Current vector control strategies focus largely on indoor measures, such as long-lasting insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). However, other aspects of mosquito ecology can be addressed to minimise exposure to infectious bites for human communities. One such strategy is the application of attractive targeted sugar baits (ATSB), either sprayed on vegetation or provided in outdoor bait stations. Trials in Mali have shown that this significantly reduces mosquito density. We have developed a simple mathematical model of mosquito sugar-feeding behaviour which was fitted to an ATSB field trial in Mali. Larviciding is another potential intervention. Historically habitat management and housing improvements have helped countries to eliminate by reducing breeding habitat for vector mosquitoes and reducing the female mosquitoes access to a person while sleeping. We look to incorporate the effects of these processes into the model.
Ivermectin (IVM), used alongside mass treatment strategies with an artemisinin combination therapy, has been suggested as a possible tool for reducing malaria transmission. Mosquitoes ingesting a bloodmeal containing IVM have increased mortality, reducing the number that live long enough to complete sprogony and become infectious. We are using human pharmacokinetic data and mosquito mortality data to quantify the mosquitocidal effect of IVM. These data are incorporated into a transmission model to estimate the impact of IVM in combination with mass treatment strategies on transmission metrics. We are also interested in the novel use of genetic technology to control mosquitoes which is considered in the next section.
Fraser, K.J., Mwandigha, L., Traore, S.F. et al. Estimating the potential impact of Attractive Targeted Sugar Baits (ATSBs) as a new vector control tool for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Malar J 20, 151 (2021).
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