BibTex format

author = {McKay, A and Negi, NS and Murukutla, N and Laverty, A and Puri, P and Uttekar, BV and Mullin, S and Millett, C},
doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0230050},
journal = {PLoS One},
title = {Trends in tobacco, alcohol and branded fast-food imagery in Bollywood films, 1994-2013},
url = {},
volume = {15},
year = {2020}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Background and aimsExposure to tobacco, alcohol and fast-food use in films is associated with initiation of these behaviours. India is the world’s largest film producer, but the extent of such imagery in Bollywood (Hindi cinema) films is unclear. We therefore aimed to describe the extent of and trends in tobacco, alcohol and fast-food imagery in Bollywood films, between 1994–2013.MethodsFor the 15 top-grossing films each year between 1994–2013, the number of five-minute intervals containing product images were determined separately for tobacco, alcohol and fast-food. Both the proportion of films containing at least one image occurrence, and occurrences per film, were described overall and by year. Negative binomial regression described associations between film rating and occurrences/film, and estimated time-trends in occurrences/film, adjusted for rating.ResultsWe analysed 93 U-rated (unrestricted), 150 U/A-rated (parental guidance for children aged <12 years) and 55 A-rated (restricted to adult audience) films, containing 9,226 five-minute intervals (mean intervals/film 30.8, SD 4.0). 70% (n = 210), 93% (n = 278) and 21% (n = 62) of films contained at least one tobacco, alcohol and fast-food occurrence, respectively. Corresponding total mean occurrences/film were 4.0 (SD 4.9), 7.0 (4.7) and 0.4 (0.9). Tobacco occurrences were more common in U/A films (incidence rate ratio 1.49, 95% confidence interval 1.06–2.09) and A films (2.95; 1.95–4.48) than U-rated films. Alcohol occurrences were also more common in A-rated films than U-rated films (1.48; 1.15–1.85). Tobacco occurrences/film became less common over the observed period (adjusted trend -4% per annum; -2 to -7%; p <0.001), while alcohol (+2%; 0–3%; p = 0.02), and fast food (+8%; 2–14%; p = 0.01) occurrences/film became more common.ConclusionsAlthough the extent of tobacco imagery in Bollywood films fell over 1994–2013, it is still frequently observed.
AU - McKay,A
AU - Negi,NS
AU - Murukutla,N
AU - Laverty,A
AU - Puri,P
AU - Uttekar,BV
AU - Mullin,S
AU - Millett,C
DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0230050
PY - 2020///
SN - 1932-6203
TI - Trends in tobacco, alcohol and branded fast-food imagery in Bollywood films, 1994-2013
T2 - PLoS One
UR -
UR -
VL - 15
ER -