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  • Journal article
    Kallemeijn W, Lueg G, Faronato M, Hadavizadeh K, Goya Grocin A, Song O-R, Howell M, Dinnis C, Tate Eet al., 2019,

    Validation and invalidation of chemical probes for the human N-myristoyltransferases

    , Cell Chemical Biology, Vol: 26, Pages: 892-900, ISSN: 2451-9456

    On-target, cell-active chemical probes are of fundamental importance in both chemical and cell biology, whereas the application of poorly-characterised probes often leads to invalid conclusions.Human N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) has attracted increasing interest as a target in cancer and infectious diseases; here we report an in-depth comparison of five compounds widely applied as human NMT inhibitors, using a combination of quantitative whole-proteome N-myristoylation profiling, biochemical enzyme assays, cytotoxicity, in-cell protein synthesis and cell cycle assays. We find that N-myristoylation is unaffected by 2-hydroxymyristic acid (100 μM), D-NMAPPD (30 μM) or Tris-DBA palladium (10 μM), with the latter compounds causing cytotoxicity through mechanisms unrelated to NMT. In contrast, drug-like inhibitors IMP-366 (DDD85646) and IMP-1088 delivered complete and specific inhibition of N-myristoylation in a range of cell lines at 1 μM and 100 nM, respectively. This study enables the selection of appropriate on-target probes for future studies and suggests the need for reassessment of previous studies which used off-target compounds.

  • Journal article
    Storck Saha E, Morales Sanfrutos J, Serwa R, Panyain N, Lanyon-Hogg T, Tolmachova T, Ventimiglia L, Martin-Serrano J, Seabra M, Wojciak-Stothard B, Tate Eet al., 2019,

    Dual chemical probes enable quantitative system-wide analysis of protein prenylation and prenylation dynamics

    , Nature Chemistry, Vol: 11, Pages: 552-561, ISSN: 1755-4330

    Post-translational farnesylation or geranylgeranylation at a C-terminal cysteine residue regulates the localization and function of over 100 proteins, including the Ras isoforms, and is a therapeutic target in diseases including cancer and infection. Here, we report global and selective profiling of prenylated proteins in living cells enabled by the development of isoprenoid analogues YnF and YnGG in combination with quantitative chemical proteomics. Eighty prenylated proteins were identified in a single human cell line, 64 for the first time at endogenous abundance without metabolic perturbation. We further demonstrate that YnF and YnGG enable direct identification of post-translationally processed prenylated peptides, proteome-wide quantitative analysis of prenylation dynamics and alternative prenylation in response to four different prenyltransferase inhibitors, and quantification of defective Rab prenylation in a model of the retinal degenerative disease choroideremia.

  • Journal article
    Jamshidiha M, Pérez-Dorado I, Murray JW, Tate EW, Cota E, Read RJet al., 2019,

    Coping with strong translational noncrystallographic symmetry and extreme anisotropy in molecular replacement with Phaser: human Rab27a

    , Acta Crystallographica Section D Structural Biology, Vol: 75, Pages: 342-353, ISSN: 2059-7983

    Data pathologies caused by effects such as diffraction anisotropy and translational noncrystallographic symmetry (tNCS) can dramatically complicate the solution of the crystal structures of macromolecules. Such problems were encountered in determining the structure of a mutant form of Rab27a, a member of the Rab GTPases. Mutant Rab27a constructs that crystallize in the free form were designed for use in the discovery of drugs to reduce primary tumour invasiveness and metastasis. One construct, hRab27a<jats:sup>Mut</jats:sup>, crystallized within 24 h and diffracted to 2.82 Å resolution, with a unit cell possessing room for a large number of protein copies. Initial efforts to solve the structure using molecular replacement by <jats:italic>Phaser</jats:italic> were not successful. Analysis of the data set revealed that the crystals suffered from both extreme anisotropy and strong tNCS. As a result, large numbers of reflections had estimated standard deviations that were much larger than their measured intensities and their expected intensities, revealing problems with the use of such data at the time in <jats:italic>Phaser</jats:italic>. By eliminating extremely weak reflections with the largest combined effects of anisotropy and tNCS, these problems could be avoided, allowing a molecular-replacement solution to be found. The lessons that were learned in solving this structure have guided improvements in the numerical analysis used in <jats:italic>Phaser</jats:italic>, particularly in identifying diffraction measurements that convey very little information content. The calculation of information content could also be applied as an alternative to ellipsoidal truncation. The post-mortem analysis also revealed an oversight in accounting for measurement errors in the fast rotation function. While the crystal of mutant Rab27a is not amenable to drug screening, the structure can guide new modifications to obtain more sui

  • Journal article
    Hong WD, Benayoud F, Nixon GL, Ford L, Johnston KL, Clare RH, Cassidy A, Cook DAN, Siu A, Shiotani M, Webborn PJH, Kavanagh S, Aljayyoussi G, Murphy E, Steven A, Archer J, Struever D, Frohberger SJ, Ehrens A, Huebner MP, Hoerauf A, Roberts AP, Hubbard ATM, Tate EW, Serwa RA, Leung SC, Qie L, Berry NG, Gusovsky F, Hemingway J, Turner JD, Taylor MJ, Ward SA, O'Neill PMet al., 2019,

    AWZ1066S, a highly specific anti-Wolbachia drug candidate for a short-course treatment of filariasis

    , Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol: 116, Pages: 1414-1419, ISSN: 0027-8424

    Onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis are two neglected tropical diseases that together affect ∼157 million people and inflict severe disability. Both diseases are caused by parasitic filarial nematodes with elimination efforts constrained by the lack of a safe drug that can kill the adult filaria (macrofilaricide). Previous proof-of-concept human trials have demonstrated that depleting >90% of the essential nematode endosymbiont bacterium, Wolbachia, using antibiotics, can lead to permanent sterilization of adult female parasites and a safe macrofilaricidal outcome. AWZ1066S is a highly specific anti-Wolbachia candidate selected through a lead optimization program focused on balancing efficacy, safety and drug metabolism/pharmacokinetic (DMPK) features of a thienopyrimidine/quinazoline scaffold derived from phenotypic screening. AWZ1066S shows superior efficacy to existing anti-Wolbachia therapies in validated preclinical models of infection and has DMPK characteristics that are compatible with a short therapeutic regimen of 7 days or less. This candidate molecule is well-positioned for onward development and has the potential to make a significant impact on communities affected by filariasis.

  • Journal article
    Kaiser N, Mejuch T, Fedoryshchak R, Janning P, Tate EW, Waldmann Het al., 2019,

    Photoactivatable Myristic Acid Probes for UNC119-Cargo Interactions

    , CHEMBIOCHEM, Vol: 20, Pages: 134-139, ISSN: 1439-4227
  • Journal article
    Goya Grocin A, Serwa R, Morales Sanfrutos J, Ritzefeld M, Tate Eet al., 2019,

    Whole proteome profiling of N-myristoyltransferase activity and inhibition using Sortase A

    , Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, Vol: 18, Pages: 115-126, ISSN: 1535-9476

    N-myristoylation is the covalent addition of a 14-carbon saturated fatty acid (myristate) to the N-terminal glycine of specific protein substrates by N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) and plays an important role in protein regulation by controlling localization, stability, and interactions. We developed a novel method for whole-proteome profiling of free N-terminal glycines through labeling with S. Aureus sortase A (SrtA) and used it for assessment of target engagement by an NMT inhibitor. Analysis of the SrtA-labeling pattern with an engineered biotinylated depsipeptide SrtA substrate (Biotin-ALPET-Haa, Haa = 2-hydroxyacetamide) enabled whole proteome identification and quantification of de novo generated N-terminal Gly proteins in response to NMT inhibition by nanoLC-MS/MS proteomics, and was confirmed for specific substrates across multiple cell lines by gel-based analyses and ELISA. To achieve optimal signal over background noise we introduce a novel and generally applicable improvement to the biotin/avidin affinity enrichment step by chemically dimethylating commercial NeutrAvidin resin and combining this with two-step LysC on-bead/trypsin off-bead digestion, effectively eliminating avidin-derived tryptic peptides and enhancing identification of enriched peptides. We also report SrtA substrate specificity in whole-cell lysates for the first time, confirming SrtA promiscuity beyond its recognized preference for N-terminal glycine, and its usefulness as a tool for unbiased labeling of N-terminal glycine-containing proteins. Our new methodology is complementary to metabolic tagging strategies, providing the first approach for whole proteome gain-of signal readout for NMT inhibition in complex samples which are not amenable to metabolic tagging.

  • Journal article
    Lovell S, Sutherell CL, Tate EW, 2019,

    Chemical probes for proteins and networks

    , Pages: 127-158

    Chemical probes are small molecules with well-defined, selective biological activity and good physiochemical properties and have become important tools for probing fundamental biology and disease. After outlining the breadth of applications in the field of chemical proteomics, this chapter describes two key technologies applied within the group: metabolically incorporated probes for global profiling of protein networks and tagged probes for target identification and profiling. Despite the variety of uses of chemical probes, there are important common features regarding probe design, validation, and application. The exemplars cover the use of metabolically incorporated chemical probes for the global profiling of lipidated protein networks and probes to aid the unbiased identification of the targets of small molecules. The chapter outlines a typical protocol for an experimental setup commonly used in the lab with the N-myristoylation metabolic probe YnMyr.

  • Journal article
    Furniss RCD, Low WW, Mavridou DAI, Dagley LF, Webb AI, Tate E, Clements Aet al., 2018,

    Plasma membrane profiling during enterohemorrhagic E. coli infection reveals that the metalloprotease StcE cleaves CD55 from host epithelial surfaces

    , Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol: 293, Pages: 17188-17199, ISSN: 0021-9258

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is one of several E. coli pathotypes that infect the intestinal tract and cause disease. Formation of the characteristic attaching and effacing (A/E) lesion on the surface of infected cells causes significant remodelling of the host cell surface, however limited information is available about changes at the protein level. Here we employed "plasma membrane profiling", a quantitative cell-surface proteomics technique, to identify host proteins whose cell-surface levels are altered during infection. Using this method, we quantified more than 1100 proteins, 280 of which showed altered cell-surface levels after exposure to EHEC. 22 host proteins were significantly reduced on the surface of infected epithelial cells. These included both known and unknown targets of EHEC infection. The complement decay-accelerating factor CD55 exhibited the greatest reduction in cell surface levels during infection. We showed by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis that CD55 is cleaved from the cell surface by the EHEC-specific protease StcE, and found that StcE-mediated CD55 cleavage results in increased neutrophil adhesion to the apical surface of intestinal epithelial cells. This suggests that StcE alters host epithelial surfaces to depress neutrophil transepithelial migration during infection. This work is the first report of the global manipulation of the epithelial cell surface by a bacterial pathogen and illustrates the power of quantitative cell-surface proteomics in uncovering critical aspects of bacterial infection biology.

  • Journal article
    Wang Z, Grosskurth SE, Cheung T, Petteruti P, Zhang J, Wang X, Wang W, Gharahdaghi F, Wu J, Su N, Howard RT, Mayo M, Widzowski D, Scott DA, Johannes JW, Lamb ML, Lawson D, Dry JR, Lyne PD, Tate EW, Zinda M, Mikule K, Fawell SE, Reimer C, Chen Het al., 2018,

    Pharmacological inhibition of PARP6 triggers multipolar spindle formation and demonstrates therapeutic effects in breast cancer

    , Cancer Research, Vol: 78, Pages: 6691-6702, ISSN: 1538-7445

    PARP proteins represent a class of post-translational modification enzymes with diverse cellular functions. Targeting PARPs has proven to be efficacious clinically, but exploration of the therapeutic potential of PARP inhibition has been limited to targeting poly(ADP-ribose) generating PARP, including PARP1/2/3 and tankyrases. The cancer-related functions of mono(ADP-ribose) generating PARP, including PARP6, remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we report a novel therapeutic strategy targeting PARP6 using the first reported PARP6 inhibitors. By screening a collection of PARP compounds for their ability to induce mitotic defects, we uncovered a robust correlation between PARP6 inhibition and induction of multipolar spindle (MPS) formation, which was phenocopied by PARP6 knockdown. Treatment with AZ0108, a PARP6 inhibitor with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile, potently induced the MPS phenotype, leading to apoptosis in a subset of breast cancer cells in vitro and antitumor effects in vivo. In addition, Chk1 was identified as a specific substrate of PARP6 and was further confirmed by enzymatic assays and by mass spectrometry. Furthermore, when modification of Chk1 was inhibited with AZ0108 in breast cancer cells, we observed marked upregulation of p-S345 Chk1 accompanied by defects in mitotic signaling. Together, these results establish proof-of-concept antitumor efficacy through PARP6 inhibition and highlight a novel function of PARP6 in maintaining centrosome integrity via direct ADP-ribosylation of Chk1 and modulation of its activity.

  • Journal article
    De Vita E, Schuler P, Lovell S, Lohbeck J, Kullmann S, Rabinovich E, Sananes A, Hessling B, Hamon V, Papo N, Hess J, Tate EW, Gunkel N, Miller AKet al., 2018,

    Depsipeptides Featuring a Neutral P1 Are Potent Inhibitors of Kallikrein-Related Peptidase 6 with On-Target Cellular Activity

    , JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, Vol: 61, Pages: 8859-8874, ISSN: 0022-2623

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