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Scope, aims and objectives

Our research aims to apply biomechanical techniques and knowledge to clinical settings that include Osteoarthritis, Sport and Exercise, Musculoskeletal Conditions in Growth, and Trauma.


Because of the importance of biomechanics on joint function, we must quantify loadings on mechanically active joint tissues, e.g. cartilage. This can be accomplished using a hierarchical approach based on patient-specific data at all levels (kinematics, body segment parameters, tissue properties, muscle activations and articular and muscular geometry).

Osteoarthritis is an application-area of much of the musculoskeletal dynamics research and forms a major part of the Medical Musculoskeletal Medical Engineering Centre.

Sport and Exercise

The application of biomechanics to sports can enhance athletic performance as well as reduce the burden of injury. This has been applied successfully in projects in cricket, rowing, and sports training.

Musculoskeletal Conditions in Growth

The human body goes through an enourmous amount of change as it grows, develops and ages. Understanding the different biomechanical demands as the musculoskeletal system grows is vital to understanding the potential biomechanical diseases and injuries that can develop. 


When the musculoskeletal system undergoes some form of trauma the biomechanics can be dramatically effected. By utilising our biomechanical tools and knowledge we can better understand traumatic injuries, examine rehibilitation and surgical methods to treat such injuries, and how to avoid traumatic injuires in the future.

Key Publications


Zhang KY, Kedgley AE, Donoghue CR, Rueckert D, Bull AMJ. The relationship between lateral meniscus shape and joint contact parameters in the knee: a study using data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Arthritis Res Ther 16, (2014), R27.

Stoddard JE, Deehan DJ, Bull AMJ, McCaskie AW, Amis AA. No difference in patellar tracking between symmetrical and asymmetrical femoral component designs in TKA. Knee Surg. Sports Traumatol. Arthrosc. 22,(2014), 534-542

Stoddard JE, Deehan DJ, Bull AMJ, McCaskie AW, Amis AA. The kinematics and stability of single-radius versus multi-radius femoral components related to mid-range instability after TKA. J Orthop Res 31, (2013), 53-58.

Kessler O, Bull AMJ, Amis AA. A method to quantify alteration of knee kinematics caused by changes of TKR positioning. J. Biomech. 42, (2009), 665-670.

Sport and Exercise


McGregor AH, Buckeridge E, Murphy AJ, Bull AMJ. Communicating and using biomechanical measures through visual cues to optimise safe and effective rowing. Proc. IMechE Part P Sports Eng. Tech. 229(P), (2016), [published online].

Buckeridge E, Hislop S, Bull AMJ, McGregor AH. Kinematic asymmetries of the lower limb during ergometer rowing. Med. Science Sports Exer 44, (2012), 2147- 2153.

McGregor AH, Patankar Z, Bull AMJ. Spinal kinematics in elite oarswomen during a routine physiological step test. Med. Science Sports Exer. 37, (2005), 1014-1020.

Buckeridge EM, Bull AMJ, McGregor AH. Biomechanical determinants of elite rowing technique and performance. Scan J Med Sci Sports 25, (2014) e176-83. PMID: 25039605


Eftaxiopoulou T, Narayanan A, Dear J, Bull AMJ. A performance comparison between cricket bat designs. Proc. IMechE Part P Eng. Med. 225(P), (2011), 1078-1083

Eftaxiopoulou T, Gupte CM, Dear JP, Bull AMJ. The effect of digitisation of the humeral epicondyles on quantifying elbow kinematics during cricket bowling. J Sports Sciences 31, (2013), 1722-1730.

Sports Training

Cleather DJ, Goodwin JE, Bull AMJ. Inter-segmental moment analysis characterises the partial correspondence of jumping and jerking. J Strength Cond Res 27, (2013), 89-100.

Cleather DJ, Goodwin JE, Bull AMJ. Hip and knee joint loading during vertical jumping and push jerking. Clin Biomech 28, (2013), 98-103.


Knee Soft Tissue Surgery

Bull AMJ, Andersen HN, Basso O, Target J, Amis AA. Incidence and mechanism of the pivot shift: An in vitro study. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 363, (1999), 219-231.

Bull AMJ, Earnshaw PH, Smith, A., Katchburian MV, Hassan ANA, Amis AA. Intraoperative measurement of knee kinematics in reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. J. Bone Joint Surg. 84-B, (2002), 1075-1081.

Gupte CM, Bull AMJ, Thomas RD, Amis AA. The meniscofemoral ligaments: Secondary restraints to posterior drawer. Analysis of anteroposterior and rotatory laxity in the intact and posterior-cruciate-deficient knee. J. Bone Joint Surg. 85-B, (2003), 765-773.

McDermott ID, Sharifi F, Bull AMJ, Gupte CM, Thomas RD, Amis AA. An anatomical study of meniscal allograft sizing. Knee Surg. Sports Traumatol. Arthrosc. 12, (2004), 130-135.

Robinson JR, Bull AMJ, Thomas R deW, Amis AA. The role of the medial collateral ligament and posteromedial capsule in controlling knee laxity. Am. J. Sports Med. 34, (2006) 1815-1823.

Shoulder Surgery

Alexander S, Southgate DFL, Hill AM, Bull AMJ, Wallace AL. Tensile strength of superior labral repairs in the throwing position. Shoulder and Elbow 1, (2009), 76-80.

Majed A, Macleod I, Bull AMJ, Zyto K, Resch H, Hertel R, Reilly P, Emery RJH. Proximal humeral fracture classification systems revisited. J. Shoulder Elbow Surg. 20, (2011), 1125-1132.

Thompson SM, Reilly P, Emery RJ, Bull AMJ. An anatomical description of the pennation angles and central tendon angle of the supraspinatus both in its normal configuration and with full thickness tears.  J. Shoulder Elbow Surg. 20, (2011), 899-903.

Thompson SM, Reilly P, Emery RJ, Bull AMJ. A comparison of the degree of retraction of full-thickness supraspinatus tears with the Goutallier grading system. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 21, (2012), 749-753

Trauma Protection

Ramasamy A, Hill AM, Masouros SD, Gordon F, Clasper JC, Bull AMJ. Evaluating the effect of vehicle modification in reducing injuries from landmine blasts. An analysis of 2212 incidents and its application for humanitarian purposes. Accid Anal Prev 43, (2011), 1878-1886.

Newell N, Masouros SD, Pullen AD, Bull AMJ. The comparative behaviour of two combat boots under impact. Inj Prev. 18, (2012), 109-112.

Ramasamy MA, Hill AM, Phillip R, Gibb I, Bull AMJ, Clasper JC. FASS is a better predictor of poor outcome in lower limb blast injury than AIS: Implications for blast research. J Orthop Trauma 27, (2013), 49-55.

Edwards DS, Phillip RD, Bosanquet N, Bull AMJ, Clasper JC. What is the magnitude and long-term economic cost of care of the british military Afghanistan amputee cohort? Clin Orthop Rel Res 473, (2015) 2848–2855. PMID: 26028596