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  • Journal article
    Cockbain B, Taylor GP, Rosadas de Oliveira C, 2023,

    HTLV-1 as a contributing factor towards scabies and its systemic sequelae

    , Journal of Global Health, ISSN: 2047-2978

    It is increasingly recognised that scabies plays an important, causative role in the development of group A Streptococcal (GAS) skin infections, with the renal and cardiac sequelae of these infections leading to significant global morbidity and mortality. There remains, however, uncertainty as to why scabies is so prevalent in certain areas. In this Viewpoint, we propose that Human T-Lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) may be one contributing factor, as HTLV-1 can increase an individual’s susceptibility to scabies and, through its association with the highly infectious crusted scabies, may help maintain scabies within populations. HTLV-1 may also contribute to the global burden of GAS skin infections even in the absence of scabies, as HTLV-1 is associated with other causes of skin barrier breakdown, including xerosis and infective dermatitis of HTLV-1. Through its role in the development of GAS skin infections, HTLV-1 may be an important, yet thus far unappreciated, contributor towards the global burden of renal and cardiac disease.

  • Journal article
    Arenas-Pinto A, Bakewell N, Milinkovic A, Williams I, Vera J, Post FA, Anderson J, Beynon M, O'Brien A, Doyle N, Gilson R, Pett SL, Winston A, Sabin CA, Pharmacokinetic and clinical Observations in People over fiftY POPPY studyet al., 2023,

    Hepatic steatosis in people older and younger than fifty who are living with HIV and HIV-negative controls: A cross-sectional study nested within the POPPY cohort.

    , HIV Med

    BACKGROUND: Hepatic steatosis is a major cause of chronic liver disease associated with several negative health outcomes. We compared the prevalence of and factors associated with steatosis in people living with and without HIV. METHODS: Older (>50 years) and younger (<50 years) people with HIV and older HIV-negative controls (>50 years) underwent liver transient elastography examination with controlled attenuation parameter (steatosis ≥238 dB/m, moderate/severe steatosis ≥280 dB/m, liver fibrosis ≥7.1 kPa). We compared groups using logistic regression/Chi-squared/Fisher's exact/Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS: In total, 317 participants (109 older people with HIV; 101 younger people with HIV; 107 HIV-negative controls) were predominantly white (86%) and male (76%), and 21% were living with obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 ). Most (97%) people with HIV had undetectable HIV RNA. The prevalence of fibrosis was 8.4%, 3.0%, and 6.5% in the three groups, respectively (p = 0.26). Fibrosis was predominately (>65%) mild. The prevalence of steatosis was the same in older people with HIV (66.4%) and controls (66.4%) but lower in younger people with HIV (37.4%; p < 0.001). After adjustment, younger people with HIV were less likely to have steatosis (odds ratio [OR] 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14-0.52) than controls, but male sex (OR 2.45; 95% CI 1.20-4.50) and high waist-to-hip ratio (OR 3.04; 95% CI 1.74-5.33) were associated with an increased odds of steatosis. We found no association between steatosis and HIV-related variables. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis was similar between older participants regardless of HIV status. Age, sex, and abdominal obesity, but not HIV-related variables, were associated with steatosis. Interventions for controlling obesity should be integrated into routine HIV care.

  • Journal article
    Klinkenberg E, Floyd S, Shanaube K, Mureithi L, Gachie T, de Haas P, Kosloff B, Dodd PJ, Ruperez M, Wapamesa C, Burnett JM, Kalisvaart N, Kasese N, Vermaak R, Schaap A, Fidler S, Hayes R, Ayles H, TREATS study teamet al., 2023,

    Tuberculosis prevalence after 4 years of population-wide systematic TB symptom screening and universal testing and treatment for HIV in the HPTN 071 (PopART) community-randomised trial in Zambia and South Africa: A cross-sectional survey (TREATS).

    , PLoS Med, Vol: 20

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) prevalence remains persistently high in many settings, with new or expanded interventions required to achieve substantial reductions. The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 071 (PopART) community-randomised trial randomised 14 communities to receive the "PopART" intervention during 2014 to 2017 (7 arm A and 7 arm B communities) and 7 communities to receive standard-of-care (arm C). The intervention was delivered door-to-door by community HIV care providers (CHiPs) and included universal HIV testing, facilitated linkage to HIV care at government health clinics, and systematic TB symptom screening. The Tuberculosis Reduction through Expanded Anti-retroviral Treatment and Screening (TREATS) study aimed to measure the impact of delivering the PopART intervention on TB outcomes, in communities with high HIV and TB prevalence. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study population of the HPTN 071 (PopART) trial included individuals aged ≥15 years living in 21 urban and peri-urban communities in Zambia and South Africa, with a total population of approximately 1 million and an adult HIV prevalence of around 15% at the time of the trial. Two sputum samples for TB testing were provided to CHiPs by individuals who reported ≥1 TB suggestive symptom (a cough for ≥2 weeks, unintentional weight loss ≥1.5 kg in the last month, or current night sweats) or that a household member was currently on TB treatment. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) was offered universally at clinics in arm A and according to local guidelines in arms B and C. The TREATS study was conducted in the same 21 communities as the HPTN 071 (PopART) trial between 2017 and 2022, and TB prevalence was a co-primary endpoint of the TREATS study. The primary comparison was between the PopART intervention (arms A and B combined) and the standard-of-care (arm C). During 2019 to 2021, a TB prevalence survey was conducted among randomly selected individuals aged ≥15 years (approximat

  • Journal article
    Davis K, Pickles M, Gregson S, Hargreaves JR, Ayles H, Bock P, Pliakas T, Thomas R, Ohrnberger J, Bwalya J, Bell-Mandla N, Shanaube K, Probert W, Hoddinott G, Bond V, Hayes R, Fidler S, Hauck Ket al., 2023,

    The effect of universal testing and treatment for HIV on health-related quality of life – an analysis of data from the HPTN 071 (PopART) cluster randomised trial

    , SSM: Population Health, Vol: 23, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2352-8273

    BackgroundHIV treatment has clear Health-Related Quality-of-Life (HRQoL) benefits. However, little is known about how Universal Testing and Treatment (UTT) for HIV affects HRQoL. This study aimed to examine the effect of a combination prevention intervention, including UTT, on HRQoL among People Living with HIV (PLHIV).MethodsData were from HPTN 071 (PopART), a three-arm cluster randomised controlled trial in 21 communities in Zambia and South Africa (2013–2018). Arm A received the full UTT intervention of door-to-door HIV testing plus access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) regardless of CD4 count, Arm B received the intervention but followed national treatment guidelines (universal ART from 2016), and Arm C received standard care. The intervention effect was measured in a cohort of randomly selected adults, over 36 months. HRQoL scores, and the prevalence of problems in five HRQoL dimensions (mobility, self-care, performing daily activities, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression) were assessed among all participants using the EuroQol-5-dimensions-5-levels questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L). We compared HRQoL among PLHIV with laboratory confirmed HIV status between arms, using adjusted two-stage cluster-level analyses.ResultsAt baseline, 7,856 PLHIV provided HRQoL data. At 36 months, the mean HRQoL score was 0.892 (95% confidence interval: 0.887–0.898) in Arm A, 0.886 (0.877–0.894) in Arm B and 0.888 (0.884–0.892) in Arm C. There was no evidence of a difference in HRQoL scores between arms (A vs C, adjusted mean difference: 0.003, -0.001-0.006; B vs C: -0.004, -0.014-0.005). The prevalence of problems with pain/discomfort was lower in Arm A than C (adjusted prevalence ratio: 0.37, 0.14–0.97). There was no evidence of differences for other HRQoL dimensions.ConclusionsThe intervention did not change overall HRQoL, suggesting that raising HRQoL among PLHIV might require more than improved testing and treatment. However, PLHIV had fewer problems with p

  • Journal article
    Whitaker M, Davies B, Atchison C, Barclay W, Ashby D, Darzi A, Riley S, Cooke G, Donnelly C, Chadeau M, Elliott P, Ward Het al., 2023,

    SARS-CoV-2 rapid antibody test results and subsequent risk of hospitalisation and death in 361,801 people

    , Nature Communications, Vol: 14, ISSN: 2041-1723

    The value of SARS-CoV-2 lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) tests for estimating individual disease risk is unclear. The REACT-2 study in England, UK, obtained self-administered SARS-CoV-2 LFIA test results from 361,801 adults in January-May 2021. Here, we link to routine data on subsequent hospitalisation (to September 2021), and death (to December 2021). Among those who had received one or more vaccines, a negative LFIA is associated with increased risk of hospitalisation with COVID-19 (HR: 2.73 [95% confidence interval: 1.15,6.48]), death (all-cause) (HR: 1.59, 95% CI:1.07, 2.37), and death with COVID-19 as underlying cause (20.6 [1.83,232]). For people designated at high risk from COVID-19, who had received one or more vaccines, there is an additional risk of all-cause mortality of 1.9 per 1000 for those testing antibody negative compared to positive. However, the LFIA does not provide substantial predictive information over and above that which is available from detailed sociodemographic and health-related variables. Nonetheless, this simple test provides a marker which could be a valuable addition to understanding population and individual-level risk.

  • Journal article
    Adonis A, Russell A-M, Taylor GP, Preston M, Shields A, Strachan S, Young S, Diallo H, Ashford S, Cassidy Eet al., 2023,

    Patient research priority setting partnership in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I.

    , Health Expect

    INTRODUCTION: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a chronic infection affecting 5-10 million people worldwide. Ten percent develop HTLV-1-associated diseases, and 3%-5% develop HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM)/tropical spastic paraparesis. Low health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a significant concern for those with HTLV-1, and little is known about how it impacts daily life or what patients need from healthcare services. To address this, we report on patient involvement workshops aimed at identifying research priorities for HTLV-1 health service provision. METHODS: Participants recruited through HTLV-1 clinics in England attended six 90-min virtual workshops over 10 months, and two 60-min consolidation workshops. Content developed iteratively from topic focussed group discussions. All workshops were video-recorded with consent, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Using consensus voting rounds, participants individually ranked their top six and then collectively their top three research priorities from the themes inferred from the analysis. A final feedback session explored the experiences of participating in the workshops. FINDINGS: Twenty-seven people with HTLV-1 engaged with the workshops with up to 22 participants attending each meeting. The majority were diagnosed with HAM (n = 22). The top three research priorities were identified as understanding disease progression, psychosocial wellbeing, and information and knowledge. Participants valued being asked to set research priorities that directly addressed their needs and enjoyed the workshops. They stressed the importance of patient advocates for promoting research that positively impacts everyday life. CONCLUSION: This is the first of this type of research engagement with people with HTLV-1 in the United Kingdom. Participants identified several avenues of investigation that could lead to improvements in healthcare services and HRQoL. Participants believed the work

  • Journal article
    Ngosa D, Moonga G, Shanaube K, Jacobs C, Ruperez M, Kasese N, Klinkenberg E, Schaap A, Mureithi L, Floyd S, Fidler S, Sichizya V, Maleya A, Ayles Het al., 2023,

    Assessment of non-tuberculosis abnormalities on digital chest x-rays with high CAD4TB scores from a tuberculosis prevalence survey in Zambia and South Africa.

    , BMC Infect Dis, Vol: 23

    BACKGROUND: Chest X-rays (CXRs) have traditionally been used to aid the diagnosis of TB-suggestive abnormalities. Using Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) algorithms, TB risk is quantified to assist with diagnostics. However, CXRs capture all other structural abnormalities. Identification of non-TB abnormalities in individuals with CXRs that have high CAD scores but don't have bacteriologically confirmed TB is unknown. This presents a missed opportunity of extending novel CAD systems' potential to simultaneously provide information on other non-TB abnormalities alongside TB. This study aimed to characterize and estimate the prevalence of non-TB abnormalities on digital CXRs with high CAD4TB scores from a TB prevalence survey in Zambia and South Africa. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional analysis of clinical data of participants from the TREATS TB prevalence survey conducted in 21 communities in Zambia and South Africa. The study included individuals aged ≥ 15 years who had high CAD4TB scores (score ≥ 70), but had no bacteriologically confirmed TB in any of the samples submitted, were not on TB treatment, and had no history of TB. Two consultant radiologists reviewed the images for non-TB abnormalities. RESULTS: Of the 525 CXRs reviewed, 46.7% (245/525) images were reported to have non-TB abnormalities. About 11.43% (28/245) images had multiple non-TB abnormalities, while 88.67% (217/245) had a single non-TB abnormality. The readers had a fair inter-rater agreement (r = 0.40). Based on anatomical location, non-TB abnormalities in the lung parenchyma (19%) were the most prevalent, followed by Pleura (15.4%), then heart & great vessels (6.1%) abnormalities. Pleural effusion/thickening/calcification (8.8%) and cardiomegaly (5%) were the most prevalent non-TB abnormalities. Prevalence of (2.7%) for pneumonia not typical of pulmonary TB and (2.1%) mass/nodules (benign/ malignant) were also reported. CONCLUSION: A w

  • Journal article
    Mcinziba A, Bock P, Hoddinott G, Seeley J, Bond V, Fidler S, Viljoen Let al., 2023,

    Managing household income and antiretroviral therapy adherence among people living with HIV in a low-income setting: a qualitative data from the HPTN 071 (PopART) trial in South Africa.

    , AIDS Res Ther, Vol: 20

    BACKGROUND: South Africa is reported to have the highest burden of HIV with an estimated 8.2 million people living with HIV (PLHIV) in 2021- despite adopting the World Health Organisation (WHO) universal HIV test and treat (UTT) recommendations in 2016. As of 2021, only an estimated 67% (5.5 million) of all PLHIV were accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART), as per recorded clinic appointments attendance. Studies in sub-Saharan Africa show that people living in low-income households experience multiple livelihood-related barriers to either accessing or adhering to HIV treatment including lack of resources to attend to facilities and food insecurity. We describe the interactions between managing household income and ART adherence for PLHIV in low-income urban and semi-urban settings in the Western Cape, South Africa. METHODS: We draw on qualitative data collected as part of the HPTN 071 (PopART) HIV prevention trial (2016 - 2018) to provide a detailed description of the interactions between household income and self-reported ART adherence (including accessing ART and the ability to consistently take ART as prescribed) for PLHIV in the Western Cape, South Africa. We included data from 21 PLHIV (10 men and 11 women aged between 18 and 70 years old) from 13 households. As part of the qualitative component, we submitted an amendment to the ethics to recruit and interview community members across age ranges. We purposefully sampled for diversity in terms of age, gender, and household composition. RESULTS: We found that the management of household income interacted with people's experiences of accessing and adhering to ART in diverse ways. Participants reported that ART adherence was not a linear process as it was influenced by income stability, changing household composition, and other financial considerations. Participants reported that they did not have a fixed way of managing income and that subsequently caused inconsistency in their ART adherence. P

  • Journal article
    Yang B, Sloot R, Floyd S, Awoniyi D, Griffith S, Ayles H, Fidler S, Hayes R, Vermund SH, Bock P, HPTN 071 PopART study teamet al., 2023,

    Brief Report: How Do We Reach Men? Offering HIV Testing in Evenings and Weekends in the HPTN 071 (PopART) Community-Based Trial in South Africa.

    , J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, Vol: 93, Pages: 300-304

    BACKGROUND: Unknown HIV status and consequent low antiretroviral treatment coverage among men living with HIV combined with high-risk behavior is a key driver of the HIV epidemic in high-burden settings. We investigated whether conducting household visits during nontraditional shifts increased the number of men recruited for community-based HIV testing, compared with traditional weekday shifts in the HPTN 071 (PopART) trial in South Africa. METHODS: We used data captured during household visits among individuals aged 15 years or older in 6 communities in South Africa from September 2016 to September 2017. Successful recruitment required community HIV care providers (CHiPs) accessing a household member and completing the study questionnaire. Linear regression analysis compared mean successful recruitments between the different shift types stratified by sex. RESULTS: During 187 days, 62,455 successful household visits were completed. Recruitment of men and women was higher in weekends, for men highest on Sundays (Coef: 11.2, 95% CI: 8.7 to 13.7), for women highest on Saturdays (Coef: 11.3, 95% CI: 7.6 to 15.1), indicating a mean of 11.2 more men recruited on Sunday shifts, compared with traditional weekday shifts was similar when comparing traditional weekday shifts with nontraditional weekday shifts for both men and women. CONCLUSION: Conducting household visits during the weekends led to increased recruitment for participation in the PopART intervention among both men and women. This suggests that targeting households during the weekend can be an effective and easy-to-implement strategy to increase the number of men accessed for HIV testing that can be integrated into a wide range of community-based services.

  • Journal article
    Davies NWS, Taylor GP, 2023,

    Targeted immunotherapy for HTLV-1-associated myelopathy: a step in the right direction.

    , Brain, Vol: 146, Pages: 3114-3116

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