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  • Journal article
    Mousnier A, Bell AS, Swieboda DP, Morales-Sanfrutos J, Pérez-Dorado I, Brannigan JA, Newman J, Ritzefeld M, Hutton JA, Guedán A, Asfor AA, Robinson SW, Hopkins-Navratilova I, Wilkinson AJ, Johnston SL, Leatherbarrow RJ, Tuthill TJ, Solari R, Tate EWet al., 2018,

    Fragment-derived inhibitors of human N-myristoyltransferase block capsid assembly and replication of the common cold virus

    , Nature Chemistry, Vol: 10, Pages: 599-606, ISSN: 1755-4330

    Rhinoviruses are the pathogens most often responsible for the common cold, and are a frequent cause of exacerbations in asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. Here we report discovery of IMP-1088, a picomolar dual inhibitor of the human N-myristoyltransferases NMT1 and NMT2, and use it to demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of host cell N-myristoylation rapidly and completely prevents rhinoviral replication without inducing cytotoxicity. Identification of cooperative binding between weak-binding fragments led to rapid inhibitor optimization through fragment reconstruction, structure-guided fragment linking, and conformational control over linker geometry. We show that inhibition of co-translational myristoylation of a specific virus-encoded protein (VP0) by IMP-1088 potently blocks a key step in viral capsid assembly, delivering low nanomolar antiviral activity against multiple rhinovirus strains, poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus, and protection of cells against virus-induced killing, highlighting the potential of host myristoylation as a drug target in picornaviral infections.

  • Journal article
    Craven GB, Affron DP, Allen CE, Matthies S, Greener JG, Morgan RML, Tate EW, Armstrong A, Mann DJet al., 2018,

    High-throughput kinetic analysis for target-directed covalent ligand discovery

    , Angewandte Chemie, Vol: 130, Pages: 5355-5359, ISSN: 0044-8249

    Cysteine‐reactive small molecules are used as chemical probes of biological systems and as medicines. Identifying high‐quality covalent ligands requires comprehensive kinetic analysis to distinguish selective binders from pan‐reactive compounds. Quantitative irreversible tethering (qIT), a general method for screening cysteine‐reactive small molecules based upon the maximization of kinetic selectivity, is described. This method was applied prospectively to discover covalent fragments that target the clinically important cell cycle regulator Cdk2. Crystal structures of the inhibitor complexes validate the approach and guide further optimization. The power of this technique is highlighted by the identification of a Cdk2‐selective allosteric (type IV) kinase inhibitor whose novel mode‐of‐action could be exploited therapeutically.

  • Journal article
    Craven G, Affron D, Allen C, Matthies S, Greener J, Morgan R, Tate E, Armstrong A, Mann Det al., 2018,

    High-throughput kinetic analysis for target-directed covalent ligand discovery

    , Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol: 57, Pages: 5257-5261, ISSN: 1433-7851

    Cysteine-­reactive small molecules are used as chemical probes of biological systems and as medicines. Identifying high-­quality covalent ligands requires comprehensive kinetic analysis to distinguish selective binders from pan-­reactive compounds. Here we describe quantitative irreversible tethering(qIT), a general method for screening cysteine-­reactive small moleculesbased upon the maximization of kinetic selectivity. We apply this method prospectively to discover covalent fragments that target the clinically important cell cycle regulator Cdk2. Crystal structures of the inhibitor complexes validate the approach and guide further optimization. The power of this technique is highlighted by the identification of a Cdk2-­selective allosteric (type IV) kinase inhibitor whose novel mode-­of-­action could be exploited therapeutically.

  • Journal article
    Schlott AC, Holder AA, Tate EW, 2018,

    N-myristoylation as a drug target in malaria: exploring the role of N-myristoyltransferase substrates in the inhibitor mode of action

    , ACS Infectious Diseases, Vol: 4, Pages: 449-457, ISSN: 2373-8227

    Malaria continues to be a significant cause of death and morbidity worldwide, and there is a need for new antimalarial drugs with novel targets. We have focused as a potential target for drug development on N-myristoyl transferase (NMT), an enzyme that acylates a wide range of substrate proteins. The NMT substrates in Plasmodium falciparum include some proteins that are common to processes in eukaryotes such as secretory transport and others that are unique to apicomplexan parasites. Myristoylation facilitates a protein interaction with membranes that may be strengthened by further lipidation, and the inhibition of NMT results in incorrect protein localization and the consequent disruption of function. The diverse roles of NMT substrates mean that NMT inhibition has a pleiotropic and severe impact on parasite development, growth, and multiplication. To study the mode of action underlying NMT inhibition, it is important to consider the function of proteins upstream and downstream of NMT. In this work, we therefore present our current perspective on the different functions of known NMT substrates as well as compare the inhibition of cotranslational myristoylation to the inhibition of known targets upstream of NMT.

  • Journal article
    Pollard D, Berger CN, So E, Yu L, Hadavizadeh K, Jennings P, Tate E, Choudhary J, Frankel Get al., 2018,

    Broad spectrum regulation of non receptor tyrosine kinases by the bacterial ADP ribosyltransferase EspJ

    , mBio, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2150-7511

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is key for signal transduction fromexogenousstimuli, including the defence against pathogens. Conversely, pathogens cansubvert protein phosphorylation to control hostimmune responsesand facilitateinvasionanddissemination. The bacterial 23effectorsEspJand SeoC areinjected into host cellsthough a type III secretion system by enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli(EPEC and EHEC), Citrobacter rodentiumand Salmonellaentericawhere they inhibit Src kinase bycoupledamidation andADP-ribosylation. C. rodentium, which is used tomodel EPEC and EHEC infections in human, is a mouse pathogen triggeringcolonic crypt hyperplasia (CCH) and colitis. Enumeration of bacterial shedding and CCH confirmed that EspJ affects neither tolerance nor resistance to infection. However, comparing the proteomes of intestinal epithelial cells isolated from mice infected with wildtype C.rodentiumor C. rodentiumencoding catalyticallyinactive EspJrevealed that EspJ-induced ADP-ribosylationregulatesmultiple non-receptor tyrosine kinasesin vivo. Investigating the substrate repertoire of EspJ revealed that in HeLa and A549 Src and Csk were significantly targeted; in polarised Caco2 cells EspJ targeted Src and Csk and the Src family kinase (SFK) Yes1, while in differentiated Thp1 EspJ modifiedCsk, the SFKs Hck and Lyn, the Tec family kinases Tec and Btk, and the adapter tyrosine kinase Syk. Furthermore, Abl (HeLa and Caco2) and Lyn (Caco2) were enriched specifically in the EspJ-containing samples. Biochemical assays revealed that EspJ, the only bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase which targets mammalian kinases,controls immune responses andthe Src/Csk signalling axis.

  • Journal article
    Lubin AS, Zubiaurre AR, Matthews H, Baumann H, Fisher FR, Morales-Sanfrutos J, Hadavizadeh KS, Nardella F, Tate EW, Baum J, Scherf A, Fuchter MJet al., 2018,

    Development of a photo-crosslinkable diaminoquinazoline inhibitor for target identification in plasmodium falciparum

    , ACS Infectious Diseases, Vol: 4, Pages: 523-530, ISSN: 2373-8227

    Diaminoquinazolines represent a privileged scaffold for antimalarial discovery, including use as putative Plasmodium histone lysine methyltransferase inhibitors. Despite this, robust evidence for their molecular targets is lacking. Here we report the design and development of a small-molecule photo-crosslinkable probe to investigate the targets of our diaminoquinazoline series. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our designed probe for photoaffinity labelling of Plasmodium lysates and identify similarities between the target profiles of the probe and the representative diaminoquinazoline BIX-01294. Initial pull-down proteomics experiments identified 104 proteins from different classes, many of which are essential, highlighting the suitability of the developed probe as a valuable tool for target identification in Plasmodium falciparum.

  • Journal article
    Lanyon-Hogg T, Faronato M, Serwa RA, Tate EWet al., 2017,

    Dynamic protein acylation: new substrates, mechanisms and drug targets

    , Trends in Biochemical Sciences, Vol: 42, Pages: 566-581, ISSN: 0968-0004

    Post-translational attachment of lipids to proteins is found in all organisms, and is important for many biological processes. Acylation with myristic and palmitic acids are among the most common lipid modifications, and understanding reversible protein palmitoylation dynamics has become a particularly important goal. Linking acyltransferase enzymes to disease states can be challenging due to a paucity of robust models, compounded by functional redundancy between many palmitoyl transferases; however, in cases such as Wnt or Hedgehog signalling, small molecule inhibitors have been identified, with some progressing to clinical trials. In this review, we present recent developments in our understanding of protein acylation in human health and disease through use of chemical tools, global profiling of acylated proteomes, and functional studies of specific protein targets.

  • Journal article
    Clulow JA, Storck EM, Lanyon-Hogg T, Kalesh KA, Jones LH, Tate EWet al., 2017,

    Competition-based, quantitative chemical proteomics in breast cancer cells identifies new target profiles for sulforaphane

    , Chemical Communications, Vol: 53, Pages: 5182-5185, ISSN: 1364-548X

    Sulforaphane is a small molecule isothiocyanate which exhibits anticancer potential, yet its biological targets remain poorly understood. Here we employ a competition-based chemical proteomics strategy to profile sulforaphane's targets and identify over 500 targets along with their relative affinities. These targets provide a new set of mediators for sulforaphane's bioactivity, and aid understanding of its complex mode of action.

  • Journal article
    Ritzefeld M, Wright MH, Tate EW, 2017,

    New developments in probing and targeting protein acylation in malaria, leishmaniasis and African sleeping sickness

    , Parasitology, Vol: 145, Pages: 157-174, ISSN: 1469-8161

    Infections by protozoan parasites, such as Plasmodium falciparum or Leishmania donovani, have a significant health, social and economic impact and threaten billions of people living in tropical and sub-tropical regions of developing countries worldwide. The increasing range of parasite strains resistant to frontline therapeutics makes the identification of novel drug targets and the development of corresponding inhibitors vital. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are important modulators of biology and inhibition of protein lipidation has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for treatment of parasitic diseases. In this review we summarize the latest insights into protein lipidation in protozoan parasites. We discuss how recent chemical proteomic approaches have delivered the first global overviews of protein lipidation in these organisms, contributing to our understanding of the role of this PTM in critical metabolic and cellular functions. Additionally, we highlight the development of new small molecule inhibitors to target parasite acyl transferases.

  • Journal article
    Lanyon-Hogg T, Patel NV, Ritzefeld M, Boxall KJ, Burke R, Blagg J, Magee AI, Tate EWet al., 2017,

    Microfluidic mobility shift assay for real-time analysis of peptide n-palmitoylation

    , SLAS Discovery, Vol: 22, Pages: 418-424, ISSN: 2472-5552

    The Hedgehog pathway is a key developmental signaling pathway but is also implicated in many types of cancer. The extracellular signaling protein Sonic hedgehog (Shh) requires dual lipidation for functional signaling, whereby N-terminal palmitoylation is performed by the enzyme Hedgehog acyltransferase (Hhat). Hhat is an attractive target for small-molecule inhibition to arrest Hedgehog signaling, and methods for assaying Hhat activity are central to understanding its function. However, all existing assays to quantify lipidation of peptides suffer limitations, such as safety hazards, high costs, extensive manual handling, restriction to stopped-assay measurements, or indirect assessment of lipidation. To address these limitations, we developed a microfluidic mobility shift assay (MSA) to analyze Shh palmitoylation. MSA allowed separation of fluorescently labeled Shh amine-substrate and palmitoylated Shh amide-product peptides based on differences in charge and hydrodynamic radius, coupled with online fluorescence intensity measurements for quantification. The MSA format was employed to study Hhat-catalyzed reactions, investigate Hhat kinetics, and determine small-molecule inhibitor IC50 values. Both real-time and stopped assays were performed, with the latter achieved via addition of excess unlabeled Shh peptide. The MSA format therefore allows direct and real-time fluorescence-based measurement of acylation and represents a powerful alternative technique in the study of N-lipidation.

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