Browse through all publications from the Institute of Global Health Innovation, which our Patient Safety Research Collaboration is part of. This feed includes reports and research papers from our Centre. 

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  • Journal article
    Lyons I, Furniss D, Blandford A, Chumbley G, Iacovides I, Wei L, Cox A, Mayer A, Vos J, Galal-Edeen GH, Schnock KO, Dykes PC, Bates DW, Franklin BDet al., 2018,

    Errors and discrepancies in the administration of intravenous infusions: a mixed methods multihospital observational study

    , BMJ QUALITY & SAFETY, Vol: 27, Pages: 892-901, ISSN: 2044-5415
  • Journal article
    Rao AM, Bottle A, Bicknell C, Darzi A, Aylin Pet al., 2018,

    Trajectory modelling to assess trends in long-term readmission rate among abdominal aortic aneurysm patients

    , Surgery Research and Practice, Vol: 2018, ISSN: 2356-7759

    Introduction. The aim of the study was to use trajectory analysis to categorise high-impact users based on their long-term readmission rate and identify their predictors following AAA (abdominal aortic aneurysm) repair. Methods. In this retrospective cohort study, group-based trajectory modelling (GBTM) was performed on the patient cohort (2006-2009) identified through national administrative data from all NHS English hospitals. Proc Traj software was used in SAS program to conduct GBTM, which classified patient population into groups based on their annual readmission rates during a 5-year period following primary AAA repair. Based on the trends of readmission rates, patients were classified into low- and high-impact users. The high-impact group had a higher annual readmission rate throughout 5-year follow-up. Short-term high-impact users had initial high readmission rate followed by rapid decline, whereas chronic high-impact users continued to have high readmission rate. Results. Based on the trends in readmission rates, GBTM classified elective AAA repair () patients into 2 groups: low impact (82.0%) and high impact (18.0%). High-impact users were significantly associated with female sex () undergoing other vascular procedures (), poor socioeconomic status index (), older age (), and higher comorbidity score (). The AUC for c-statistics was 0.84. Patients with ruptured AAA repair () had 3 groups: low impact (82.7%), short-term high impact (7.2%), and chronic high impact (10.1%). Chronic high impact users were significantly associated with renal failure (), heart failure (P = 0.01), peripheral vascular disease (), female sex (P = 0.02), open repair (), and undergoing other related procedures (). The AUC for c-statistics was 0.71. Conclusion. Patients with persistent high readmission rates exist among AAA population; however, their readmissions and mortality are not related to AAA repair. They may benefit from optimization of their medical management of comorbiditie

  • Journal article
    Joshi M, Ashrafian H, Darzi A, 2018,

    Is it time for hospitals with smart wards?

    , Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Vol: 111, Pages: 345-346, ISSN: 1758-1095
  • Journal article
    Singh H, Modi HN, Ranjan S, Dilley J, Airantzis D, Yang G, Darzi A, Leff Det al., 2018,

    Robotic surgery improves technical performance and enhances prefrontal activation during high temporal demand

    , Annals of Biomedical Engineering, Vol: 46, Pages: 1621-1636, ISSN: 0090-6964

    Robotic surgery may improve technical performance and reduce mental demands compared to laparoscopic surgery. However, no studies have directly compared the impact of robotic and laparoscopic techniques on surgeons’ brain function. This study aimed to assess the effect of the operative platform (robotic surgery or conventional laparoscopy) on prefrontal cortical activation during a suturing task performed under temporal demand. Eight surgeons (mean age ± SD = 34.5 ± 2.9 years, male:female ratio = 7:1) performed an intracorporeal suturing task in a self-paced manner and under a 2 min time restriction using conventional laparoscopic and robotic techniques. Prefrontal activation was assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy, subjective workload was captured using SURG-TLX questionnaires, and a continuous heart rate monitor measured systemic stress responses. Task progression scores (au), error scores (au), leak volumes (mL) and knot tensile strengths (N) provided objective assessment of technical performance. Under time pressure, robotic suturing led to improved technical performance (median task progression score: laparoscopic suturing = 4.5 vs. robotic suturing = 5.0; z = − 2.107, p = 0.035; median error score: laparoscopic suturing = 3.0 mm vs. robotic suturing = 2.1 mm; z = − 2.488, p = 0.013). Compared to laparoscopic suturing, greater prefrontal activation was identified in seven channels located primarily in lateral prefrontal regions. These results suggest that robotic surgery improves performance during high workload conditions and is associated with enhanced activation in regions of attention, concentration and task engagement.

  • Conference paper
    Pittiglio G, Kogkas A, Vrielink JO, Mylonas Get al., 2018,

    Dynamic Control of Cable Driven Parallel Robots with Unknown Cable Stiffness: a Joint Space Approach

    , IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Publisher: IEEE COMPUTER SOC, Pages: 948-955, ISSN: 1050-4729
  • Conference paper
    Vrielink TJCO, Chao M, Darzi A, Mylonas GPet al., 2018,

    ESD CYCLOPS: A new robotic surgical system for GI surgery

    , IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Publisher: IEEE Computer Soc., Pages: 150-157, ISSN: 1050-4729

    Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers account for 1.5 million deaths worldwide. Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection (ESD) is an advanced therapeutic endoscopy technique with superior clinical outcome due to the minimally invasive and en bloc removal of tumours. In the western world, ESD is seldom carried out, due to its complex and challenging nature. Various surgical systems are being developed to make this therapy accessible, however, these solutions have shown limited operational workspace, dexterity, or low force exertion capabilities. The current paper shows the ESD CYCLOPS system, a bimanual surgical robotic attachment that can be mounted at the end of any flexible endoscope. The system is able to achieve forces of up to 46N, and showed a mean error of 0.217mm during an elliptical tracing task. The workspace and instrument dexterity is shown by pre-clinical ex vivo trials, in which ESD is successfully performed by a GI surgeon. The system is currently undergoing pre-clinical in vivo validation.

  • Conference paper
    Runciman M, Darzi A, Mylonas G, 2018,

    Deployable disposable self-propelling and variable stiffness devices for minimally invasive surgery

    , Conference on New Technologies for Computer/Robot Assisted Surgery
  • Journal article
    Thomson HH, Srivanichakorn W, Oliver N, Godsland I, Darzi A, Majeed A, Johnston Det al., 2018,

    Protocol for a clinical trial of text messaging in addition to standard care versus standard care alone in prevention of type 2 diabetes through lifestyle modification in India and the UK

    , BMC Endocrine Disorders, Vol: 18, ISSN: 1472-6823

    BackgroundType 2 diabetes is a serious clinical problem in both India and the UK. Adoption of a healthy lifestyle through dietary and physical activity modification can help prevent type 2 diabetes. However, implementing lifestyle modification programmes to high risk groups is expensive and alternative cheaper methods are needed. We are using a short messaging service (SMS) programme in our study as a tool to provide healthy lifestyle advice and an aid to motivation. The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy and user acceptability of text messaging employed in this way for people with pre-diabetes (HbA1c 6.0% to ≤6.4%; 42–47 mmol/mol) in the UK and India.Methods/designThis is a randomised, controlled trial with participants followed up for 2 years. After being screened and receiving a structured education programme for prediabetes, participants are randomised to a control or intervention group. In the intervention group, text messages are delivered 2–3 times weekly and contain educational, motivational and supportive content on diet, physical activity, lifestyle and smoking. The control group undergoes monitoring only. In India, the trial involves 5 visits after screening (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months). In the UK there are 4 visits after screening (0, 6, 12 and 24 months). Questionnaires (EQ-5D, RPAQ, Transtheoretical Model of Behavioural Change, and food frequency (UK)/24 h dietary recall (India)) and physical activity monitors (Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers) are assessed at baseline and all follow-up visits. The SMS acceptability questionnaires are evaluated in all follow-up visits. The primary outcome is progression to type 2 diabetes as defined by an HbA1c of 6.5% or over(India) and by any WHO criterion(UK). Secondary outcomes are the changes in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose; lipids; proportion of participants achieving HbA1c ≤6.0%; HOMA-IR; HOMA-β; acceptability of SMS; dieta

  • Journal article
    Dewa LH, Cecil E, Eastwood L, Darzi A, Aylin Pet al., 2018,

    Indicators of deterioration in young adults with serious mental illness: a systematic review protocol

    , Systematic Reviews, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2046-4053

    BackgroundThe first signs of serious mental illnesses (SMIs) including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression are likely to occur before the age of 25. The combination of high prevalence of severe mental health symptoms, inability to recognise mental health deterioration and increased likelihood of comorbidity in a complex transitional young group makes detecting deterioration paramount. Whilst studies have examined physical and mental health deterioration in adults, no systematic review has examined the indicators of mental and physical deterioration in young adults with SMI. The study aim is to systematically review the existing evidence from observational studies that examine the indicators of mental and physical deterioration in young adults with SMI and highlight gaps in knowledge to inform future research.MethodsSeven databases including CINHAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Health Management Information Consortium, Cochrane databases and Web of Science will be searched against five main facets (age, serious mental illness, sign, deterioration and patient) and a subsequent comprehensive list of search terms. Searches will be run individually in each database to reflect each unique set of relevant subject headings and appropriate MeSH terms. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed and refined by the research team. Two reviewers will participate in each search stage including abstract/title and full text screening, data extraction and appraisal, to ensure reliability. A narrative synthesis of the data will also be conducted.DiscussionThis systematic review will likely make a significant contribution to the field of mental health and help inform future research pertaining to interventions that help highlight deteriorating patients. This may vary depending on the patient group, mental illness or deterioration type.Systematic review registrationPROSPERO CRD42017075755

  • Journal article
    Neves AL, Carter AW, Freise L, Laranjo L, Darzi A, Mayer EKet al., 2018,

    Impact of sharing electronic health records with patients on the quality and safety of care: a systematic review and narrative synthesis protocol

    , BMJ Open, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2044-6055

    Introduction: Providing patients with access to electronic health records (EHRs) has emerged as a promising solution to improve quality of care and safety. As the efforts to develop and implement EHR-based data sharing platforms mature and scale up worldwide, there is a need to evaluate the impact of these interventions and to weigh their relative risks and benefits, in order to inform evidence-based health policies. The aim of this work is to systematically characterise and appraise the demonstrated benefits and risks of sharing EHR with patients, by mapping them across the six domains of quality of care of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) analytical framework (ie, patient-centredness, effectiveness, efficiency, timeliness, equity and safety).Methods and analysis: CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase, HMIC, Medline/PubMed and PsycINFO databases will be searched from January 1997 to August 2017. Primary outcomes will include measures related with the six domains of quality of care of the IOM analytical framework. The quality of the studies will be assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool, the ROBINS-I Tool and the Drummond’s checklist. A narrative synthesis will be conducted for all included studies. Subgroup analysis will be performed by domain of quality of care domain and by time scale (ie, short-term, medium-term or long-term impact). The body of evidence will be summarised in a Summary of Findings table and its strength assessed according to the GRADE criteria.Ethics and dissemination: This review does not require ethical approval as it will summarise published studies with non-identifiable data. This protocol complies with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses Protocols guidelines. Findings will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publication and conference presentations, and patient partners will be included in summarising the research findings into lay summaries and reports.PROSPERO registration number: CRD42017070092.

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