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Journal articleStewart I, Molyneaux PL, Fabbri L, et al., 2023,
Residual lung abnormalities following COVID-19 hospitalization: interim analysis of the UKILD Post-COVID study, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 207, Pages: 693-703, ISSN: 1073-449X
Rationale: Shared symptoms and genetic architecture between coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and lung fibrosis suggest severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may lead to progressive lung damage.Objectives: The UK Interstitial Lung Disease Consortium (UKILD) post–COVID-19 study interim analysis was planned to estimate the prevalence of residual lung abnormalities in people hospitalized with COVID-19 on the basis of risk strata.Methods: The PHOSP–COVID-19 (Post-Hospitalization COVID-19) study was used to capture routine and research follow-up within 240 days from discharge. Thoracic computed tomography linked by PHOSP–COVID-19 identifiers was scored for the percentage of residual lung abnormalities (ground-glass opacities and reticulations). Risk factors in linked computed tomography were estimated with Bayesian binomial regression, and risk strata were generated. Numbers within strata were used to estimate posthospitalization prevalence using Bayesian binomial distributions. Sensitivity analysis was restricted to participants with protocol-driven research follow-up.Measurements and Main Results: The interim cohort comprised 3,700 people. Of 209 subjects with linked computed tomography (median, 119 d; interquartile range, 83–155), 166 people (79.4%) had more than 10% involvement of residual lung abnormalities. Risk factors included abnormal chest X-ray (risk ratio [RR], 1.21; 95% credible interval [CrI], 1.05–1.40), percent predicted DlCO less than 80% (RR, 1.25; 95% CrI, 1.00–1.56), and severe admission requiring ventilation support (RR, 1.27; 95% CrI, 1.07–1.55). In the remaining 3,491 people, moderate to very high risk of residual lung abnormalities was classified at 7.8%, and posthospitalization prevalence was estimated at 8.5% (95% CrI, 7.6–9.5), rising to 11.7% (95% CrI, 10.3–13.1) in the sensitivity analysis.Conclusions: Residual lung abnormalities were estimated in up to 11% of
Journal articleCook S, Schmedt N, Broughton J, et al., 2023,
Characterising the burden of chronic kidney disease among people with type 2 diabetes in England: a cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMJ Open, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2044-6055
Objectives To describe prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment patterns and rates of cardiovascular and renal complications for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) treated in routine clinical care.Design Repeat cross-sectional study (6 monthly cross-sections) and cohort study from 1 January 2017 to 31 December 2019.Setting Primary care data from English practices contributing to the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to Hospital Episode Statistics and Office for National Statistics mortality data.Participants Patients with T2D aged >18 years, at least one year of registration data.Primary and secondary outcomes Primary outcome was prevalence of CKD defined as chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and/or urinary albumin creatinine ratio ≥3 mg/mmol in the past 24 months. Secondary outcomes were prescriptions of medications of interest and clinical and demographic characteristics in the past 3 months.In the cohort study rates of renal and cardiovascular complications, all-cause mortality and hospitalisations over the study period were compared among those with and without CKD.Results There were 574 190 eligible patients with T2D as of 1 January 2017 and 664 296 as of 31 December 2019. Estimated prevalence of CKD across the study period was stable at approximately 30%. Medication use was stable over time in people with CKD and T2D, with low use of steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (approximately 4.5% across all time points) and a low use but steady increase in use of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (from 2.6% to 6.2%). Rates of all complications were higher in those with CKD at the start of the study period, with increasing rates, with increased severity of CKD, heart failure and albuminuria.Conclusions The burden of CKD in patients with T2D is high and asso
Journal articleCalvo RA, Peters D, Moradbakhti L, et al., 2023,
Assessing the feasibility of a text-based conversational agent for asthma support: protocol for a mixed methods observational study, JMIR Research Protocols, Vol: 12, Pages: 9-9, ISSN: 1929-0748
BACKGROUND: Despite efforts, the UK death rate from asthma is the highest in Europe, and 65% of people with asthma in the United Kingdom do not receive the professional care they are entitled to. Experts have recommended the use of digital innovations to help address the issues of poor outcomes and lack of care access. An automated SMS text messaging-based conversational agent (ie, chatbot) created to provide access to asthma support in a familiar format via a mobile phone has the potential to help people with asthma across demographics and at scale. Such a chatbot could help improve the accuracy of self-assessed risk, improve asthma self-management, increase access to professional care, and ultimately reduce asthma attacks and emergencies. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study are to determine the feasibility and usability of a text-based conversational agent that processes a patient's text responses and short sample voice recordings to calculate an estimate of their risk for an asthma exacerbation and then offers follow-up information for lowering risk and improving asthma control; assess the levels of engagement for different groups of users, particularly those who do not access professional services and those with poor asthma control; and assess the extent to which users of the chatbot perceive it as helpful for improving their understanding and self-management of their condition. METHODS: We will recruit 300 adults through four channels for broad reach: Facebook, YouGov, Asthma + Lung UK social media, and the website Healthily (a health self-management app). Participants will be screened, and those who meet inclusion criteria (adults diagnosed with asthma and who use WhatsApp) will be provided with a link to access the conversational agent through WhatsApp on their mobile phones. Participants will be sent scheduled and randomly timed messages to invite them to engage in dialogue about their asthma risk during the period of study. After a data collection period (28
Journal articleDolby T, Nafilyan V, Morgan A, et al., 2023,
Relationship between asthma and severe COVID-19: a national cohort study, Thorax, Vol: 78, Pages: 120-127, ISSN: 0040-6376
Background: We aimed to determine whether children and adults with poorly controlled or more severe asthma have greater risk of hospitalisation and/or death from COVID-19. Methods: We used individual-level data from the Office for National Statistics Public Health Data Asset, based on the 2011 census in England, and the General Practice Extraction Service (GPES) data for pandemic planning and research linked to death registration records and Hospital Episode Statistics admission data. Adults were followed from 1 January 2020 until 30 September 2021 for hospitalisation or death from COVID-19. For children, only hospitalisation was included. Results: Our cohort comprised 35,202,533 adults and 2,996,503 children aged 12–17 years. After controlling for socio-demographic factors, pre-existing health conditions and vaccine status, the risk of death involving COVID-19 for adults with asthma prescribed low dose ICS was not significantly different from those without asthma. Adults with asthma prescribed medium and high dosage ICS had an elevated risk of COVID-19 death; hazard ratios (HRs) 1.18 [1.14–1.23] and 1.36 [1.28–1.44] respectively. A similar pattern was observed for COVID-19 hospitalisation; fully adjusted HRs 1.53 [1.50–1.56] and 1.52 [1.46–1.56] for adults with asthma prescribed medium and high dosage ICS respectively. Risk of hospitalisation was greater for children with asthma prescribed one (2.58 [1.82–3.66]) or two or more (3.80 [2.41–5.95]) courses of OCS in the year prior to the pandemic.Discussion: People with mild and/or well-controlled asthma are neither at significantly increased risk of hospitalisation with nor more likely to die from COVID-19 than adults without asthma. What is already known on this topic?It is not clear if children or adults with asthma are at greater risk of hospitalisation and/or death from COVID-19 compared with the general population.What this study addsAdults and children with poorly contr
Journal articleStone P, Hickman K, Holmes S, et al., 2022,
Comparison of COPD primary care in England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland, npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine, Vol: 32, ISSN: 2055-1010
Currently the National Asthma and COPD audit programme (NACAP) only undertakes audit of COPD primary care in Wales due to its near complete data coverage. We aimed to determine if the quality of COPD primary care in the other UK nations is comparable with Wales. We found that English, Scottish, and Northern Irish practices were significantly worse than Welsh practices at recording coded lung function parameters used in COPD diagnosis (ORs: 0.51 [0.43–0.59], 0.29 [0.23–0.36], 0.42 [0.31–0.58], respectively) and referring appropriate patients for pulmonary rehabilitation (ORs: 0.10 [0.09–0.11], 0.12 [0.11–0.14], 0.22 [0.19–0.25], respectively). Completing national audits of primary care in Wales only may have led to improvements in care, or at least improvements in the recording of care in Wales that are not occurring elsewhere in the UK. This highlights the potential importance of audit in improving care quality and accurate recording of that care.
Journal articleThygesen JH, Tomlinson C, Hollings S, et al., 2022,
COVID-19 trajectories among 57 million adults in England: a cohort study using electronic health records, LANCET DIGITAL HEALTH, Vol: 4, Pages: E542-E557
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Journal articleGulea C, Zakeri R, Kallis C, et al., 2022,
Impact of COPD and asthma on in-hospital mortality and management of patients with heart failure in England and Wales: an observational analysis, BMJ Open, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2044-6055
Objective: To evaluate the association between having concomitant COPD or asthma, and in-patient mortality and post-discharge management among patients hospitalised for acute HF.Setting: Data were obtained from patients enrolled in the National Heart Failure Audit.Participants: 217,329 patients hospitalised for HF in England-Wales between March 2012 and 2018.Outcomes: In-hospital mortality, referrals to cardiology follow-up and prescriptions for HF medications were compared between patients with comorbid COPD (COPD-HF) or asthma (asthma-HF) versus HF-alone using mixed-effects logistic regression. Results: Patients with COPD-HF were more likely to die during hospitalisation, and those with asthma-HF had a reduced likelihood of death, compared with patients who had HF-alone ([adjusted]ORadj, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.06-1.14 and ORadj, 95%CI: 0.85, 0.79-0.88). In patients who survived to discharge, referral to HF follow-up services differed between groups: COPD-HF patients had reduced odds of cardiology follow-up (ORadj, 95%CI 0.79, 0.77-0.81), whilst cardiology referral odds for asthma-HF were similar to HF-alone. Overall, proportions of HF medication prescriptions at discharge were low for both COPD-HF and asthma-HF groups, particularly prescriptions for beta-blockers. Conclusions: In this nationwide analysis, we showed that COPD and asthma significantly impact the clinical course in patients hospitalised for HF. COPD is associated with higher in-patient mortality and lower cardiology referral odds, whilst COPD and asthma are both associated with lower use of prognostic HF therapies on discharge. These data highlight therapeutic gaps and a need for better integration of cardiopulmonary services to improve healthcare provision for patients with HF and coexisting respiratory disease.
Journal articleKoteci A, Morgan A, Portas L, et al., 2022,
Left-sided heart failure burden and mortality in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a population-based study, BMC Pulmonary Medicine, Vol: 22, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 1471-2466
BackgroundCardiovascular disease is prevalent in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), yet the extent of left-sided heart failure (HF) burden, whether this has changed with time and whether HF impacts mortality risk in these patients are unknown. The aims of this study were therefore to determine the temporal trends in incidence and prevalence of left-sided HF in patients with IPF in England and compare these to published estimates in the general population and those with comparable chronic respiratory conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as well as determine the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in patients with comorbid left-sided HF and IPF at population-level using electronic healthcare data.MethodsClinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) Aurum primary-care data linked to mortality and secondary-care data was used to identify IPF patients in England. Left-sided HF prevalence and incidence rates were calculated for each calendar year between 2010 and 2019, stratified by age and sex. Risk of all-cause, cardiovascular and IPF-specific mortality was calculated using multivariate Cox regression.ResultsFrom 40,577patients with an IPF code in CPRD Aurum, 25, 341 IPF patients met inclusion criteria. Left-sided HF prevalence decreased from 33.4% (95% CI 32.2–34.6) in 2010 to 20.9% (20.0–21.7) in 2019. Left-sided HF incidence rate per 100 person-years (95% CI) remained stable between 2010 and 2017 but decreased from 4.3 (3.9–4.8) in 2017 to 3.4 (3.0–3.9) in 2019. Throughout follow-up, prevalence and incidence were higher in men and with increasing age. Comorbid HF was associated with poorer survival (adjusted HR (95%CI) 1.08 (1.03–1.14) for all-cause mortality; 1.32 (1.09–1.59) for cardiovascular mortality).ConclusionLeft-sided HF burden in IPF patients in England remains high, with incidence almost 4 times higher than in COPD, a comparable lung disease with similar cardiovascular risk factors.
Conference paperKallis C, Morgan AD, Maslova E, et al., 2022,
Sabina Jr UK: The Association Between Saba (Short-Acting Beta Agonist) Prescriptions and Frequency of Asthma Exacerbations in a Paediatric Cohort, International Conference of the American-Thoracic-Society, Publisher: AMER THORACIC SOC, ISSN: 1073-449X
Journal articleCookson W, Moffatt M, Rapeport G, et al., 2022,
A pandemic lesson for global lung diseases: exacerbations are preventable., American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 205, Pages: 1271-1280, ISSN: 1073-449X
A dramatic global reduction in the incidence of common seasonal respiratory viral infections has resulted from measures to limit the transmission of SARS2-Cov-19 during the pandemic . This has been accompanied by falls reaching 50% internationally in the incidence of acute exacerbations of pre-existing chronic respiratory diseases that include asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Cystic Fibrosis (CF). At the same time, the incidence of acute bacterial pneumonia and sepsis has fallen steeply world-wide. Such findings demonstrate the profound impact of common respiratory viruses on the course of these global illnesses. Reduced transmission of common respiratory bacterial pathogens and their interactions with viruses appear also as central factors. This review summarises pandemic changes in exacerbation rates of asthma, COPD, Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and pneumonia. We draw attention to the substantial body of knowledge about respiratory virus infections in these conditions, and that it has not yet translated into clinical practice. Now the large-scale of benefits that could be gained by managing these pathogens is unmistakable, we suggest the field merits substantial academic and industrial investment. We consider how pandemic-inspired measures for prevention and treatment of common infections should become a cornerstone for managing respiratory diseases. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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