ST, Niembro T, Paulson K, Stevens M, Case AW, Pulupa M, Bale SD, Halekas JSet al., 2023,

    Parker Solar Probe Observations of High Plasma <i>β</i> Solar Wind from the Streamer Belt

  • Journal article
    Karbashewski S, Agapitov OV, Kim HY, Mozer FS, Bonnell JW, Froment C, de Wit TD, Bale SDD, Malaspina D, Raouafi NEet al., 2023,

    Whistler Wave Observations by Parker Solar Probe During Encounter 1: Counter-propagating Whistlers Collocated with Magnetic Field Inhomogeneities and their Application to Electric Field Measurement Calibration

    , ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 947, ISSN: 0004-637X
  • Journal article
    Safrankova J, Nemecek Z, Nemec F, Verscharen D, Horbury TS, Bale SD, Prech Let al., 2023,

    Evolution of Magnetic Field Fluctuations and Their Spectral Properties within the Heliosphere: Statistical Approach

  • Journal article
    Seo H, Oneill LW, Bourassa MA, Czaja A, Drushka K, Edson JB, Fox-kemper B, Frenger I, Gille ST, Kirtman BP, Minobe S, Pendergrass AG, Renault L, Roberts MJ, Schneider N, Small J, Stoffelen AD, Wang Qet al., 2023,

    Ocean Mesoscale and Frontal-Scale Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions and Influence on Large-Scale Climate: A Review

    , JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, Vol: 36, Pages: 1981-2013, ISSN: 0894-8755
  • Journal article
    Shuster JR, Gershman DJ, Giles BL, Bessho N, Sharma AS, Dorelli JC, Uritsky V, Schwartz SJ, Cassak PA, Denton RE, Chen L-J, Gurram H, Ng J, Burch J, Webster J, Torbert R, Paterson WR, Schiff C, Vinas AF, Avanov LA, Stawarz J, Li TC, Liu Y-H, Argall MR, Afshari A, Payne DS, Farrugia CJ, Verniero J, Wilder F, Genestreti K, da Silva DEet al., 2023,

    Temporal, Spatial, and Velocity-Space Variations of Electron Phase Space Density Measurements at the Magnetopause

  • Journal article
    Stawarz JEE, Genestreti KJJ, 2023,

    Preface to Special Topic: Plasma Physics from the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    , PHYSICS OF PLASMAS, Vol: 30, ISSN: 1070-664X
  • Journal article
    Badman ST, Riley P, Jones SI, Kim TK, Allen RC, Arge CN, Bale SD, Henney CJ, Kasper JC, Mostafavi P, Pogorelov NV, Raouafi NE, Stevens ML, Verniero JLet al., 2023,

    Prediction and Verification of Parker Solar Probe Solar Wind Sources at 13.3 R<sub>⊙</sub>

  • Journal article
    Wells C, Kasoar M, Bellouin N, Voulgarakis Aet al., 2023,

    Local and remote climate impacts of future African aerosol emissions

    , Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol: 23, Pages: 3575-3593, ISSN: 1680-7316

    The potential future trend in African aerosol emissions is uncertain, with a large range found in future scenarios used to drive climate projections. The future climate impact of these emissions is therefore uncertain. Using the Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP) scenarios, transient future experiments were performed with the UK Earth System Model (UKESM1) to investigate the effect of African emissions following the high emission SSP370 scenario as the rest of the world follows the more sustainable SSP119, relative to a global SSP119 control. This isolates the effect of Africa following a relatively more polluted future emissions pathway. Compared to SSP119, SSP370 projects higher non-biomass-burning (non-BB) aerosol emissions, but lower biomass burning emissions, over Africa. Increased shortwave (SW) absorption by black carbon aerosol leads to a global warming, but the reduction in the local incident surface radiation close to the emissions is larger, causing a local cooling effect. The local cooling persists even when including the higher African CO2 emissions under SSP370 than SSP119. The global warming is significantly higher by 0.07 K when including the non-BB aerosol increases and higher still (0.22 K) when including all aerosols and CO2. Precipitation also exhibits complex changes. Northward shifts in the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) occur under relatively warm Northern Hemisphere land, and local rainfall is enhanced due to mid-tropospheric instability from black carbon absorption. These results highlight the importance of future African aerosol emissions for regional and global climate and the spatial complexity of this climate influence.

  • Journal article
    Dandouras I, Taylor MGGT, De Keyser J, Futaana Y, Bamford RA, Branduardi-Raymont G, Chaufray J-Y, Constantinescu D, De Angelis E, Devoto P, Eastwood J, Echim M, Garnier P, Grison B, Hercik D, Lammer H, Laurens A, Leblanc F, Milillo A, Nakamura R, Přech L, Roussos E, Štverák Š, Forest J, Trouche A, Hess SLG, Mateo-Vélez J-C, Carpenter J, Winter Jet al., 2023,

    Space plasma physics science opportunities for the lunar orbital platform - Gateway

    , Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-30, ISSN: 2296-987X

    The Lunar Orbital Platform - Gateway (LOP - Gateway, or simply Gateway) is a crewed platform that will be assembled and operated in the vicinity of the Moon by NASA and international partner organizations, including ESA, starting from the mid-2020s. It will offer new opportunities for fundamental and applied scientific research. The Moon is a unique location to study the deep space plasma environment. Moreover, the lunar surface and the surface-bounded exosphere are interacting with this environment, constituting a complex multi-scale interacting system. This paper examines the opportunities provided by externally mounted payloads on the Gateway in the field of space plasma physics, heliophysics and space weather, and also examines the impact of the space environment on an inhabited platform in the vicinity of the Moon. It then presents the conceptual design of a model payload, required to perform these space plasma measurements and observations. It results that the Gateway is very well-suited for space plasma physics research. It allows a series of scientific objectives with a multi-disciplinary dimension to be addressed.

  • Journal article
    Lai T-K, Toumi R, 2023,

    Has there been a recent shallowing of tropical cyclones?

    , Geophysical Research Letters, Vol: 50, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 0094-8276

    Many aspects of tropical cyclone (TC) properties at the surface have been changing but any systematic vertical changes are unknown. Here, we document a recent trend of high thick clouds of TCs. The global inner-core high thick cloud fraction measured by satellite has decreased from 2002 to 2021 by about 10% per decade. The TC inner-core surface rain rate is also found to have decreased during the same period by a similar percentage. This suppression of high thick clouds and rain has been largest during the intensification phase of the strongest TCs. Hence, these two independent and consistent observations suggest that the TC inner-core convection has weakened and that TCs have become shallower recently at least. For this period, the lifetime maximum intensity of major TCs has not changed and this suggests an increased efficiency of the spin-up of TCs.

  • Journal article
    Castrillejo M, Hansman RL, Graven HD, Lester JG, Bollhalder S, Kundig K, Wacker Let al., 2023,

    Comparability of radiocarbon measurements in dissolved inorganic carbon of seawater produced at ETH-Zurich

    , Radiocarbon: an international journal of cosmogenic isotope research, ISSN: 0033-8222

    Radiocarbon observations (Δ14C) in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of seawater provide useful information about ocean carbon cycling and ocean circulation. To deliver high-quality observations, the Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics (LIP) at ETH-Zurich developed a new simplified method allowing the rapid analysis of radiocarbon in DIC of small seawater samples, which is continually assessed by following internal quality controls. However, a comparison with externally produced 14C measurements to better establish an equivalency between methods was still missing. Here, we make the first intercomparison with the National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (NOSAMS) facility based on 14 duplicate seawater samples collected in 2020. We also compare with prior deep-water observations from the 1970s to 1990s. The results show a very good agreement in both comparisons. The mean Δ14C of 12 duplicate samples measured by LIP and NOSAMS were statistically identical within one sigma uncertainty while two other duplicate samples agreed within two sigma. Based on this small number of duplicate samples, LIP values appear to be slightly lower than the NOSAMS values, but more measurements will be needed for confirmation. We also comment on storage and preservation techniques used in this study, including the freezing of samples collected in foil bags.

  • Journal article
    Soljento JE, Good SW, Osmane A, Kilpua EKJet al., 2023,

    Imbalanced Turbulence Modified by Large-scale Velocity Shears in the Solar Wind

  • Journal article
    Bassett N, Rapetti D, Nhan BD, Page B, Burns JO, Pulupa M, Bale SDet al., 2023,

    Constraining a Model of the Radio Sky below 6 MHz Using the Parker Solar Probe/FIELDS Instrument in Preparation for Upcoming Lunar-based Experiments

    , ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 945, ISSN: 0004-637X
  • Journal article
    Raouafi NE, Stenborg G, Seaton DB, Wang H, Wang J, DeForest CE, Bale SD, Drake JF, Uritsky VM, Karpen JT, DeVore CR, Sterling AC, Horbury TS, Harra LK, Bourouaine S, Kasper JC, Kumar P, Phan TD, Velli Met al., 2023,

    Magnetic Reconnection as the Driver of the Solar Wind

    , ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 945, ISSN: 0004-637X
  • Journal article
    Elsden T, Southwood DJ, 2023,

    Modeling features of field line resonance observable by a single spacecraft at Saturn

    , JGR: Space Physics, Vol: 128, Pages: 1-21, ISSN: 2169-9402

    The observations of Southwood et al. (2021,, using data from the Cassini magnetometer from the final (proximal) orbits of the mission at Saturn, show large scale azimuthally polarized magnetic signals are always present near periapsis. The signals were attributed to standing Alfvén waves excited on the magnetic shells planetward of the Saturn D-ring. The apparent absence of any systematic variation in frequency as the spacecraft crossed magnetic shells, implied that the signals were not simply locally excited standing Alfvén modes, but were pumped by coupling to global compressional eigenmodes excited in a cavity formed in the dayside magnetosphere. In this study, we use a numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model to test such theoretical explanations for the observations, by examining in detail the MHD wave coupling and large scale spatial structure of the signals. The modeling not only shows good agreement with the data but further provides new insight into features previously overlooked in the data. In particular, we show how the apparent frequency of a single spacecraft observation is affected by the phase variation present in a local field line resonance.

  • Journal article
    Archer M, Hartinger MD, Rastatter L, Southwood D, Heyns M, Eggington J, Wright A, Plaschke F, Shi Xet al., 2023,

    Auroral, ionospheric and ground magnetic signatures of magnetopause surface modes

    , Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol: 128, Pages: 1-25, ISSN: 2169-9380

    Surface waves on Earth's magnetopause have a controlling effect upon global magnetospheric dynamics. Since spacecraft provide sparse in situ observation points, remote sensing these modes using ground-based instruments in the polar regions is desirable. However, many open conceptual questions on the expected signatures remain. Therefore, we provide predictions of key qualitative features expected in auroral, ionospheric, and ground magnetic observations through both magnetohydrodynamic theory and a global coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere simulation of a magnetopause surface eigenmode. These show monochromatic oscillatory field-aligned currents (FACs), due to both the surface mode and its non-resonant Alfvén coupling, are present throughout the magnetosphere. The currents peak in amplitude at the equatorward edge of the magnetopause boundary layer, not the open-closed boundary as previously thought. They also exhibit slow poleward phase motion rather than being purely evanescent. We suggest the upward FAC perturbations may result in periodic auroral brightenings. In the ionosphere, convection vortices circulate the poleward moving FAC structures. Finally, surface mode signals are predicted in the ground magnetic field, with ionospheric Hall currents rotating perturbations by approximately (but not exactly) 90° compared to the magnetosphere. Thus typical dayside magnetopause surface modes should be strongest in the East-West ground magnetic field component. Overall, all ground-based signatures of the magnetopause surface mode are predicted to have the same frequency across L-shells, amplitudes that maximize near the magnetopause's equatorward edge, and larger latitudinal scales than for field line resonance. Implications in terms of ionospheric Joule heating and geomagnetically induced currents are discussed.

  • Journal article
    Brandt PC, Provornikova E, Bale SD, Cocoros A, DeMajistre R, Dialynas K, Elliott HA, Eriksson S, Fields B, Galli A, Hill ME, Horanyi M, Horbury T, Hunziker S, Kollmann P, Kinnison J, Fountain G, Krimigis SM, Kurth WS, Linsky J, Lisse CM, Mandt KE, Magnes W, McNutt RL, Miller J, Moebius E, Mostafavi P, Opher M, Paxton L, Plaschke F, Poppe AR, Roelof EC, Runyon K, Redfield S, Schwadron N, Sterken V, Swaczyna P, Szalay J, Turner D, Vannier H, Wimmer-Schweingruber R, Wurz P, Zirnstein EJet al., 2023,

    Future Exploration of the Outer Heliosphere and Very Local Interstellar Medium by Interstellar Probe

    , SPACE SCIENCE REVIEWS, Vol: 219, ISSN: 0038-6308
  • Journal article
    Gieseler J, Dresing N, Palmroos C, von Forstner JLFL, Price DJ, Vainio R, Kouloumvakos A, Rodriguez-Garcia L, Trotta D, Genot V, Masson A, Roth M, Veronig Aet al., 2023,

    Solar-MACH: An open-source tool to analyze solar magnetic connection configurations

  • Journal article
    Sibeck DGG, Murphy KRR, Porter FS, Connor HKK, Walsh BMM, Kuntz KDD, Zesta E, Valek P, Baker CLL, Goldstein J, Frey H, Hsieh S-Y, Brandt PCC, Gomez R, DiBraccio GAA, Kameda S, Dwivedi V, Purucker MEE, Shoemaker M, Petrinec SMM, Aryan H, Desai RTT, Henderson MGG, Cucho-Padin G, Cramer WDet al., 2023,

    Quantifying the global solar wind-magnetosphere interaction with the Solar-Terrestrial Observer for the Response of the Magnetosphere (STORM) mission concept

  • Journal article
    Krasnoselskikh V, Tsurutani BT, Dudok de Wit T, Walker S, Balikhin M, Balat-Pichelin M, Velli M, Bale SD, Maksimovic M, Agapitov O, Baumjohann W, Berthomier M, Bruno R, Cranmer SR, de Pontieu B, Meneses DDS, Eastwood J, Erdelyi R, Ergun R, Fedun V, Ganushkina N, Greco A, Harra L, Henri P, Horbury T, Hudson H, Kasper J, Khotyaintsev Y, Kretzschmar M, Krucker S, Kucharek H, Langevin Y, Lavraud B, Lebreton J-P, Lepri S, Liemohn M, Louarn P, Moebius E, Mozer F, Nemecek Z, Panasenco O, Retino A, Safrankova J, Scudder J, Servidio S, Sorriso-Valvo L, Souček J, Szabo A, Vaivads A, Vekstein G, Vörös Z, Zaqarashvili T, Zimbardo G, Fedorov Aet al., 2023,

    ICARUS: in-situ studies of the solar corona beyond Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter

    , Experimental Astronomy, Vol: 54, Pages: 277-315, ISSN: 0922-6435

    The primary scientific goal of ICARUS (Investigation of Coronal AcceleRation and heating of solar wind Up to the Sun), a mother-daughter satellite mission, proposed in response to the ESA “Voyage 2050” Call, will be to determine how the magnetic field and plasma dynamics in the outer solar atmosphere give rise to the corona, the solar wind, and the entire heliosphere. Reaching this goal will be a Rosetta Stone step, with results that are broadly applicable within the fields of space plasma physics and astrophysics. Within ESA’s Cosmic Vision roadmap, these science goals address Theme 2: “How does the Solar System work?” by investigating basic processes occurring “From the Sun to the edge of the Solar System”. ICARUS will not only advance our understanding of the plasma environment around our Sun, but also of the numerous magnetically active stars with hot plasma coronae. ICARUS I will perform the first direct in situ measurements of electromagnetic fields, particle acceleration, wave activity, energy distribution, and flows directly in the regions in which the solar wind emerges from the coronal plasma. ICARUS I will have a perihelion altitude of 1 solar radius and will cross the region where the major energy deposition occurs. The polar orbit of ICARUS I will enable crossing the regions where both the fast and slow winds are generated. It will probe the local characteristics of the plasma and provide unique information about the physical processes involved in the creation of the solar wind. ICARUS II will observe this region using remote-sensing instruments, providing simultaneous, contextual information about regions crossed by ICARUS I and the solar atmosphere below as observed by solar telescopes. It will thus provide bridges for understanding the magnetic links between the heliosphere and the solar atmosphere. Such information is crucial to our understanding of the plasma physics and electrodynamics of the solar atmosph

  • Journal article
    Shi C, Velli M, Lionello R, Sioulas N, Huang Z, Halekas JS, Tenerani A, Reville V, Dakeyo J-B, Maksimovic M, Bale SDet al., 2023,

    Proton and Electron Temperatures in the Solar Wind and Their Correlations with the Solar Wind Speed

    , ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 944, ISSN: 0004-637X

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