Browse through all publications from the Institute of Global Health Innovation, which our Patient Safety Research Collaboration is part of. This feed includes reports and research papers from our Centre. 


BibTex format

author = {Ezzat, A and Kogkas, A and Holt, J and Thakkar, R and Darzi, A and Mylonas, G},
doi = {10.1007/s00464-021-08569-w},
pages = {5381--5391},
title = {An eye-tracking based robotic scrub nurse: proof of concept},
url = {},
volume = {35},
year = {2021}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - BackgroundWithin surgery, assistive robotic devices (ARD) have reported improved patient outcomes. ARD can offer the surgical team a “third hand” to perform wider tasks and more degrees of motion in comparison with conventional laparoscopy. We test an eye-tracking based robotic scrub nurse (RSN) in a simulated operating room based on a novel real-time framework for theatre-wide 3D gaze localization in a mobile fashion.MethodsSurgeons performed segmental resection of pig colon and handsewn end-to-end anastomosis while wearing eye-tracking glasses (ETG) assisted by distributed RGB-D motion sensors. To select instruments, surgeons (ST) fixed their gaze on a screen, initiating the RSN to pick up and transfer the item. Comparison was made between the task with the assistance of a human scrub nurse (HSNt) versus the task with the assistance of robotic and human scrub nurse (R&HSNt). Task load (NASA-TLX), technology acceptance (Van der Laan’s), metric data on performance and team communication were measured.ResultsOverall, 10 ST participated. NASA-TLX feedback for ST on HSNt vs R&HSNt usage revealed no significant difference in mental, physical or temporal demands and no change in task performance. ST reported significantly higher frustration score with R&HSNt. Van der Laan’s scores showed positive usefulness and satisfaction scores in using the RSN. No significant difference in operating time was observed.ConclusionsWe report initial findings of our eye-tracking based RSN. This enables mobile, unrestricted hands-free human–robot interaction intra-operatively. Importantly, this platform is deemed non-inferior to HSNt and accepted by ST and HSN test users.
AU - Ezzat,A
AU - Kogkas,A
AU - Holt,J
AU - Thakkar,R
AU - Darzi,A
AU - Mylonas,G
DO - 10.1007/s00464-021-08569-w
EP - 5391
PY - 2021///
SN - 0930-2794
SP - 5381
TI - An eye-tracking based robotic scrub nurse: proof of concept
UR -
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 35
ER -