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  • Journal article
    Filippidis FT, Mian SS, Millett C, 2016,

    Perceptions of quality and safety and experience of adverse events in 27 European Union healthcare systems, 2009-2013

    , International Journal for Quality in Health Care, Vol: 28, Pages: 721-727, ISSN: 1464-3677

    OBJECTIVE: To assess trends in the perception of quality and safety between 2009 and 2013 in the European Union (EU). DESIGN: We analysed data from waves 72.2 and 80.2 of the Eurobarometer survey. Multilevel logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic factors and country-level health expenditure were fitted to assess changes between 2009 and 2013 in each of the assessed outcomes. SETTING: Twenty-seven EU member states. PARTICIPANTS: A total of n = 26 663 (2009) and n = 26 917 (2013) individuals aged ≥15 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes included the perception of being harmed in hospital and non-hospital care; rating of the overall quality of the healthcare system; and personal or family experience of adverse events. RESULTS: Respondents in 2013 were more likely to think that it was likely to be harmed in hospital (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.09; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.05-1.13; P < 0.001) and non-hospital care (OR = 1.11; 95% CI: 1.07-1.15; P < 0.001), compared to 2009. However, they were more likely to rate the quality of their country's healthcare system as good (OR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.21-1.32; P < 0.001) and no significant change over time was identified in reported experience of adverse events (OR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.95-1.05; P = 0.929). Lower health expenditure and decrease in health expenditure between the two waves were associated with worse outcomes in overall quality and perceptions of harm. There was significant variation between and within countries in all indicators. CONCLUSIONS: The public's perception of safety in European healthcare systems declined in recent years, which highlights that there are safety issues that could be addressed.

  • Journal article
    Palladino R, Lee JT, Hone T, Filippidis FT, Millett Cet al., 2016,

    The Great Recession And Increased Cost Sharing In European Health Systems.

    , Health Aff (Millwood), Vol: 35, Pages: 1204-1213

    European health systems are increasingly adopting cost-sharing models, potentially increasing out-of-pocket expenditures for patients who use health care services or buy medications. Government policies that increase patient cost sharing are responding to incremental growth in cost pressures from aging populations and the need to invest in new health technologies, as well as to general constraints on public expenditures resulting from the Great Recession (2007-09). We used data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe to examine changes from 2006-07 to 2013 in out-of-pocket expenditures among people ages fifty and older in eleven European countries. Our results identify increases both in the proportion of older European citizens who incurred out-of-pocket expenditures and in mean out-of-pocket expenditures over this period. We also identified a significant increase over time in the percentage of people who incurred catastrophic health expenditures (greater than 30 percent of the household income) in the Czech Republic, Italy, and Spain. Poorer populations were less likely than those in the highest income quintile to incur an out-of-pocket expenditure and reported lower mean out-of-pocket expenditures, which suggests that measures are in place to provide poorer groups with some financial protection. These findings indicate the substantial weakening of financial protection for people ages fifty and older in European health systems after the Great Recession.

  • Journal article
    Filippidis FT, Laverty AA, Gerovasili V, Vardavas CIet al., 2016,

    Two year trends and predictors of e-cigarette use in 27 European Union member states

    , Tobacco Control, Vol: 26, Pages: 98-104, ISSN: 0964-4563

    Objective: This study assessed changes in levels of ever use, perceptions of harm from e-cigarettes and socio-demographic correlates of use among EU adults during 2012-2014, as well as determinants of current use in 2014. Methods: We analysed data from the 2012 (n=26,751) and 2014 (n=26,792) waves of the adult Special Eurobarometer for Tobacco survey. Point prevalence of current and ever use were calculated and logistic regression assessed correlates of current use and changes in ever use and perception of harm. Correlates examined included age, gender, tobacco smoking, education, area of residence, difficulties in paying bills and reasons for trying an e-cigarette. Results: The prevalence of ever use of e-cigarettes increased from 7.2% in 2012 to 11.6% in 2014 (Adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]=1.91). EU-wide coefficient of variation in ever e-cigarette use was 42.1% in 2012 and 33.4% in 2014. The perception that e-cigarettes are harmful increased from 27.1% in 2012 to 51.6% in 2014 (aOR=2.99), but there were major differences in prevalence and trends between member states. Among those who reported that they had ever tried an e-cigarette in the 2014 survey, 15.3% defined themselves as current users. Those who tried an e-cigarette to quit smoking were more likely to be current users (aOR=2.82).Conclusion: Ever use of e-cigarettes increased during 2012-2014. People who started using e-cigarettes to quit smoking tobacco were more likely to be current users, but the trends vary by country. These findings underscore the need for more research into factors influencing e-cigarette use and its potential benefits and harms.

  • Journal article
    Webb E, Laverty A, Mindell J, Millett Cet al., 2016,

    Free Bus Travel and Physical Activity, Gait Speed, and Adiposity in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    , American Journal of Public Health, Vol: 106, Pages: 136-142, ISSN: 1541-0048

    Objectives. We investigated associations between having a bus pass, enabling free local bus travel across the United Kingdom for state pension–aged people, and physical activity, gait speed, and adiposity.Methods. We used data on 4650 bus pass–eligible people (aged ≥ 62 years) at wave 6 (2012–2013) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing in regression analyses.Results. Bus pass holders were more likely to be female (odds ratio [OR] = 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.38, 2.02; P < .001), retired (OR = 2.65; 95% CI = 2.10, 3.35; P < .001), without access to a car (OR = 2.78; 95% CI = 1.83, 4.21; P < .001), to use public transportation (OR = 10.26; 95% CI = 8.33, 12.64; P < .001), and to be physically active (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.12, 1.84; P = .004). Female pass holders had faster gait speed (b = 0.06 meters per second; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.09; P = .001), a body mass index 1 kilogram per meter squared lower (b = –1.20; 95% CI = –1.93, –0.46; P = .001), and waist circumference 3 centimeters smaller (b = –3.32; 95% CI = –5.02, –1.62; P < .001) than women without a pass.Conclusions. Free bus travel for older people helps make transportation universally accessible, including for those at risk for social isolation. Those with a bus pass are more physically active. Among women in particular, the bus pass is associated with healthier aging.

  • Journal article
    Lee T, Millett, 2015,

    Impact of noncommunicable disease multimorbidity onhealthcare utilisation and out-of-pocket expenditures in middle-income countries: cross sectional analysis

    , PLOS One, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1932-6203

    BackgroundThe burden of non-communicable disease (NCDs) has grown rapidly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where populations are ageing, with rising prevalence of multimorbidity (more than two co-existing chronic conditions) that will significantly increase pressure on already stretched health systems. We assess the impact of NCD multimorbidity on healthcare utilisation and out-of-pocket expenditures in six middle-income countries: China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa.MethodsSecondary analyses of cross-sectional data from adult participants (>18 years) in the WHO Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) 2007–2010. We used multiple logistic regression to determine socio-demographic correlates of multimorbidity. Association between the number of NCDs and healthcare utilisation as well as out-of-pocket spending was assessed using logistic, negative binominal and log-linear models.ResultsThe prevalence of multimorbidity in the adult population varied from 3∙9% in Ghana to 33∙6% in Russia. Number of visits to doctors in primary and secondary care rose substantially for persons with increasing numbers of co-existing NCDs. Multimorbidity was associated with more outpatient visits in China (coefficient for number of NCD = 0∙56, 95% CI = 0∙46, 0∙66), a higher likelihood of being hospitalised in India (AOR = 1∙59, 95% CI = 1∙45, 1∙75), higher out-of-pocket expenditures for outpatient visits in India and China, and higher expenditures for hospital visits in Russia. Medicines constituted the largest proportion of out-of-pocket expenditures in persons with multimorbidity (88∙3% for outpatient, 55∙9% for inpatient visit in China) in most countries.ConclusionMultimorbidity is associated with higher levels of healthcare utilisation and greater financial burden for individuals in middle-income countries. Our study supports the WHO call for universal health insurance and health service coverage in LMICs, particularly for vulnerable groups su

  • Journal article
    Chang K, Soljak MA, Lee T, Woringer, Johnston, Khunti K, Majeed, Millettet al., 2015,

    Coverage of a national cardiovascular risk assessment and management programme (NHS Health Check): Retrospective database study

    , Preventive Medicine, Vol: 78, ISSN: 1096-0260
  • Journal article
    Laverty AA, Palladino R, Lee JT, Millett Cet al., 2015,

    Associations between active travel and weight, blood pressure and diabetes in six middle income countries: a cross-sectional study in older adults

    , International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1479-5868
  • Journal article
    Jawad M, Lee JT, Millett C, 2015,

    Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Prevalence and Correlates in 25 Eastern Mediterranean and Eastern European Countries: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey

    , Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Vol: 18, Pages: 395-402, ISSN: 1469-994X

    Introduction: Waterpipe tobacco smoking is highly prevalent among young people in some settings. There is an absence of nationally representative prevalence studies of waterpipe tobacco use and dual use with other tobacco products in young people.Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional study of students aged 13–15 years. Of 180 participating countries, 25 included optional waterpipe tobacco smoking questions: 15 Eastern Mediterranean and 10 Eastern European countries. We calculated the prevalence of current (past 30-day) waterpipe tobacco use, including dual waterpipe and other tobacco use, and used logistic regression models to identify sociodemographic correlates of waterpipe tobacco smoking. Individual country results were combined in a random effects meta-analysis.Results: Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence was highest in Lebanon (36.9%), the West Bank (32.7%) and parts of Eastern Europe (Latvia 22.7%, the Czech Republic 22.1%, Estonia 21.9%). These countries also recorded greater than 10% prevalence of dual waterpipe and cigarette use. In a meta-analysis, higher odds of waterpipe tobacco smoking were found among males (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18% to 1.59%), cigarette users (AOR = 6.95, 95% CI = 5.74% to 8.42%), those whose parents (AOR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.31% to 1.82%) or peers smoked (AOR = 3.53, 95% CI = 2.97% to 4.20%) and those whose parents had higher educational attainment (Father, AOR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.14% to 1.89%; Mother, AOR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.07% to 2.46%). We report on regional- and country income-level differences.Conclusions: Waterpipe tobacco smoking, including dual waterpipe and cigarette use, is alarmingly high in several Eastern Mediterranean and Eastern European countries. Ongoing waterpipe tobacco smoking surveillance is warranted.

  • Journal article
    Laverty AA, Diethelm P, Hopkinson NS, Watt HC, McKee Met al., 2015,

    Use and abuse of statistics in tobacco industry-funded research on standardised packaging

    , Tobacco Control, Vol: 24, Pages: 422-424, ISSN: 0964-4563

    n this commentary we consider the validity of tobacco industry-funded research on the effects of standardised packaging in Australia. As the first country to introduce standardised packs, Australia is closely watched, and Philip Morris International has recently funded two studies into the impact of the measure on smoking prevalence. Both of these papers are flawed in conception as well as design but have nonetheless been widely publicised as cautionary tales against standardised pack legislation. Specifically, we focus on the low statistical significance of the analytical methods used and the assumption that standardised packaging should have an immediate large impact on smoking prevalence.

  • Journal article
    Basu S, Glantz S, Bitton A, Millett Cet al., 2013,

    The Effect of Tobacco Control Measures during a Period of Rising Cardiovascular Disease Risk in India: A Mathematical Model of Myocardial Infarction and Stroke

    , PLOS MEDICINE, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1549-1277
  • Journal article
    Coronini-Cronberg S, Millett C, Laverty AA, Webb Eet al., 2012,

    The impact of free older persons’ bus pass on active travel and regular walking in England

    , American Journal of Public Health

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